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Basic Background A share of stock is a private financial asset that is a share of ownership in a corporation.
Why Do People Hold Stock? Individuals hold some of their wealth in stocks in order to receive the part of corporate profits that is distributed as dividends. A second - and usually more important - reason that people hold stocks is that they hope to enjoy capital gains.
Tracking the Stock Market Stock and bond prices are monitored on a continuous basis. In addition to monitoring individual stocks, the media keep a close watch on many stock market indices or averages.
Explaining Stock Prices The stock market is a collection of individual, perfectly competitive markets for particular corporations’ shares.
Explaining Stock Prices Stockholders are concerned about both the rate of return and the risk associated with stocks. In practice, they try to allocate their total wealth among a collection of assets - including stocks - that strikes the right balance between risk and return.
Explaining Stock Prices a a a Number of Shares Price per Share E S $90 60 30 D 298 million
Explaining Stock Prices The supply curve for a stock tells us the quantity of shares in existence at any moment in time . This is the number of shares that people are actually holding .
Explaining Stock Prices The desire to hold a stock is given by the downward-sloping demand curve.
Explaining Stock Prices Only at the equilibrium price - where the supply and demand curves intersect - are people satisfied holding the number of shares they are actually holding.
Explaining Stock Prices The changes we observe in a stock’s price - over a few minutes, a few days, or a few years - are virtually always caused by shifts in the demand curve.
Explaining Stock Prices a a a Number of Shares Price per Share S $75 60 (a) (b) 298 million Number of Shares Price per Share S 45 $60 298 million The demand curve shifts rightward when new information causes expectations of: • higher future profits • economic expansion • lower interest rates The demand curve shifts leftward when new information causes expectations of: • lower future profits • recession • higher interest rates D 2 D 1 D 1 D 3
Explaining Stock Prices Any new information that increases expectations of firms’ future profits - announcements of new scientific discoveries, business developments, or changes in government policy - will shift the demand curves of the affected stocks rightward .
Explaining Stock Prices New information that decreases expectations of future profits will shift the demand curves leftward .
Explaining Stock Prices Any news that suggests the economy will enter an expansion , or that an expansion will continue, will shift the demand curves for most stocks rightward .
Explaining Stock Prices Any news that suggests an economic slowdown or a coming recession shifts the demand curves for most stocks leftward .
Explaining Stock Prices A rise in the interest rate in the economy will shift the demand curves for most stocks to the left . A drop in the interest rate will shift the demand curves for most stocks to the right .
Explaining Stock Prices News that causes people to anticipate a rise in the interest rate will shift the demand curves for stocks leftward . News that suggests a future drop in the interest rate will shift the demand curves for stocks rightward .
Autonomous consumption spending tends to move in the same direction as stock prices.
When stock prices rise, autonomous consumption spending rises.
When stock prices fall, autonomous consumption spending falls with it.
The Wealth Effect and Equilibrium GDP a a a (a) (b) Y 1 Y 2 Real GDP Aggregate Expenditure Real GDP Price Level Y 1 Y 3 Y 2 45º P 1 P 2 AE higher stock prices AS AE lower stock prices higher stock prices AD lower stock prices AD
The Wealth Effect and Equilibrium GDP Household wealth Stock prices Autonomous consumption spending Both real GDP and price level Multiplier effect
Changes in stock prices - through the wealth effect - cause both equilibrium GDP and the price level to move in the same direction.
An increase in stock prices will raise equilibrium GDP and the price level.
A decrease in stock prices will decrease both equilibrium GDP and the price level.
The Wealth Effect and Equilibrium GDP Rapid increases in stock prices can cause significant positive demand shocks to the economy, shocks that policy makers cannot ignore. Rapid decreases in stock prices can cause significant negative demand shocks to the economy, which would be a major concern for policy makers.
How the Economy Affects The Stock Market: Expansion Demand curves for stocks shift rightward Real GDP Expected future profits Current profits Current stock prices
How the Economy Affects The Stock Market: Recession Demand curves for stocks shift leftward Real GDP Expected future profits Current profits Current stock prices
How the Economy Affects The Stock Market In the typical expansion , higher profits and stockholder optimism cause stock prices to rise . In the typical recession , lower profits and stockholder pessimism cause stock prices to fall .
Technological changes of the 1990s: shock to both the stock market and the economy.
Fed concern: the market was experiencing a speculative bubble
The Fed and the Stock Market a a a Real GDP Price Level Y 1 Y 2 (a) P 1 P 2 (b) Real GDP Price Level P 1 P 2 Y 1 Y 2 P 3 AD 2 AD 1 AS 1 A AS 1 Wealth effect of rising stock prices shifts AD rightward, raising real GDP and the price level AS 2 AD 1 AD 2 A correcting mechanism If output exceeds potential, the self- will raise the price level further B C B
The Fed and the Stock Market a a a Unemployment Rate Inflation Rate 4% 5% 2.5% 5.0% 1.5% Unemployment Rate Inflation Rate 4% 2.5% U N ? U N ? (a) (b) But if the natural rate is above 4% the Phillips Curve will shift upward and the Fed must choose between higher inflation … … or recession If the natural rate of unemployment is 4%, the Fed can keep the economy at point A in the long run PC 2 1 PC PC 1 A D B C A