Standard & Poor's 4 Report Generation
The Emerging Markets Data Base
Comparative Reports 22
Market Profiles 23
1 Introduction to EMDB 2000 Index Constituents 24
Installation 3 5 Graph Generation
Designing Graphs 26
2 Using EMDB 2000
Main Features 6 6 Database Update
Selection Types 7
3 Data Retrieval
Retrieving Data 10 Appendixes
Selecting Groups 12
Linking to Market Data 13 1 S&P Index Base Periods and Dates of
Selecting Stocks 14 Inclusion 32
Selecting Industry Data 15 2 EMDB Data Series Coverage 34
Data Windows 16 3 Currency Scales 35
Percent Changes 17 4 Glossary 36
Sorting Data 18 5 Abbreviations 38
Exporting Data 19
THE S&P INDICES AUGUST 1998
Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's Using a sample of stocks in each market, EMDB
calculates Indices of stock market performance
Standard & Poor’s, a division of The McGraw-Hill designed to serve as benchmarks that are
Companies, provides financial information, consistent across national boundaries. This
analysis, advice, and credit ratings globally. eliminates the inconsistencies that make it
difficult to compare locally-produced Indices with
S&P's Index Services unit maintains a wide differing methodologies. Monthly Indices are
range of investable portfolio indices, including the available from the end of 1975, weekly Indices
S&P 1200, the world’s first investable global from the end of 1988, and daily Indices from
equity index, the S&P 500 for the U.S., the S&P/ October 1995.
TSE 60 for Canada, the S&P Euro and Euro Plus
for Continental Europe, and the S&P/TOPIX 150 Investable indices were introduced in March 1993
for Japan. More than $800 billion is indexed to and are designed to meet the increasingly
Standard & Poor’s indices globally. For sophisticated needs of international investors.
information, visit www.standardandpoors.com. Adjusted to reflect the accessibility of markets and
individual stocks for foreign investors, the S&P/S&P/
Founded in 1888, The McGraw-Hill Companies is IFCI (Investable) indices offer the ideal performance
a leading information services provider meeting benchmark for both active and passive international
worldwide needs in education, business, finance, investors.
the professions and government. The corporation
employs 16,500 people located in more than 400 In October 1995, S&P began calculating the
offices in 32 countries. S&P/IFCG and S&P/IFCI Indices on a daily basis.
On January 4, 2000, Standard & Poor’s In January 1996, S&P began adjusting the
completed its acquisition of the International capitalization of index constituents to eliminate
Finance Corporation’s indices of emerging cross-holdings. The adjustments eliminate
markets stock performance as part of a broad, distortions caused by double-counting of share
new strategic collaboration between the two capitalization, thereby reducing the weights of
organizations. stocks and markets where cross-holding is
prevalent. In November 1996, adjustments to
Acquisition of the indices and the Emerging eliminate government holdings were introduced.
Markets Data Base (EMDB) will expand the
global coverage of Standard & Poor’s index The products of the Emerging Markets Data Base
services business, already the foremost provider are available in computerized form and as
of investable index products in the world. The publications. The data base provides three levels of
EMDB, the first and the most comprehensive computerized data: comprehensive data on
compilation of emerging markets information, individual stocks covered in all markets; data series
covers 53 markets and more than 2,000 stocks. for each index computed; and data series for each
More than $8 billion of assets are managed market covered. Subscribers either receive data
against S&P's emerging markets index from EMDB on CD, download data from EMDB's
operations. FTP server, or access data via on-line delivery from
an EMDB distributor. Publications include the annual
The Emerging Markets Data Base Emerging Stock Markets Factbook, monthly
Emerging Stock Markets Review and The S&P
EMDB serves as a vital statistical resource for Emerging Market Indices: Methodology, Definitions,
the international financial community in its and Practices.
investment and advisory work. Now in its second
decade, the data base has gained recognition as
the world's premier source for reliable and
comprehensive information and statistics on
stock markets in developing countries.
