Civil involment on 1999 kocaeli earthquake

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  • 1. CIVIL INVOLMENT IN THE REHABILITATION OFSOCIAL STRUCTURE AND EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMFOLLOWING 1999 KOCAELİ EARTHQUAKE,TURKEY Zeynep Turkmen Social Worker, MA zeynepturkmen@zeynepturkmen.com zturkmen@ipkb.gov.tr
  • 2. *1999 Kocaeli Eeartquake (E.Q) r Istanbul :* The expected E.Q thread fo s JICA Report /E.Q Scenario* Preparedness for E.Q - Social aspect - Educational aspect - Structural aspect - Urban planning aspect sides - Central and local governor - Universities
  • 3. 1900-2004E.Q ACTIVITIES
  • 4. THE RESULTS OF 1999 KOCAELI EARTHQUAKE• Location: NAF/ Adapazarı, Kocaeli, Gölcük• Ms =7.4• Date: On August 17, 1999• Time: at 03:02 am local time• Duration: 45 seconds• Dead: 13.349• Injured: 27.162• Damaged buildings: ~ 120,000 / Beyond on repaired: ~ 50.000• Direct economic impact: ~ US$5 billion ~ 2.5 percent of GNP.
  • 5. KOCAELI EARTHQUAKES 1999 1999 Kocaeli E.Q’s are mile stones forthe concept of disaster awareness in Turkey
  • 6. Turkey has experienced frequent natural disasters.Earthquakes, landslides, floods, rock falls, snow avalanches, etc,. 1999 Marmara Earthquakes hit Turkey’s industrial heartland We live, therefore, in a different side than we did before 1999.Pre-disaster measures such as mitigation and preparedness,therefore, came onto the agenda of the government andcountry together with the 1999 Marmara earthquakes.
  • 7. http://birimweb.icisleri.gov.tr
  • 8. Istanbul :*The expected E.Q thread for sJICA Report /E.Q Scenario
  • 9. The Next İstanbul Earthquake 1509 1766 1894 20??
  • 10. 0 port /200 The Re s.gov usg http://quake.Influence of the 17 August 1999 Izmit Earthquake onSeismic Hazards in IstanbulTom Parsons, Ross S. Stein, and James H. DieterichU.S. Geological Survey, MS 977, 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA, USAAykut BarkaIstanbul Technical University, Istanbul, TurkeyShinji TodaEarthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan A 62 ?15% probability (one standard deviation) of strong shaking during the next 30 years and 32?12% during the next decade
  • 11. MASTER PLAN www.ibb.gov.tr http://www.koeri.boun.edu.tr/depremmuh/IBB.IDMP.ENG.pdfMETROPOLITAN MUNІCІPALІTY OF ISTANBUL PLANNІNG AND CONSTRUCTION DІRECTORІATGEOTECHNICAL AND EARTHQUAKE INVESTІGATІON DEPARTMENT EARTHQUAKE MASTER PLAN Micro-zonation work including FOR geological and geophysical ISTANBUL investigations completed with the assistance of Japanese JICA Prepared By organization in 2002. BOĞAZİÇİ UNІVERSІTY ISTANBUL TECHNICAL UNІVERSІTY Master Plan Report in 2003. MIDDLE EAST TECHNІCAL UNІVERSІTYYILDIZ TECHNІCAL UNІVERSІTY 7 JULY 2003
  • 12. The scope of Earthquake Master Plan for Istanbulcomprised of works to be done in the following areas1. Assessment of current situation2. Seismic assessment and rehabilitation ofexisting buildings3. Urban planning issues4. Legal issues5. Financial issues6. Educational issues7. Social issues8. Risk and disaster management issues
  • 13. EARTHQUAKE SCENARIOS JICA Re p ort. Dec . 2002Model A Model BModel C Model D
  • 14. BÜYÜKÇEKMECE BAYRAMPAŞA GÜNGÖREN ZEYTİNBURNU BAHÇELİEVLER EMİNÖNÜ AVCILAR FATİH BAKIRKÖY ADALARPRIORITY of DISTRICTS
  • 15. COLLAPSE / HEAVY DAMAGE BUILDINGS JICA Report Dec. 2002
  • 16. DAMAGE ESTIMATIONS OF THE MICROZONING PROJECT (FOR A M=7.5 ~20 KM FAR EARTHQUAKE)70,000 deaths (0.8%)5,000 totally collapsed buildings60,000 heavily damaged buildings120,000 severely injured2,000,000 temporarily homeless1600 damage points on water supply system13 damage points on natural gas lines and29,000 damaged service boxesProbability of falling of 20 bridges60 ± 20 billion US$ financial loss
  • 17. THE POST-1999 PERIOD DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION From PRACTICES IN TURKEY top Governmental Organizations Hidden heros from all sectorsNon-governmentalOrganizations International Organizations Bussiness Neigbourhood Community Volunteers IndividualVolunteers From bottom Universities ?????? others
  • 18. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planing aspect- Central and local governor sides
  • 19. LAW ASPECT: T.C Grand National Assembly / severel decrees were promulgated a) Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (Decree No. 587, December 27, 1999): “Natural Disasters Insurance Council” (DASK -- Turkish acronym) b) Building Construction Supervision (Decree No 595, April 10 2000) c) Strengthening of Existing Search and Rescue Capacity of General Directorate of Civil Defense (Decree No. 586 in December 1999 and Decree No. 596 in April 2000) d) Regulation for Buildings to be constructed in Disaster Areas (1999) continue...
