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Bab 8

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  • 1. BAB 8HAZAD HABA/KEPANASAN DAN SUHU MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 2. KESELESAAN UDARA PANAS (THERMAL COMFORT) • Melibatkan faktor-faktor yang berbeza b. Suhu d. Kelembapan f. Edaran udara h. Kesesuaian /keutamaan peribadi j. Penyesuaian diri dengan perubahan suhu MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 3. KONSEP “THERMAL ENERGY”a. Pengaliran/conduction • Perpindahan suhu antara dua objek melalui sentuhan.b. Pemanasan • Perpindahan suhu antara satu lokasi ke tempat lain melalui pergerakan medium (gas atau cecair). • Cth ovenc. Suhu Metabolisma • Pembakaran tenaga melaui aktiviti yang melibatkan tubuh badan. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 4. KONSEP “THERMAL ENERGY”a. Suhu persekitaran • Punca luaran yang memberi kesan kepada suhu sekitar • Contoh: sistem gas atau elektrik pemanas.b. Suhu bahang/sinaran (radiant) MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 5. HEAT STRESS & HEAT STRAIN • The net heat load to which a worker may be exposed from combined contributions of • Metabolic cost of work • Environmental factors ( air temperature / humidity / air movement / radiant heat exchange) • Clothing requirement • A mild or moderate heat stress may cause discomfort and may adversely affect performance and safety, but not harmful to health • As the heat stress approaches human tolerance limits, the risk of heat related disorders increases. • Heat strain is the overall physiological response resulting from MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083) heat stress.
  • 6. RECOGNIZING HEAT STRAIN• A sustained rapid heart rate (180 beats per minute minus the employee’s age in years). Eg. A 40 year old employee has a sustained heart rate of 150 beats per minutes. This is a problem cause the heart rate exceeds 140 (180 minus 40) beats per minute.• Core body temperature is greater than 38.5oC or 101.3oF.• Recovery rate one minute after peak work effort is greater than 110 beats per minute.• Sudden and severe fatigue, nausea, dizziness or light headedness.• Profuse sweating that continues for hours.• Weight loss of more than 1.5% of body weight during one work shift• Urinary sodium excretion of less than 3083)moles (24 hour period). MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 50
  • 7. HEAT STRESS MANAGEMENT• Provide accurate verbal and written instructions, training programs and other information about heat stress and strain.• Encourage drinking small volumes (approximately 1 cup) of cool water about every 20 minutes.• Permit self limitation of exposure. Encourage co-workers observation to detect signs and symptoms of heat strain in others.• Counsel and monitor those employees who take medication that may compromise normal cardiovascular, blood pressure etc as well as those who abuse or who are recovering from the abuse of alcohol and other intoxication.• Adjust expectation of those returning to work after absence from heat stress situation and encourage consumption of salty food. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 8. HEAT STRESS MANAGEMENT – Specific Control • Establish engineering controls that reduce the metabolic rate, provide general air movement, reduce process heat and water vapor release and shield radiant heat sources. • Consider administrative controls that set acceptable exposure times, allow sufficient recovery and limit physiological strain. • Consider personal protection that has been demonstrated to be effective for the specific work practices and conditions at the location. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 9. Engineering Controls • Control the heat at source through the use of insulating and reflective barriers (insulate furnace walls). • Exhaust hot air and steam produced by specific operations. • Reduce the temperature and humidity through air cooling. • Provide air-conditioned rest areas. • Increase air movement if temperature is less than 35°C (fans). • Reduce physical demands of work task through mechanical assistance (hoists, lift-tables, etc.). MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 10. Administrative Controls • Health and safety committees should assess the demands of all jobs and have monitoring and control strategies in place for hot days. • Increase the frequency and length of rest breaks. • Schedule hot jobs to cooler times of the day. • Provide cool drinking water near workers and remind them to drink a cup every 20 minutes or so. • Workers should salt their food well, particularly while they are acclimatizing to a hot job (workers with a low salt diet should discuss this with their doctor). • Assign additional workers or slow down work pace. • Make sure everyone is properly 3083) MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH acclimatized
