Chapter 17 Financing, Investor Protection and Online ...Presentation Transcript
Chapter 17 Financing, Investor Protection and Online Securities Offerings
What is meant by the term securities?
What are the two major statutes regulating the securities industry?
What is insider trading ? Why is it prohibited?
What are some of the features of state securities laws?
How are securities laws being applied in the online environment?
The stock market crash of 1929 showed the need for:
More disclosure from issuers.
Prohibition of deceptive, unfair and manipulative practices in the purchase and sale of securities.
Corporate Financing Paid last Priority over stock Required Optional Vote for Management No votes Dividends (variable) Fixed ROI Ownership/equity Debt Bonds vs. Stocks
Bonds Can be “called in” by principal and repaid according to bond conditions. Callable Conditions trigger bonds to convert to corporate stock. Convertible Pledge specific real estate. If corporation defaults, bondholders can foreclose. Mortgages No specific corporate assets are pledged as collateral. Backed by corporation’s general credit rating. Debentures Definition Type
Common Stock: represents true ownership of a corporation. Provides pro-rata (proportional) ownership interest reflected in control, earnings and assets.
Preferred Stock: has preferences over common stock.
Redeemable or Callable Preferred.
Securities Act of 1933
Securities Act of 1933 regulates solicitation, buying and selling of securities.
In SEC v. Howey (1946), the U.S. Supreme Court held that a security exists in any transaction in which a person: (1) invests (2) in a common enterprise (3) reasonably expecting profits (4) derived primarily from others’ managerial or entrepreneurial efforts.
If a security does not qualify for an exemption under §5 of the Securities Act of 1933, the security must be registered with the Securities Exchange Commission ( http://www.sec.gov ) and state securities agencies before offered to the public.
Corporation must file a registration statement and prospectus with the SEC. Prospectus is later distributed to investors.
Description of the significant provisions of the registrant’s “offering” and how the registrant intends to use the proceeds from the sale.
Description of the registrant’s properties and business.
Description of the management of the registrant, remuneration, pension, stock offerings, executive interests and compensation.
Financial statement certified by and independent accounting firm.
Description of pending lawsuits.
Bank securities sold before 1933.
Commercial paper if maturity date does not exceed 9 months.
Charitable organization securities.
Securities issued to existing securities holders resulting from reorganization, bankruptcy.
Securities issued to finance railroad equipment.
Any insurance, endowment, annuity contract or government-issued securities.
Securities issued by banks, savings and loan association, farmers' cooperatives.
Regulation A, small offering up to $5 million in a 12 month period to “test the waters”; but requires a circular.
Securities issued to existing securities holders, stock split, dividend (really a transaction exemption).
Small “Reg D” Offerings
Rule 504: up to $1M during 12 months to accredited investors only .
Rule 505: up to $5M during 12 months to both accredited and unaccredited investors.
Section 4(6): up to $5M solely to accredited investors.
Violations of the 1933 Act
Intentional or negligent fraud of investors by misrepresenting or omitting material facts in the registration statement and/prospectus.
Defenses : Statement left out was not material; Plaintiff knew about fraud and purchased stock; Registrant believed statements were true.
Criminal: up to 5 years in prison and $10,000 fine.
Civil: damages, refund of investment, injunction.
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Registration of securities exchanges, brokers, dealers, and national securities exchanges and associations.
Requires continuous disclosure system for corporations with securities sold on national exchanges or assets in excess of $5 million and 500 or more shareholders (Sec. 12 companies or 1934 companies).
Section 10(b), SEC Rule 10b(5) & Insider Trading
Section 10(b) prohibits the use of any manipulative or deceptive device or contrivance in contravention of rules and regulations of SEC.
Rule 10b(5) prohibits the commission of fraud in the connection with the purchase or sale of any security.
Section 10(b) and Rule 10b(5) & Insider Trading
Advance information available to corporate officers and directors that can affect future value of stock.
Insider trading prohibited:
10b(5) “Insiders” (Officers, Executives and Directors)
Tipper/tippee theory--insider’s fiduciary duty must be breached
Misappropriation theory -- one wrongfully obtains inside info and trades on it -- Courts still require fiduciary duty be breached, to employer, for instance.
Violations of the 1934 Act
10b violation— scienter or intent is required to prove criminal penalties.
Imprisonment up to 10 years, fines up to $1 million, $2.5 for partnership or corporation.
16(b) -- strict liability -- no fault or scienter required -- civil penalties.
Regulation of Investment Companies
Act on behalf of many smaller shareholders by buying stock and professionally managing the “portfolio.” (MUTUAL FUNDS.)
To safeguard company assets, all securities must be held by a bank or stock exchange member.
No dividends paid except from undistributed net income.
State Securities Laws
State securities laws are called “blue sky” laws.
Issuers must comply with federal and state securities laws and states do not allow the same exemptions as federal government.
States could require registration or qualification.
Uniform Securities Act has been adopted in part by many states.
Online Securities Offerings
Landmark Online IPO (1996): Spring Street Brewing Company.
Regulations for online offerings.
SEC October 1995 “use of electronic media should be at least an equal alternative to paper-based media.” Downloadable prospectus is permissible.
Online Securities Offerings
Online IPO’s may deliver a prospectus by:
Giving timely and adequate notice (e-mails)
Making the online communication system readily accessible.
Requiring evidence of delivery (email return receipt).
Online Securities Offerings
Online offers should not link to other sites in prospectus.
Problems with status of investors on a general website. For example, Reg D offerings can only be made to “accredited investors”.
Perhaps use password protected.
Online Securities Fraud
SEC tries to enforce anti-fraud provisions of Securities Laws.
Use and abuse of internet chat rooms.
Where is the line between free speech and fraud?
Pumping and Dumping: buyer pumps the stock and after it rises, he dumps it, selling at a higher price.
Selling unregistered securities by unregistered stock brokers is a problem.