S&P’s Emerging Markets Data Base is pleased to add EMDB 2000 to its product line, a comprehensive information
system using Windows NT® for data retrieval, graph design, report generation and more.
The EMDB 2000 database contains the latest figures for all S&P indices—Global, Investable, Industry, and Frontier—
and market data such as prices, corporate actions, and stock ID information.
The system is easy to learn because its graphical interface is consistent from one selection window to the next. Once
you have learned to use one database query, you can use that knowledge to run other queries within EMDB 2000. You
can also run Microsoft Excel® at the same time you are using EMDB 2000 and share information between them.
To effectively run EMDB 2000, the following software and hardware is recommended:
• Microsoft Windows NT® 4.0, Windows 98®, Windows 2000®, Windows ME® or above.
• A minimum of 200 MB of free disk space and a CD-ROM drive
• A printer, if the user intends to print from EMDB 2000
Microsoft Excel® is optional, but will ease the transfer of data from EMDB 2000.
EMDB 2000 2 USERS GUIDE
Installation of EMDB 2000 is quick and easy. Both the system software and the data files reside on the EMDB 2000
Installing the Program and Data Files
This set of instructions assumes that your CD is drive D: and that you are installing the program on your C: drive.
1. Place the CD into your PC's CD drive
2. Using Windows Explorer, select the D: drive and double click on setup.exe.
This procedure automatically installs the software necessary to run EMDB 2000. Setup.exe will ask you
where you want to install the program and suggests a default location of C:EM.
3. Once the program has been installed, the data files need to be copied from the CD to your PC. In Windows
Explorer, copy files in D:EMDATA to your PC's location C:EMDATA (provided you installed the software to C:
4. Once the data files have been copied to C:EMDATA, highlight all of them and open "Properties" in the "File"
menu in Windows Explorer. De-select the "Read-Only" box in the "Attributes" section of the "Properties" window.
5. Installation is complete.
Creating an EMDB 2000 Shortcut Icon
Once installed, you may want to create a shortcut icon on your Windows Desktop. To create a shortcut, use the
1. From the Windows Desktop, click the right mouse button once
2. From the "New" menu, select "Shortcut"
3. Click on "Browse" and select C:EM EM.EXE
4. Click on "Next" and proceed to name the program as you wish
5. Clicking on "Finish" will complete the shortcut process and leave you with an icon on your desktop
EMDB 2000 3 USERS GUIDE
EMDB 2000 is a complete information system for emerging markets data with comprehensive features for retrieving
data, generating reports, and drawing graphs. There are four main parts to the EMDB system:
Local Market Data
Local Market Data
Local Market Index
Barra Global Estimates (TM) optional subscription item
Depositary Receipts Data
A do-it-yourself system that enables users to design graphs using a self-driven selection menu. Several data series can
be depicted using any combination of data for stocks, markets, regions, or industries.
This feature allows users to update data. Also, this feature allows users to specify where their copy of Microsoft Excel®
resides so that EMDB 2000 can start the program and transfer data with the push of one button.
Shown below is the initial selection window:
EMDB 2000 6 USERS GUIDE
EMDB 2000 is designed for simple pointing and clicking of a mouse. The layout of the program is consistent throughout,
to allow for maximum speed and ease of use. Users can choose menus, commands, and/or options displayed in one of
the following five selection types:
Used to access the main menu and sub-menus, menu items are selected by single-clicking. The menu bar pictured on
the previous page includes options for Database, Reports, Graphics and other options.
These are primary options such as selecting monthly, weekly, or daily databases and for secondary options such as
requesting "end of quarter data" or "end of year data."
List boxes are used to select items to be included in a query such as markets, stocks, industries and data fields,etc.
Each item is selected by clicking on it. In order to select multiple items that are not consecutively located in the list box,
hold down the Control key while selecting. If selecting multiple items that are listed consecutively, hold down the shift
key and click on the first and last items in the series, all items in between will be selected.