  • 20. LAW ASPECT: T.C Grand National Assembly / severel decrees were promulgated e) Regulation for Implementation of Construction Supervision (May 26, 2000) f) General Conditions for Mandatory Financial Liability Insurance for Construction Supervision Firms (July 10, 2000) g) Regulation Concerning Amendments in the Standardized Development Regulation for Municipalities Not Subject to Law No. 3030 (July 13, 2000) h) Decree With Power of Law Establishing Turkey Emergency Management General Directorate under the Prime Ministry No. 600, June 14, 2000 continue...
  • 21. LAW ASPECT: T.C Grand National Assembly / severel decrees were promulgated i) Regulation for Establishment, Responsibilities, Operational Principles and Fundamentals of Civil Defense Search and Rescue Unions and Teams j) Testing Laboratory Requirements for Decree No. 595 (July 30, 2000) k) Revision of the Law on Engineering and Architecture No. 3458 and Law on the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects No. 6235 (Decree No. 601, June 28, 2000)
  • 22. LAW ASPECT: T.C Grand National Assembly / severel decrees were promulgated 8. five-year development plan (2001-2005): State Planning Organization have created a special commission, on Natural Disasters after the 1999 earthquakes for the preparations of 8. five year development plan, and made some concrete recommendations considering four main aspects. These are: Legislative issues Staff and financial infrastructure Training and technical infrastructure Long term actions.
  • 23. LAW ASPECT: T.C Grand National Assembly / severel decrees were promulgated Mutual Aid Protocols: * MOI published a general notice on September 10, 1999 declaring that the provinces of Turkey are separated into 4 groups. * Each province is responsible to help other provinces within the same group in case of a disaster on a scale of which is beyond the management capacity of the affected province. * Depending on the general notice, provinces in some regions signed mutual aid protocols with each other.
  • 24. EFFORTS FOR NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN Ministry of Interior (MOI) It has initiated Disaster Management seminars in cooperation with JICA of Japan as well as with Turkish universities. Turkey Emergency Management General Directorate : It has initiated Disaster Management Trainings cooperation with the Bournemouth University.
