Daylightingapplicationspresentation

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Daylightingapplicationspresentation

  1. 1. Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities presented by Brian McCowan ERS ers energy&resource solutions -1- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  2. 2. Lighting Timeline 70,000 B.C. – Rock and Animal Fat Lamp 700 B.C. – TerraCotta Oil Lamp 1700 – Glass Chimney Lamp – Whale Oil, Sesame Oil, Beeswax, Olive Oil 1792 – Coal Gas Lamp 1859 – Kerosene Lamp 1870 – Joseph Swan & Thomas Edison Each Claim Invention of Electric Lighting 1879 – Thomas Edison Produces First Commercially Viable Incandescent Lamp 1927 – The First Fluorescent Lamp Developed ers energy&resource solutions -2- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  3. 3. Brief History of Early Commercial/Industrial Lighting Pre-electric: Dominated by daylighting; supplemented with combustion (open fire, oil lamps) sources. Prior to mercury vapor and fluorescent, incandescent was the only practical artificial light source. Difficult to illuminate industrial spaces with incandescent, so architectural daylighting remained prominent. Similar techniques as seen today- window walls, skylights, monitors, clearstories. Glazing materials were unsophisticated – heat gain/loss and glare were significant problems. ers energy&resource solutions -3- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  4. 4. 1940s Box Factory Daylight as Primary Light Source Incandescent as Supplemental Source Machinery Located at Windows Majority of Work Performed on Day Shift Photo: US Library of Congress ers energy&resource solutions -4- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  5. 5. Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant Cambridge, Mass - 1913 ers energy&resource solutions -5- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  6. 6. Kendall Boiler and Tank Company 1894 ers energy&resource solutions -6- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  7. 7. Cotton Processing and Packing Plant - 2004 ers energy&resource solutions -7- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  8. 8. Tool & Die Shop - 2004 ers energy&resource solutions -8- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  9. 9. Industrial Lighting: Where Would You Rather Work? Older non-daylit industrial spaces were dark and hazardous. Natural light and reflective colors brighten the space and improve the environment for workers. ers energy&resource solutions -9- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  10. 10. 1970s Energy Crisis Steep increase in energy costs. Windows, monitors and skylights boarded over and insulated. Many industrial spaces still poorly-lit with incandescent lighting. Natural ventilation through windows is disabled. Fluorescent and HID lighting developed in the 40s and 50s gained widespread usage. Daylighting virtually replaced as a primary lighting source. ers energy&resource solutions -10- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  11. 11. Daylighting Makes a Comeback Ironically, the interest in passive solar energy during the 1980s began the current interest in daylighting. Heat gain and glare were major problems with early direct solar heating systems. Glazing materials have made great advances, reducing glare, solar gain and heat loss. Techniques from the past were updated for use in modern buildings, bringing back monitors, skylights, and clearstories. ers energy&resource solutions -11- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  12. 12. Lighting for Human Performance Why is lighting important Elements of good lighting Illumination level Brightness Color temperature and color rendering Glare and other visual comfort issues ers energy&resource solutions -12- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  13. 13. Advantages of Daylighting Advantages of Properly Designed Daylighting: Human performance is improved under daylighting Delivers abundant, high-quality lighting that many activities require Colors are rendered accurately Natural light improves morale and productivity Lower risks of accidents and errors Natural ventilation is facilitated Reduced operation and maintenance costs Demand savings during daytime peaks ers energy&resource solutions -13- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  14. 14. 2. Productivity Growing body of evidence on the relationship between productivity in the workplace and various features of lighting… e.g. Heschone Mahone Group studies on daylighting: Retail sales in daylit stores up to 40% higher that in similar non-daylit stores School students progress 20% faster math tests and 26% faster in reading daylight classrooms Database of evidence at www.betterbricks.com ers energy&resource solutions -14- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  15. 15. Obtainable Goals for Daylighting Create a Pleasant Comfortable Environment Provide Uniform Light Distribution Provide Adequate Illumination During Full-Sun and Overcast Conditions Eliminate Visual Glare Incorporate View Windows to Connect Workers to the Outdoors Avoid Heating and Cooling Penalties Provide Low Maintenance Lighting System Save Energy ers energy&resource solutions -15- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  16. 16. Footcandle The illuminance on a surface one square foot in area on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen. The lumens incident on a surface = footcandles x the area in square feet. ers energy&resource solutions -16- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  17. 