  • 11. Administrative Controls - cont • Train workers to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat stress and start a buddy system since people are not likely to notice their own symptoms. • Pregnant workers and workers with a medical condition should discuss working in the heat with their doctor. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 12. Personal Protective Equipment • Light clothing should be worn to allow free air movement and sweat evaporation. • Outside, wear light-coloured clothing. • In a high radiant heat situation, reflective clothing may help. • For very hot environments, air, water or ice-cooled insulated clothing should be considered. • Vapour barrier clothing, such as acid suits, greatly increases the amount of heat stress on the body, and extra caution is necessary. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 13. TEKANAN HABA DAN PENCEGAHAN (Heat Stroke) Pukulan haba/kepanasan( heat stroke) • Berlaku akibat kenaikan mendadak suhu badan • Disebabkan faktor-faktor b. Obesiti /kegemukan, c. Keadaan fizikal yang lemah, d. Pengambilan akhohol, e. Penyakit jantung dan, f. Terdedah kepada kepanasan yang lama MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 14. Heat Stroke - samb• Tanda-tandanya • kulit terasa panas dan kering, merah serta berbintik. • hilang kesedaran. • keliru serta menjadi sawan.• Pencegahannya • penapisan masalah kesihatan. • penyesuaian diri secra perlahan-lahan terhadap persekitaran yang panas. • pusingan kerja. • penggunaan PPE. • pemantauan pekerja - OSH 1 (PH 3083) MM/FS/CK/ZH
  • 15. KELETIHAN/KEHAUSAN AKIBAT HABA( HEAT EXHAUSTION)• Akibat dari kehabisan air atau garam galian• Punca • terdedah pada persekiatarn haba/panas yang lama. • gagal menggantikan air atau garam yang hilang• Tanda-tandanya • Keletihan • rasa loya dan muntah • pening kepala • hendak pengsan dan berdiri tidak stabil MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 16. KELETIHAN/KEHAUSAN AKIBAT HABA( HEAT EXHAUSTION) - samb• Pencegahannya • Penyesuaian diri dengan persekitaran tempat kerja secara sistematik. • Minuman yang memberi tenaga. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 17. KEKEJANGAN (HEAT CRAMPS)• Akibat kehabisan garam dan potassium• Tanda • Kekejangan otot secara mendadak• Punca • Kehilangan garam galian melalui peluh.• Pencegahan • Penyesuaian diri • Minuman yang membekalkan cukup galian. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 18. RUAM (HEAT RASH)• Timbul tanda merah/ gelumbung yang menyebabkan ketidakselesaan.• Punca • Terdedah kepada keadaan yang panas dan kelembapan yang tinggi• Pencegahan • Pindahkan mangsa ketempat yang persekitaran yang sesuai. • Penggunaan pakaian serta krim. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 19. KELETIHAN( HEAT FATIGUE)• Akibat ketidakstabilan mental dan fizikal. • Tidak cergas • Lembap• Punca • Terdedah pada haba/suhu yang tidak mewujudkan keselesaan.• Pencegahan • Menyediakan persekitaran yang selesa. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 20. HAZAD SUHU RENDAH (COLD STRESS)• Faktor menyebabkan cold stress • Suhu yang rendah 4. Angin yang sejuk 6. Kawasan kerja yang basah dan; 8. Air yang sejuk• Persekitaran yang sejuk memaksa badan bekerja lebih keras untuk mengekalkan suhu badan normal. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 21. Wind Chill• Wind Chill merupakan kombinasi suhu udara dan kelajuan angin yang bertiup. • Cth suhu 40°F dengan kombinasi kelajuan angin 35 km/j, menyebabkan kulit terdedah kepada suhu 11°F.• Maka keadaan kerja di bawah suhu beku dengan kombinasi pakaian yang tidak sesuai boleh menyebabkan cold stress. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 22. WIND CHILL - samb Wind-Chill Dangers ChartAdapted from TLVs® and BEIs®: Threshold LimitValues® for Chemical Substances and Physical Agentsand Biological Exposure Indices®, AmericanConference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,1999. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 23. HYPOTHERMIA• Berlaku bila badan tidak dapat mengekalkan suhu badan normal. Badan akan menggeletar apabila suhu badan menjadi rendah dari 35ºC (95ºF).• Tanda – tanda • Badan menggeletar secara konsisten • Kelakukan yang tidak rational dan menggelirukan • Kepekaan mental yang rendah • Meningkatkan risiko serangan sakit jantung• Pencegahan • Pastikan mangsa sedar dan tukar pakaian basah kepada kering. • Gunakan alat pemanas untuk memanaskan tubuh mangsa. • Berikan mangsa minuman panas dan manis Cuma bila MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083) mangsa dalam keadaan sedar.
