Zinc Nutrient Initiative Joint Meeting Brussels
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  • 1. Andrew Green, Ph.D. Director- Environment, Health & Sustainability Zinc Nutrient Initiative
  • 2. World Map – Zinc Deficiency Soils Humans
  • 3.
    • 4-yr program
    • Global effort with a focus in China & India
    • Goals:
    • Increased use of zinc fertilizer
    • Increased crop production
    • Increased nutritional status
  • 4.
    • Demonstration crop trials
    • Communication activities
    • Workshops/seminars
    • Country-based marketing
    Approach
  • 5. Demonstration Field Trails
  • 6. Int’l Zinc Assoc . OMEX Agrifluids Ltd . England Mosaic Co. USA K+S KALI GmbH Germany Harvest Plus Zinc Fertilizer Program ( www.harvestzinc.org ) CHINA CAU: China Agric. University INDIA IARI: Indian Agr ic. Res. Inst. TURKEY Ministry of Agriculture THAILAND Chiang Mai University PAKISTAN NARC: Nat. Agr ic. Res. Cen. MOZAMBIQUE IIAM : Inst Inv Agr Moz BRAZIL APTA : Agência Paulista Tec Agr . Collaborating Countries / Institutions Int’l Fertilizer Ind. Assoc. France Int ’l Plant Nutr. Inst. USA ZIMBABWE Soil Fertility Cons. for Southern Africa Coordinating Institution
  • 7. Canada Germany Brazil Zimbabwe Zambia Mozambique South Africa Ethiopia Pakistan India Kazakhstan Iran Laos China Thailand Australia Turkey International Zinc Assoc. Coordinating Institution : Sabanci University Global Zinc Fertilizer Project Mexico Guatemala Argentina
  • 8. Average of all countries -Zn: 26 +Zn: 50 Average Grain Zn Concentrations (10 Countries with 32 locations) -Zn: 26 ppm +Zn: 50 ppm Grain Zn concentration in different countries with and without zinc fertilization
  • 9. IZA Crop Zinc Trials India – 17 wheat and rice trials China – 24 trials in 6 provinces with rice, wheat & maize Thailand - 2 rice trials South Africa - 2 maize trials Brazil – 2 soybean trials Total of 47 crop trials globally
  • 10. There was an increase in grain yield up to 20 % by Zn application in the experimental sites of the Nakorn Nayok and Chiang Mai Provinces
  • 11. Zinc Applications improved rice grain yield up to 30 % in some locations of the Orissa State INDIA
  • 12. Zinc Applications improved wheat grain yield, on average, 9 % in 6 locations of the Uttar Pradesh and Haryana States
  • 13. Zinc Applications improved wheat grain yield , on average , 7 % in 3 locations of Punjab State
  • 14. Zinc Applications improved rice grain yield, on average, 9 % in 4 locations of the Punjab State
  • 15. No change in maize grain yield in South Africa by Zn applications; but grain Zn was increased up to 20 %
  • 16. Zinc Applications improved rice grain yield 20 % in 2 locations of Sichaun, China
  • 17. Zinc is essential for crops +Zn -Zn
  • 18. But…
    • Quality of zinc products a critical issue
    • As, Pb and Cd reported in micronutrient fertilizers in range of 100’s – 1000’s of mg/kg
    • Shipment of contaminated zinc fertilizer from China to S. Africa recently made the international news
    • MgSO4 sold as ZnSO4 in Thailand & India
  • 19. Code of Practice needed
    • ensure the safe and sustainable use of zinc-fertilizer products
    • ensure quality of products for farmers
    • help develop and grow zinc fertilizer market
  • 20. Two key goals of CoP
    • safe & sustainable product
    • Limits achievable by industry
    • Working with Dr. Mike McLaughlin, CSIRO & University of Adelaide
    • Review by Dr. Rufus Chaney, USDA
  • 21. New Australian Guidelines for Limits of Contaminants in Fertilizers
    • State-of-science for setting limits
    • Uses critical loading approach based on 100-yr scenario
    • Considers multiple exposure pathways: plants, animals, humans, groundwater, runoff
    • Official status of guidelines is draft but IZA given green light now to use methodology
    • Will use limits as Tier 1, modify in Tier 2 with bioavailability & site-specific information
  • 22. What the numbers would mean for Zn sulfate Element Maximum allowed concentration per kg Zn (mg element/kg Zn) Proposed maximum allowed concentration in ZnSO 4 (heptahydrate) (mg element/kg pure ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O) US EPA maximum allowed concentration in ZnSO 4 (mg element/kg pure ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O) As 600 137 7 Cd 680 240 32 Cr 8100 1843 14 Hg 130 30 7 Pb 530 185 64
  • 23. What the numbers would mean for ZnO Element Maximum allowed concentration per kg Zn (mg element/kg Zn) Proposed maximum allowed concentration in ZnO (mg element/kg pure ZnO) US EPA maximum allowed concentration in ZnO (mg element/kg pure ZnO) As 600 482 24 Cd 680 546 112 Cr 8100 6508 48 Hg 130 104 24 Pb 530 662 225
  • 24. ZnO Research
    • Significant difference in size and solubility of ZnO
    • Uptake by plant not related to solubility, ZnO performed
    • better than ZnSO4 – needs confirmation
    60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Zinc sulfate DP 1 DP 2 CP 1 FP 1 FP 2 ZnO 1 ZnO 2 Zn Product Plant Zn derived from product (%) e cd bc d abc ab a d Alkaline calcareous soil
  • 25.
