The Semantic Code (SEM) The Hermeneutic code (HER)The Cultural Code (REF) The Symbolic Code (SYM) The Proairetic Code (ACT)
The Semantic Code (SEM)The Semantic code refers to connotation within the story that gives additional meaning over the basic denotative meaning of the word.
The Hermeneutic code (HER)The Hermeneutic Code refers to any element of the story that is not fully explained and hence becomes a mystery to the reader.
The Cultural Code (REF) The Cultural code refers to anything that isfounded on some kind of canonical works that cannot be challenged and is assumed to be a foundation for truth.
The Proairetic Code (ACT)The Proairetic Code builds tension, referring to any other action or event that indicates something else is going to happen which gets the reader guessing to what will happen next.
The Symbolic Code (SYM)The Symbolic code is very similar to the Semantic Code, but acts at a widerlevel, organizing semantic meanings into broader and deeper sets of meaning.
Tzvetan Todorov is a philosopherand cultural critic and the authorof over 20 books. Tzvetan Todorov’s believed that there are five stages to narrative structure: • A state of Equilibrium. (All as is if it should be) • A disruption to that order (by an event) • A recognition that the disorder has occurred. • An attempt to repair the damage. • A return or restoration to start a NEW equilibrium.
Vladimir Propp analysed a whole series ofRussian folk tales in the 1920s. Vladimir Propp’s theory was formed in the early twentieth Century. He studies Russian fairytales and discovered that in stories there were always 8 types of characters evident. • The hero, • The villain, • The donor, • The dispatcher, • The false hero, • The helper, • The princess and her father.
Propps Narrative Functions (31)1. A member of a family leaves home2. An interdiction is addressed to the hero3. The hero ignores the interdiction4. The villain appears5. The villain gains information about the victim6. The villain attempts to deceive the victim to take possession of victim or victims belongings7. The victim is fooled by the villain, unwittingly helps the enemy8. Villain causes harm/injury to family/tribe member9. Misfortune or lack is made known10. Seeker agrees to, or decides upon counter-action11. Hero leaves home12. Hero is tested, interrogated, attacked etc, preparing the way for his/her receiving magicalagent or helper13. Hero reacts to actions of future donor14. Hero acquires use of a magical agent15. Hero is transferred, delivered or led to whereabouts of an object of the search16. Hero and villain join in direct combat
18. Villain is defeated19. Initial misfortune or lack is resolved20. Hero returns21. Hero is pursued22. Hero is rescued from pursuit23. Hero unrecognised, arrives home or in another country24. False hero presents unfounded claims25. Difficult task proposed to the hero26. Task is resolved27. Hero is recognised28. False hero or villain is exposed29. Hero is given a new appearance30. Villain is punished31.Hero marries and ascends the throne
laude Lévi-Strauss was born in Belgium on 28 November 1908to French parents. He undertook a law degree at the University of Paris. Levi-Straus believed that the individual narrative structure could be grasped as the imaginary resolution to real contradiction.