  • 24. INCREASED RISK HYPOTHERMIA• Predisposing health conditions – cardiovascular disease – diabetes – hypertension• Medications• Poor physical condition MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 25. STAGES IN HYPOTHERMIA• Mild Hypothermia • Body temperature 97F - 93F • Shivering • Alert • Numbness in limbs, loss of dexterity, clumsiness • Pain from cold• Moderate Hypothermia • Body temperature 93F - 90F • Same symptoms as mild hypothermia except: shivering may decrease or stop MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 26. STAGES IN HYPOTHERMIA• Severe Hypothermia • Body temperature 90 F - 82F • Shivering decreased or stopped • Confusion and loss of reasoning • Slurred speech & Muscular rigidity • Semi to unconscious• Critical Hypothermia • Body temperature < 82F • Unconscious and may appear dead • Little breathing • Pulse slow • Eyes dilated • Body is rigid MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 27. FIRST AID FOR HYPOTHERMIA• Mild Hypothermia • Prevent further heat loss • Give warm sweet liquids • Apply gentle heat source • Exercise to generate heat • Keep head and neck covered• Moderate Hypothermia • Same as mild but limit exercise • Sips of warm liquids if victim fully conscious • No alcohol • Checked by Medical Doctor MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 28. FIRST AID FOR HYPOTHERMIA• Severe Hypothermia • Victim is in serious trouble • Apply external heat source • Avoid jarring victim • No food or drink • Transport gently to hospital• Critical Hypothermia • Don’t give up • Handle with extreme care • Tilt head to open airway & CPR • Stabilize temperature with external heat source • Hospitalization MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 29. FROSTBITE• Berlaku bila terdedah kepada suhu rendah yang melampau atau hubungan dengan objek yang terlalu sejuk.• Ia selalunya berlaku kerana tersentuh besi yang sejuk berbanding dengan terdedah kepada air yang sejuk kerana haba lebih cepat dipindahkan dari kulit ke besi.• Bahagian badan yang terdedah kepada frostbite ialah muka, telinga, jari dan kaki.• Tanda-tandanya • Kulit kelihatan berkilat (waxy) • Terasa kebas • Kematu (blister) MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 30. FROSTBITE - samb• Pencegahan • Panaskan bahagian tubuh yang mengalami frostbite secara beransur-ansur (gradually). Jangan gosok • Jangan berikan haba kepada mangsa dengan menggosokkan tangan kita dengan bahagian tubuh mangsa. • Dapatkan rawatan hospital dengan cepat. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 31. WATER IMMERSION SURVIVAL Water Temperature Exhaustion Survival Time 32.5 15 min 15 min to 45 min 32.5 - 40 15 to 30 min 30 min to 90 min 40 to 50 30 min to 1 hr 1 hr to 3 hrs 50 to 60 1 hr to 2 hrs 1 hr to 6 hrs 60 to 70 2 hrs to 7 hrs 2 hrs to 40 hrs 70 to 80 3 hrs to 12 hrs 3 hrs to indefinite Over 80 Indefinite indefinite MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 32. H. E. L. P.• Heat Escape Lessening Posture MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 33. HUDDLE• Extends survival time by 50% over swimming or treading water MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 34. KAWALAN HAZAD SUHU RENDAH• Secara Am • Pastikan pekerja memahami hazad suhu rendah. • Pastikan keadaan kesihatan pekerja dalam keadaan membenarkan mereka terdedah kepada hazah suhu rendah. • Sediakan minuman panas dan waktu rehat yang kerap. • Sediakan atau nasihatkan pekerja memakan makanan berkalori tinggi untuk suasana pekerjaan yang sejuk. Elakkan kopi kerana ia meningkatkan penyejatan air dalam badan.• Pakaian • Pakai pakaian yang sesuai dan dalam beberapa lapis supaya udara yang terperangkap dapat menjadi penebat untuk badan. • Pakaia pakaian yang fabrik synthetic seperti polypropylene. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 35. KAWALAN HAZAD SUHU RENDAH - samb Pakaian yang sesuai untuk hazad suhu rendah MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 36. KEBAKARAN DAN IMPAKNYA (aspek suhu)• Kemalangan yang sering terjadi • Kecederaan yang parah –kulit • Kulit-lapisan luar-epidermis • Lapisan dalam- dermis,cutis atau corium• Fungsi kulit • Lindungan • Sensasi/reaksi • Pengatur/pengukur kepanasan • Pengeluaran • Respirasi MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 37. TAHAP KEBAKARAN( SEVERITY OF BURNS)• Tahap pertama • Kebakaran kulitl-erythrema • Cth:“sunburn” MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 38. TAHAP KEBAKARAN( SEVERITY OF BURNS) - samb• Tahap Kedua • Kecederaan kecil pada permukaan kulit – gelembung MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 39. TAHAP KEBAKARAN( SEVERITY OF BURNS) - samb• Tahap Ketiga • Kecederaaan parah dan boleh mengakibatkan kematian. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 40. TAHAP KEBAKARAN( Third Degree Burn ) MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)
  • 41. KEBAKARAN/KECEDERAAN AKIBAT BAHANKIMIA • Merosakan tisu/kulit • Kepanasan • Ketidakselesaan • Contohnya melekit • Tahap kecederaan akibat bahan kimia dipengaruhi oleh: • Kepekatan • Tahap karat/ketajaman • Suhu • Tempoh MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH 3083)

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