Drop Down Box
Drop down boxes are used to select start and end dates when defining a query.
"Smart" buttons are usually located toward the bottom of selection screens and allow users to quickly perform a variety
of popular selections such as selecting all markets or all data fields. "Smart" buttons are also available for the saving
and loading of user-created macros.
Drop Down Box
EMDB 2000 7 USERS GUIDE
Shown below is an S&P Index - Country Index selection window that appears after this database is chosen from the
main menu. All data selection windows in the system have a similar format: the Market list box is shown on the left, the
Data Field list box is in the middle, period list boxes are on the right, and the command "smart" buttons are along the
bottom. The Output page can be seen as a "tab" on the top right-hand side of the active area. Once users have
selected the parameters for their queries, they click on this tab to view query results.
To view or retrieve data:
1. Select desired markets by clicking on them. Hold the Control key down while clicking on multiple names that
are not consecutive, or hold the Shift key down while clicking on the first and last consecutive items wanted
to select them as well as all in between.
2. Select desired index fields by the method described in 1. above.
3. Select desired time period from the From-To list boxes by clicking on the pull down menu of dates and
clicking on the desired date.
4. The Output "Tab" should now be black, indicating that sufficient criteria have been selected to conduct a
query. Click on the Output "Tab" to extract data.
After selecting a market or index field, that item will remain highlighted in blue. Clicking on the item again, or selecting
another item, will de-select the original item. Hold down the Control key and click on a selected item to remove only that
item in cases where multiple items have been selected. Index field abbreviations are the same in all windows, with PR
and TR short for price and total return, LC for local currency, MCAP for market capitalization, and VTRD referring to
value traded. A complete list of abbreviations is included in the appendix section.
Retrieving Data (cont.)
Clicking on the Output "Tab" retrieves index data values, as shown below:
Once users have defined a query by selecting markets, data items, etc., the "save macro" "smart" button can be used to
save the query for future use. The save macro "smart" button is located below the "Join Markets Database…" button on
the lower right hand side of the selection screen and is marked by a floppy disk image. Once saved, a user can load a
macro by clicking on the "smart" button directly to the left of the save macro button, marked by an open file image. Both
saving and loading macros lead to a file dialog screen (see below) allowing users to specify file location. Be sure to
leave the ".mix" extension in the "Files of type" field so that the system will recognize the file as a macro.
EMDB 2000 11 USERS GUIDE
Users can also select several markets in the Market list box rather than one at a time by pressing the Select Group
"smart" button, as shown below. The Select Group button is the right-most "smart" button located directly below the
country selection area.
After clicking once on the desired group(s) and selecting "OK", EMDB 2000 will automatically highlight each market
belonging to the selected group(s).
EMDB 2000 12 USERS GUIDE
Linking to Market Data
Users can combine data from the Market Data database with their queries in the S&P Country Index database by
clicking on the "Join Markets Database…" button on the selection screen.
EMDB 2000 13 USERS GUIDE
To retrieve data on individual stocks, users must first choose from three stock-level databases listed under "Databases"
option on the tool bar; Stock ID, Stock Data or S&P Portfolio. For the purposes of this user guide, we will choose the
most popular of these three, Stock Data. Once selected, users must choose to query monthly or weekly data. Next,
select markets and data fields as described in the "Retrieving Data" section of this guide.
After selecting the desired markets, users must click on the "Stocks…" button located below the markets selection area.