    • Communication Activities :
    • Case-study
    • Technical brochure
    • Publication of articles/book
    • Fact sheets
    • Newsletter
    • website: zinc-crops.org
    • Videos
    • Seminars/workshops
  • 26. Communication Activities:
  • 27. Communication Activities:
  • 28. www.zinc-crops.org
  • 29. Zinc Fertilizer Seminars
    • Mexico
    • Brazil
    • China
    • Thailand
    • India
    • South Africa
  • 30. www.zinccrops2011.org
  • 31.
    • 4-5 minutes videos being developed for India &
    • China
    • 2-3 minute international video planned
    • Time-elapsed videos developed from greenhouse
    • and field-trials in Turkey
    +Zn -Zn Videos
  • 32. Country Activities
  • 33. IZA India Actions
      • Hired Director, Dr. Soumitra Das
      • Crop Trials
      • Policy Intervention
      • Communications
  • 34. India -NBSS
    • Total Indian subsidy for fertilizers is ~ 22-23 billion USD
    • In old system, maximum retail price (MRP) of fertilizers set by government
    • In NBSS, subsidy given on individual nutrients based on nutrient need. NBSS promotes balanced fertilization.
  • 35. India- NBSS
    • Subsidy for zinc has now been included in NBSS
    • First time zinc has been included in central government subsidization scheme
    • 500 INR subsidy paid to fertilizer companies that fortify with Zn.
  • 36. IZA India Actions
    • Policy Intervention
      • Develop IZA/FAI/ICAR Report on Zinc
      • Zinc Oxide Registration
      • Increase zinc subsidy
  • 37. IZA India Actions
    • Communications
      • Zinc Training Program
      • Regional Workshops
      • International Zinc Conference
      • Institutional Award
      • Fertilizer Companies
  • 38. China
      • Hired Director, Dr. Ming Fan
      • Crop Trials
      • Policy Intervention
      • Communications
  • 39. IZA China Actions
    • Policy Intervention
      • Develop IZA/CAU/CAAS Report on Zinc –
      • Zinc Labeling Standard
      • Add zinc to provincial/state level recommendations
  • 40. IZA China Actions
    • Communications
      • Zinc Training Program
      • Regional Workshops
      • IZA/IFA Task Force Roundtable
      • Fertilizer Companies
      • Partnerships with NPK groups
  • 41. Thailand
      • Working with Padaeng Industry
      • Crop Trials
      • Policy Intervention
      • Communications
    Workshop planned in 4 th quarter
  • 42. Brazil
      • Working with Votorantim
      • Crop Trials
      • Policy Intervention
      • Communications
    Workshop planned in November
  • 43. Malawi
      • Proposal to CFC in partnership with ILZSG for $120,000
      • Crop Trials
      • Policy Intervention
      • Communications
  • 44. Partnerships Needed for Success
    • IFA
    • IPNI
    • The Sulfur Institute
    • CFC/ILZSG
    • Governments
    • U.S. AID
    • Gates Foundation
    • Fertilizer Companies
  • 45. Fertilizer Affiliate Members
    • Mosaic
    • Deepak Fertilizers
    • Beijing Xinhefeng Agrochemical
    • Omex Agricultural
    • Tetra Micronutrients
    • International Raw Materials
  • 46.
    • Zinc deficiency – in humans and crops is a critical, global, and linked issue
    • Problem is solvable – Zinc Fertilizer
    • Benefits include increased food, nutrition, health and economics
  • 47.