  • 25. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planing aspect- Central and local governor sides
  • 26. PUBLIC AWARENESS ANDNEIGHBORHOOD COMMUNITY VOLUNTEERS
  • 27. CREATING PUBLIC AWARENESSON DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE İSTANBUL PRACTICESCivil Defense Corps (SSG)Civil Defense Corps - Community Disaster Volunteers (SSG-TAG)Neighborhood Disaster Volunteers (SDC- MAG)Kadıköy Municipality Neighborhood Disaster Volunteers (Kadıköy MAG)Neighborhood Disaster Management Volunteers (MAY)
  • 28. ABCD BASIC DISASTER AWARENESS Bosphorus University, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute, Disaster Preparedness Education Project in Cooperation with Ministry of Education, and Community Volunteers (2001 - 2005) III.4 We’re Getting ReadyCONTENT Earthquake Hazard Hunt INSTRUCTOR TOOLS AND RESOURCES I. Disaster Awareness Family Disaster Plan I.1 Disaster Experiences III.5 Earthquake Drills I.2 Earthquakes in Turkey III.6 Fire Prevention & Fire Safety I.3 Geological time and quakescience I.4 Earthquakes are natural phenomena IV. During and After an Earthquake? that happen all over the world IV.1 During an Earthquake I.5 Earthquake Myths IV.2 After an Earthquake Instructor CDs, I.6 Tectonic Plate Theory IV.3 Evacuation Earthquake Hazard Hunt / Public service Family Disaster Plan ABCD Handbooks Announcements, IV.4. Psychological Support 5.5 MILLION + DISTRIBUTED 28,500 DISTRIBUTED Cartoons II. Earthquake Hazards and Risks II.1 Earthquake Hazards V. Other Disastes II.2 Earthquake Risk Factors V.1. Flood II.3 Earthquake Warning and Early V.2 Land Slides Response Systems V.3 Winter Storm II.4 Its Too Late When it Shakes V.4 Heat Weather V.5 Terrorism III. Before an Earthquake V.6 NBC III.1 Dis Prep – Many Small Steps ABCD Basic Disaster Non-Structural Mitigation III.2 Structural Hazards and Risk Mitigation V.I Next Steps Awareness Info Cards ABCD Instructor Bags ABCD Flipcharts Table-top Model 200,000+ DISTRIBUTED 135 DISTRIBUTED 50 DISTRIBUTED 100 DISTRIBUTED V1.1 Skills for the First 72 Hours III.3 Non-Structural Hazards and Risk Mitig. Non- VI..2 Incident Command SystemsMETHODS RESULTS 3,000 school teachersSCHOOL-BASED TEACHER-PROVIDED INSTRUCTION trained in 4 provinces(in Partnership with Ministry of Education, Provincial Directorates in Istanbul, 70 Master Teachers in RISK AWARENESSBursa, Çanakkale, Sakarya and Local Agenda 21, IULA-EMME & SDC) Istanbul Ministry Ed. KNOWLEDGEISTANBUL: HOUSEHOLD ADJUSTMENT 6 weeks after training– Teachers from 80% of Istanbul schools receive 1-day training. BEHAVIOR– Teachers train tens of thousands of staff and hundreds of thousands of 6 weeks after training students, and reach out to millions of parents.– 1 year later, 70 volunteer, mentor-teachers candidates submit personal family plan, take 2-day additional training and pass written test. 2,000 teachers reach: 1,500,000 school-children– Mentor teachers begin to train a new group of teachers from each school. 30,000 school personnel– Ministry of Education in Istanbul tracks implementation of Basic Disaster AwarenessTraining in schools.COMMUNITY-BASED VOLUNTEER INSTRUCTION ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE (Outreach to Non-Governmental and Community-Based Organizations) AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE– Community-based volunteers take 4-hours ABCD seminar and then complete personal Family Plan In a special outreach program supported by Caritas &Cordaid,– Participate in 1-day instructor training. Pass written and presentation skills test.– Provide training formally and informally, on a voluntary basis in the community. 2000 households in the Ümraniye District of Istanbul received 600+ Community- based Instructors 100 Community-based Instructors trained ABCD basic disaster awareness training. Half were visitedLOCAL LEADERS, MINIMALLY COMPENSATED(Ümraniye Womens Outreach Project with Caritas/Cordaid) trained in 9 provinces 30,000 people randomly in their homes.Half were invited through local– Ten local women leaders recruited with assistance of muhktars and ngos instructors social networks to small group seminars. 2,000– Trainer-researchers receive 5 days of training, including field survey methods– Training delivered door-to-door to randomly selected households households completed pre-tests and 1,240 completed a post- 10 Women reach: test telephone survey six weeks later.Increases in Risk 2,000 households, 8,000 individuals Awareness Knowledge and Household Adjustment Behavior in 3 months (preparedness activities) was very significant in both cases.