Clicking on this button will bring up the stock selection screen shown below, from which users select the stocks to be
included in the query. The same shift and control-key methods of selection used throughout EMDB 2000 work on this
screen. Users can also use the "smart" buttons at the bottom of the screen to select all stocks, deselect all stocks, or
select groups of stocks. Once selected, click the "Ok" button to return to the main selection screen and continue with
Note: When using a pre-saved macro to run a stock level query, users should not click on the "Stocks…" button. The
stocks defined by the macro have already been selected and will be de-selected if the user goes to the stock selection
EMDB 2000 14 USERS GUIDE
Selecting Industry Data
To review stocks within a specific industry sector, users should choose the Sector Index database from the options
listed under the Country Index database. Users will be prompted to select specific industries from an Industry Index
window as well as those data fields to be included. After selecting the date range, users select the Output "tab" to view
The following is an S&P Index data window—in this instance, what you would see after selecting Chile from the S&P
Index Country Index database and several Index Field options. The top of the window contains a series of "smart"
buttons for manipulating the data presented. Some "smart" buttons are already in "active" mode and appear in clear
black lettering. Other "smart" buttons are "inactive" and appear gray. The reason for this differentiation is that for some
"smart" buttons to work, a column of data must be selected. Selecting a column is easy—simply double click on the
column title with the mouse—the selected column will turn yellow. After selecting a column, all "smart" buttons should
The "smart" buttons are easy to use—they each have an easily recognizable graphic on them and a dialog box pops up
containing a description of what each does when users put the mouse cursor over the button. "Smart" button features
range from simply changing the number of decimal places displayed, to sorting and graphing functions.
The following display shows a browse window after the "%Change" option is selected (Monthly Percent Changes in this
case). Note that whether or not users have selected a column, the %Change button will be "active" and will convert all
columns to percentages. (Note: the data for the first observation in a series viewed as % change will always be zero as
there is no prior data point from which to calculate a change.)
Users can sort data within the browse window by choosing one of several sort options. The Multiple Options Sort
"smart" button will always be active when viewing query results. Selecting this button will allow users to sort query
results in ascending or descending order according to users' specified column order. Alternatively, users can double
click on a column to select it and then sort only that column. In any case, the sort options work much the same as in
popular spreadsheet programs.
Users can export any retrieved data into a variety of formats, including Excel®, Lotus®, ASCII, and DBF.
Displayed below is the Export window you would see after selecting the Export menu item.
After selecting the desired export format and pressing the Ok button, you will be asked to select a path and enter a
filename for the exported file. The system will then automatically save the data in the chosen format.
The Report menu in EMDB 2000 allows users to quickly produce tables similar to those that appear in EMDB's monthly
publications. In addition, the system enables users to create Market Profiles and Constituent Reports. Time series
reports are customized to cover seven months of data from the period selected by users.
Shown below is a comparative reports window, displayed whenever users selects the Comparative Reports item from
the Report menu.
To generate a report, users can either highlight the desired report and month and press the OK button, or double click
on the report name. Users can also choose the method of report delivery. Preview, To Print and To Excel are three
options available to users. The preview mode includes zoom features for easier on-screen viewing and has a print
button which allows users to print the page without having to exit the preview mode and re-enter the report in print
21 INDEX METHODOLOGY EMERGING MARKETS DATA BASE
The following window will appear after selecting Market Profiles from the Reports option. From here, users can select
the market(s) to be included in the profile and view, print, or send this profile to Excel®.
22 INDEX METHODOLOGY EMERGING MARKETS DATA BASE
Shown below is the Constituents Report window from the Reports option. Users can produce the S&P index
constituents for desired markets by selecting individual markets. Files can be previewed, printed, or sent to Excel®.
23 INDEX METHODOLOGY EMERGING MARKETS DATA BASE
One of the most useful features of EMDB 2000 is graph generation. The system enables users to design and draw
graphs using any combination of data from the index, stock, or industry databases. The system recalculates all selected
data series to begin with a base of 100 and automatically adjusts stock price series for corporate actions.
The Graphics Manager window works like all other selection screens in EMDB 2000 with regard to how the query
parameters are selected by users. The data available for graphing corresponds to what is available in the database. For
example, monthly data is available for all three databases, index, stock and industry. Weekly data is available from both
index and stock databases and daily data is available only from the index database. (Note: although multiple items can
be graphed together, users must select and define them one-by-one from the Graphics Manager screen.)