17. Luminous Efficacy (Lm/W) Sun Low-Pressure Sodium Metal Halide New Fluorescent High-Pressure Sodium New Compact Fluorescent Old Fluorescent Mercury Vapor Incandescent Candle 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 lumens/watt ers energy&resource solutions -17- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  18. 18. Evolution of Commercial/Industrial Buildings Today’s Facilities: New Industries, New Demands, New Ideas Many high-tech industries such as electronics and pharmaceuticals are very different from traditional industrial spaces. Intricate work demands abundant, high-quality light. Proper lighting contributes to safety and sanitation demanded in today’s industrial facilities. As the economy transitions from heavy industry, lighting needs are changing. Properly designed, daylighting provides the highest-quality lighting. Artificial lighting should strive to match daylighting as closely as possible when used in the same space. ers energy&resource solutions -18- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  19. 19. Recent Applications of Old Ideas ers energy&resource solutions -19- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  20. 20. Modeling Light Output with AGI-32 ers energy&resource solutions -20- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  21. 21. Designing for Performance: Lighting Design Tools Non-Computer Based Tools Some architects, relying on rather software to than model daylight performance, prefer to use physical modeling. Bruce Coldham (right), a Massachusetts architect well-known for his daylit designs, has developed a daylight modeling stand that is adjustable to model daylight conditions for any time or day of the year. Light sensors can be inserted into the various spaces to record foot-candles delivered to various spaces. Courtesy of Bruce Coldham ers energy&resource solutions -21- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  22. 22. Roof Monitor ers energy&resource solutions -22- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  23. 23. Ceiling Plane Skylight ers energy&resource solutions -23- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  24. 24. Skylight with Well ers energy&resource solutions -24- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  25. 25. Redirected Beam Systems Sunlight is Redirected off Reflective Surfaces or Bent Through Refraction Advantages: Building/glazing Orientation Less Critical Glare Reduction Heat Gain Reduction Reduced Reliance on Blinds or Other Adjustable Architectural Elements Improved Uniformity of Illumination ers energy&resource solutions -25- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  26. 26. Redirected Beam System Types Architectural Light Shelves Integral Between-pane Light Shelves Laser-cut Refractive Acrylic Glazing Panels Prismatic Panels Similar to Artificial Lighting Lenses Holographic Optical Diffracting Elements (Experimental) Curved Panel Sun-directing Glass Anidolic (non-imaging) Optical Systems With Light Ducts Skylight Reflective Tubes ers energy&resource solutions -26- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  27. 27. Blinds: Controlling Glare and Heat ers energy&resource solutions -27- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  28. 28. Day-Lighting Design Pitfalls ers energy&resource solutions -28- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  29. 29. Controlling Heat Gain/Loss with Improved Glazing Multiple layers of glass Low-E coatings and Low-E membranes installed between glass layers Materials with a low “U” value Tinted glass for various degrees of reduced heat gain and glare treated with materials that offer reflectance of UV and IR rays Gazing assemblies that include auto-adjusting shading features Improved gasketing and flashings to reduce or eliminate the leakage problems that previously plagued skylights ers energy&resource solutions -29- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  30. 30. Integrating Daylighting with Electric Lights Daylight Harvesting – On/off Commissioning is essential to avoid cycling and inconsistent levels Best when daylighting is designed to provide 100% lighting under most weather conditions. Daylight Harvesting – Continuous or Stepped Dimming Sensor choice, placement, and adjustment is critical. Again commissioning is essential for proper performance. Best where daylighting is designed as supplemental light source. Lamp Selection Daylight is a “cool” light source; 4100K or 5000K lamps should be selected Use the highest color rendering level (80-90) that still provides good lamp efficacy. ers energy&resource solutions -30- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  31. 31. Key Objectives In Day-Lighting Design Designing spaces to use controlled natural light (reduce glare and address low solar angles) Using day-lighting to provide the primary illumination within a space (where possible) Optimizing the use of natural and electric lighting ers energy&resource solutions -31- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  32. 32. The Future of Daylighting Improved Glazing Materials Higher insulating values Selective wavelength reflection Light bending glazings Better Control New pre-engineered, prefabricated light shelves Pre-engineered site-built and prefabricated redirected beam systems. Advanced interior and exterior shades. New Ideas Daylight collectors with photo-optic delivery to remote spaces (a pipe dream?) Integrated daylight and fluorescent light fixtures that deliver a continuously adjustable mix of light from both sources through the same aperture. ers energy&resource solutions -32- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  33. 33. Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities Questions?? ers energy&resource solutions -33- © 2005 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
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