  • 29. Educational & Campaign Materials Models of Basic Concepts
  • 30. COMMUNITY DISASTER VOLUNTEERS Bosphorus University, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute, Disaster Preparedness Education Project in Cooperation with General Directorate of Civil Defense and Community Volunteers 2001 - 2003 CONTENT INSTRUCTOR TOOLS AND RESOURCES PART 1 (1 hour) Purpose & Assumptions Overview of Basic Disaster Awareness & Preparedness PART 2 (4.5 hours) Life-Saving Skills Non-Medical Triage Public Hygiene 100 INSTRUCTOR CDs 20 INSTRUCTOR HANDBOOKS DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED 10 INSTRUCTOR BAGS Psychological First Aid IN USE PART 3 (3.5 hours) Light Search & Rescue Building Triage PART 4 (3 hours) Incident Command Systems Neighborhood Disaster Preparedness 4,000 PARTICIPANT 500 CDV HANDBOOKS WORKBOOKS DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED METHODS Large group training, minimal expenses, no special facilities: To reach largest possible audience in highly populated urban settings. RESULTS FIRST RESPONSE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL Knowledge of first response and safety skillsCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & INITIAL INSTRUCTOR TRAINING DEVELOPMENT increased from 31% to 65% using a 20-question test.Based on CERT Program localized at B.U. K.O.E.R.I to include building triage forrescuer safety and incident command systems for neighborhood response. Emphasis onorganizational, communication, and coordination. Volunteers trained to mobilize 15 Community-basedconvergent responders and to support professional response. Developed by Lt. Col. SATISFACTION trainers reach 3,000James Harkins, Senior CERT Trainer, Los Angeles Fire Department, Capt. Larry with training volunteers All CDV trainees are required to completeCollins, Los Angeles USAR Task Force, Marla Petal, Director AHEP. Initial instructor their own Family Disaster Plans.training in cooperation with AKUT. Curriculum development completed in partnershipwith General Directorate for Civil Defense, Civil Defense College and Search andRescue Brigade. All are registered in a database for post- Training provided through disaster research and program-evaluation– Instructor training provided to 35 community-based trainers, and 70 Civil Defense More than 95% of more than 50 companies in 20 cities. purposes.instructors from 12 provinces. participants have been satisfied or veryCOMMUNITY-BASED INSTRUCTIONOutreach to Businesses in cooperation with Istanbul Chamber of Industry, local satisfied with the ASSESSMENT OF FIRST RESPONSE KNOWLEDGEmunicipalities and community-based organizations training.(Bursa, Çanakkale, Sakarya with Local Agenda 21, IULA-EMME & SDC) AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT About 50% of those- 4,000 individuals in Marmara area received 2-day CDV training. who had received Tests of knowledge of first response and safety skills were given before and after training. Growth in knowledge is significant. Attendees report tremendous other trainings found satisfaction with training, in particular their confidence in being able to help those new and useful around them after a disaster. Several report already having used their skills to assist material in CDV others in an emergency, and generalizing their knowledge of triage and incident training. command systems to other settings. Civil Defense Directorate has included triage instruction in their general training.
  • 31. Training of PublicTAG Community Disaster Volunteers
  • 32. STRUCTURAL AWARENESS FOR SEISMIC SAFETY Bosphorus University, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute, Disaster Preparedness Education Project in cooperation with Lutheran World Relief and Amerikan Bord Heyati, And Community Volunteers 2002 - 2003 CONTENT IV. OTHER IMPORTANT FACTORS INSTRUCTOR TOOLS AND RESOURCES a. Infill walls b. Plan shapeI. BUILDING IN EARTHQUAKE REGIONS c. Neighboring buildings a. Identifying earthquake regions b. Buildings in Turkey through the ages V. GOOD MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION c. Learning how to make buildings earthquake resistant a. The importance of materials and construction b. Reinforced concreteII. SOIL c. Timber and hımıs a. Soil during earthquakes d. Masonry and adobe b. Soil maps VI. MAINTENANCEIII. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS a. Maintaining loads a. Foundations b. Keeping structural elements intact b. Earthquake forces and other building loads c. Protecting buildings from moisture c. Load Path d. Replacing damaged elements d. Moment frames e. Shear walls VII. PREPARING FOR EARTHQUAKES f. Braces a. The design process g. Load bearing walls b. Investigating the earthquake safety of existing buildings c. Earthquake insurance 30 INSTRUCTOR HANDBOOKS 3,000 PARTICIPANT & FLIPCHARTS DISTRIBUTED 40 INSTRUCTOR CDs d. Preparing ourselves and our belongings HANDBOOKS DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED METHODS RESULTS PUBLIC AWARENESS CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Pioneering curriculum develope by team of engineerss, architects and public educators. Emphasis is on developing citizen awareness of structural safety in seismic regions, consumer consciousnes and demand 30 Community-based for safe construction. volunteer are to train 3,000 in pilot project PROGRAM EVALUATION Tests of knowledge are to be given before and after training. Trainee satisfaction – Instructor training provided to 20 community-based instructors and 10 will be measured. Knowledge and impact will be evaluated through selected teachers at construction industry high schools. telephone survey, several weeks after training has taken place. Trainers experience with different audiences will be documented and trainer focus groups will provide COMMUNITY-BASED VOLUNTEER INSTRUCTION feedback on scope, sequence, and content of training material, adaptations needed Community-based volunteers will train 3,000 citizens in pilot project. for various audiences, and recommendations for second edition. TRAINER ROLE MODELS All SASS trainers are required to complete their own Family Disaster Plans, and will be able to continue to report the training that they provide, over the internet.