EMDB 2000 25 USERS GUIDE
After selecting a database, users must select the items to be graphed. Since different data fields can be plotted on the
same graph, each country, stock or industry to be plotted must be selected independently. After making a selection,
users must click on the "Add Series" button. Then, after all desired series have been "added," users need to click on the
"Output Selections" tab to define the date range to be graphed. This page displays all series selected and offers users
the opportunity to remove a series from the query.
EMDB 2000 26 USERS GUIDE
Once the "Output Selections" have been made, users can click on the "Graph" tab to view the resulting graph. The
graph will be presented with solid lines differentiated by color. All aspects of the graph can be modified, including line
style and color, in much the same way as in popular spreadsheet software. Users need only double click on the item to
be modified and proceed to make changes. Also, by clicking on a line, users can view the data table generated by
EMDB 2000 prior to plotting the graph.
EMDB 2000 27 USERS GUIDE
EMDB 2000 is designed to update itself via the "Maintenance, Update" selection of the software. However, users must first
take delivery of the update files.
Taking delivery of update files:
EMDB 2000 users typically take delivery of update files by accessing the EMDB 2000 FTP server and downloading the
files to their PC. An IP address for the server is provided to users based on their subscription package. For those users
who do not have FTP access, arrangements can be made to send files via e-mail. (A list of the files that are delivered
for typical subscriptions can be found on the following page.)
Updating EMDB 2000:
1. Detach the executable files from the EMDB 2000 server or from e-mail to your PC's hard drive.
2. Using Windows Explorer, double click on the executable files you detached to decompress them.
3. Open EMDB 2000 and select "Maintenance" from the toolbar and then click on "Update"
4. EMDB 2000 will prompt you to tell it the location of the files you just decompressed. Highlight the directory into
which you detached and decompressed the data files and click on "Select," EMDB 2000 will proceed to update
What files are involved in updating EMDB 2000 ?
EMDB 2000 update files are made available via FTP and e-mail. The files are posted as compressed executable files
that need to be decompressed on users' hard drives before updating EMDB 2000. Monthly update files are available
after 8:00 P.M. EST on the last day of each month* while weekly files are available after 8:00 P.M. EST every Friday.
The following is a list of files available to users based on type of subscription.
Index Data Clients Stock Data Clients
Monthly Subscribers Monthly Subscribers
mix.exe, mmd.exe monthly.exe (contains mix.exe, mmd.exe, stock files)
stockid.exe (contains an update of stock ID data)
Weekly Subscribers Weekly Subscribers
mix.exe, mmd.exe, wix.exe monthly.exe (contains mix.exe, mmd.exe, stock files)
weekly.exe (contains wix.exe and stock files)
stockid.exe (contains an update of stock ID data)
* Note: Monthly Frontier Market data is not available until after 8:00 P.M. EST on the second business day after month end. Users who update
monthly data before this time will need to update their systems again after the second business day if they want current Frontier Market data.
EMDB 2000 29 USERS GUIDE
EMDB EMDB 2000 Users Guide
Appendix 1: S&P Index Base Periods and Dates of Inclusion
Appendix 2: EMDB Data Series Coverage
S&P Stock Series S&P Index Series S&P Market Series
Daily Weekly Monthly ID File Daily Weekly Monthly Monthly Annual
Number of days traded
Closing share price
High/low share price
Capital adjustment rate
Price indices (LC and US$)
Total return indices (LC and US$)
Local market index
Number of listings
Value of new equity issues
Exchange rate to US$
Investable weight factor
Total common shares outstanding
Note: This table is a general representation only of data available in the various S&P data series. Data field headings may differ from those listed above, and some
data sets may contain fields not listed. Contact EMDB for more information.
EMDB 2000 34 USERS GUIDE
Appendix 3: Currency Scales
The Currency Scale field was added to the EMDB 2000 weekly and monthly stock files and monthly market data files to
adjust for currency reforms in some emerging markets covered by S&P.
For instance, on June 30, 1994, Brazil converted its currency from the cruzeiro real (CR$) to the real (R$). All data
previously denominated in CR$ required conversion to R$ to maintain consistency within the data basethe column
titled "Currency Scale" does this, converting prior units of currency to current units. The value entered into this column
for Brazil's data files starting July 1, 1994, is 1.000; between December 1988 and June 30, 1994, the value is 2,750.
This signifies a conversion rate of CR$2,750 per real times any currency scale already listed in this column (from
previous currency changes). For example, Brazil's currency scale for 1988 becomes 2,750 times 1,000 or 2,750,000.
Values expressed in local currencies must be divided by the currency scale to reflect current values. Conversion rates
in the data sets permit an analysis to be done in dollar terms without any adjustment to local currency figures.
Questions on the use and adjustment of currency scales should be directed to Alka Banerjee, at (212) 438-3536 or via
fax at (212) 438-3523.
EMDB 2000 35 USERS GUIDE
Appendix 4: Glossary
Capital adjustment rate: The capital adjustment rate (CAR) represents the factor by which a change in a share's
price in a period can be explained by a change in capitalization, such as a stock split, stock dividend or a rights issue. It
is used to calculate adjusted price per share over a time period.
Closing price: Price per share of the stock at the end of the "Last Trading Date", expressed in local currency. These
are actual prices at the time, adjusted for changes in currency (for example, from cruzados to cruzeiros) but not for
changes in capitalization (for example, a two-for-one split).
Currency scale: Scale used to convert prior units of currency into current units. See p. 45 for more detail.
Date added/deleted: Date that a stock was added or deleted (YYMM).
Days traded: Total number of days during the period that stocks traded on the exchange.
Dividend: The part of a company's profits that is distributed to shareholders, usually in cash, expressed in local
currency. See also stock dividend.
Dividend ex-date: The date from which shares no longer carry rights to the announced dividends, expressed in
Dividend yield: Total cash dividends paid as a percent of market capitalization at the end of the period.
Exchange rate per US$: The exchange rate at the end of the period. See the S&P Index Methodology for details on
how exchange rates are selected.
Foreign investable weight factor: The degree-open factor for a market, representing the degree to which foreign
investors may participate in the market. See the S&P Index Methodology for more details.
S&P Global (S&P/IFCG) Index: The S&P index that represents stock market performance without taking into
account restrictions on foreign investors.
S&P Investable (S&P/IFCI) Index: The S&P index that takes into account restrictions on foreign investors,
ISIN: International Securities Identification Number.
Keyday-Friday: The date of Friday of each week, regardless of the real last trading day.
Last trading date: The date of the real last trading day of the week on or before Friday. If the exchange is open on
Saturday, this is Friday's date and the data are for Friday, not Saturday.
Listed companies: Total number of companies listed on the exchange at the end of the period. Note that companies
can list more than one class of stock.
Listed issues: Number of listed issues at the end of the period. Some companies may list more than one class of
Local market index: The level of the principal locally calculated market index at the end of the period
Market capitalization: Also known as market value. Market value of all listed companies at the end of the period,
expressed in millions of both local currency and U.S. dollars. The market value of a company is the share price times
the number of shares outstanding. Exception: In Indonesia, some companies do not list on the exchange all the
outstanding shares. In this data base, the market capitalization for these companies is based on the listed shares.
Market capitalization of S&P index: The total market capitalization of stocks in the S&P index at the end of the
period, expressed in millions of U.S. dollars.
Market code: Code for market as assigned by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
New equity, number of issues: Total number of stock issues, made for cash, regardless of whether they are listed
on the stock exchange.
New equity, value of: Total value of public offerings and rights issues during the period, expressed in millions of
local currency, excluding stock dividends or bonus shares that do not raise cash.
New issue, closing date: The date that newly issued shares begin trading, expressed in the form YYMMDD.
EMDB 2000 36 USERS GUIDE
Appendix 4 (continued)
New issues, shares created by: Total number of shares created by new issue of the same class of stock, including
those created through the conversion of debentures or bonds, expressed in millions of shares. A negative number
reflects a repurchase of shares by the company or an adjustment by the S&P to correct for the under-subscription of
rights issues or for minor revisions in stock dividend rates.
P/BV ratio: Price/book value ratio. The ratio of stock price to book value per share. Generally calculated as the
closing price (in local currency) divided by the latest reported net worth per share (in local currency). In markets with
high inflation, S&P may make adjustments to net worth for inflation.
P/E ratio: Price/earnings ratio. The ratio of stock prices to earnings per share, generally calculated as the closing price
(in local currency) divided by the latest reported 12 month earnings per share (in local currency). In markets with high
inflation, S&P may make adjustments to earnings to account for inflation.
Rights issue: An offer by a company to its shareholders to purchase additional shares, usually in a fixed ratio to the
number of shares currently held.
Rights issue, ex-date of: The ex-rights date, expressed in YYMMDD.
Rights issue, pre-issue price of: The market price of a share immediately prior to the issue of the shares created
by rights, expressed in local currency.
Rights issue, shares created by: Total number of shares created by rights issues during the period, expressed in
millions of shares.
Rights issue, subscription price: The subscription price per share of rights issued during the period, expressed in
Sector code and SIC: Standard Industrial Classification codes of the U.S. government.
SEDOL: Stock Exchange Daily Official List codes used by the London Stock Exchange.
Shares outstanding: Total number of shares for a class of stock outstanding at the end of the period, expressed in
millions of shares. Exception: In Indonesia, some companies do not list on the exchange all the outstanding shares. In
this data base, the number of shares outstanding reflects only the listed shares.
Shares traded: Total number of shares traded during the period, expressed in millions of shares.
Splits, ex-date for: The date that shares begin trading in split form, expressed in YYMMDD.
Splits, shares created by: Total number of shares created by stock dividends, splits, or bonus issues during the
period, expressed in millions of shares. A negative number reflects a reverse split.
Stock class: The class of a specific stock issue, which varies between markets. Examples: ON, B2. A class of "."
means common stock with no further classification.
Stock code: This code is a combined company and stock code to enable users to see at a glance multiple stocks of
the same company. Stock codes are in the form nnn.n, with the company code to the left of the decimal and the
individual security codes to the right of the decimal, indicating the relationship of several securities to a single parent.
Example: The data base includes two classes of shares for the Brazilian company Acesita. The codes are 100.1 for
Acesita ON and 100.2 for Acesita PN.
Stock dividend: Shares created by the conversion of part of a company's reserves into issued capital, which is
distributed to shareholders.
Stock type: Identifies the class of stock as either common (C) or preferred (P).
Stocks, number of in S&P index: The total number of stocks (not companies) in the S&P index at the end of the
period. The index may include more than one class of a company's stock.
Ticker symbol: Stock code assigned by the local stock exchange.
Turnover ratio: Total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the
period, calculated in local currency. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period
values for the current period and the previous period.
Value traded: Total shares traded during the period expressed in millions of local currency and U.S. dollars.
Volume traded: Total shares traded during the period expressed in millions of shares.
EMDB 2000 37 USERS GUIDE
Appendix 5: Abbreviations
The following is a listing of frequently used abbreviations used in EMDB 2000:
DIV_YLD, D_YLD: dividend yield
Ex-date: ex-dividend date
EXR/US$: exchange rate in U.S. dollars
S&P/IFCG: S&P Global index
S&P/IFCI: S&P Investable index
LC: local currency
LCIX: local stock index
MARKET_CAP, MCAP: market capitalization
NO_STK, NO.STK: number of stocks
P/BV: price/book value ratio
P/CF: price/cash flow ratio
P/E: price/earnings ratio
PR: price index
TR: total return index
US: U.S. dollars
VTRD: value traded
EMDB 2000 38 USERS GUIDE