  • 33. Educational & Campaign Materials Models of Basic Concepts
  • 34. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION Bosphorus University, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute, Disaster Preparedness Education Project in cooperation with American Red Cross and Turkish Red Crescent Society (2002-2003) American Friends Service Committee (2000-2001) and Community Volunteers CONTENT INSTRUCTOR TOOLS AND RESOURCESI. NSM Principles 24 NSM TOOLBAGS &II. Identification of Risk VII. Hanging Items TABLE-TOP MODELSIII. Before Mitigation VI. Cabinets DISTRIBUTED 1. Estimate Weight VII. Decorative Objects 2. Choose Fastener Type and Number VIII. Shelf Contents 3. Decide Where to Fasten IX. Glass 4. Choose Hardware for Attaching to Walls and Structural Elements X. Exits 5. Decide How to Attach Fasteners to Furniture XI. TanksIV. Furniture XII. LightingV. Electronics and Countertop Appliances XV. After NSM . . .VI. White Appliances 30 INSTRUCTOR CDs & 30 FLIPCHARTS 3,000 SMALL HANDBOOKS HANDBOOKS DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED METHODS YOUTH LEADERSHIP PILOT WORK WITH YOUNG ADULTS – Initial project with youth leaders experimented with development of active and RESULTS PROJECT in 6 NEIGHBORHOODS participatory instructional methods with young people. RESEARCH BASED RECOMMENDATIONS MODELS AT FAIRS – Research on the causes of earthquake deaths and injuries shows that non- structural hazards contribute to up to 10% of deaths and have been the cause of up to half of injuries. – More than 300 tests were performed on a shake table to learn effective methods for fastening various furniture items to various wall types. VARIETY OF INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS DEVELOPED ASSESSMENT OF FIRST RESPONSE KNOWLEDGE – Pilot implementation developed displays of non-structural fastening devices, and SHAKE TABLE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT models. More sophisticated instructional materials were developed for public RESEARCH Tests of knowledge skills were given before and after instructor training. Intern distribution: Instructor Handbook, CD presentation, and flipchart. Non-Structural instructiors are required to complete their own Family Disaster Plans, and perform non- table-top model and instructor toolbag provide hands-on materials to reinforce structural mitigation personally in their own homes and one other location, prior to concepts. earning certificate. INSTRUCTOR-TRAINING FOR TURKISH RED CRESCENT SOCIETY, B.U.- KOERI-AHEP STAFF & VOLUNTEERS, and HIGH SCHOOL 30 TURKISH RED 10 COMMUNITY-BASED 20 SCHOOL-BASED CRESCENT SOCIETY VOLUNTEER INSTRUCTORS TRAINED TEACHERS INSTRUCTORS TRAINED INSTRUCTORS TRAINED – Instructor training provided to 30 Turkish Red Crescent Society instructors and 10 AHEP staff and volunteers. – Instructor training provided to 20 teachers at Professional and Trade High Schools in Istanbul. SEMINARS TO THE PUBLIC – Volunteers and staff will provide seminars to the public.
  • 35. Educational & Campaign Materials Non-Structural Mitigation Tools and Techniques Display
  • 36. Educational & Campaign Materials Non-Structural Mitigation Pioneers56 YOUTH LEADERS TRAINED
  • 37. Training of TrainersYouth Leaders Work in 6 Neighborhoods
  • 38. Training of Trainers Youth Leaders IllustrateNon-Structural Hazards & Mitigation
  • 39. Training of Trainers Non-Structural Mitigation Youth Leaders 56 Youth Leaders Certified Non-Structural Mitigation Youth Leadersreceived special recognition at a certificate ceremony at the S.O.S Fair.
  • 40. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planing aspect- Central and local governor sides
  • 41. T.C. MINISTRY OF EDUCATIONBASIC DISASTER AWARENESS IN TURKISH SCHOOLS PROJECT SUMMARY JANUARY 2004 – DEC 2005
  • 42. BASIC DISASTER AWARENESS IN TURKISH SCHOOLSPROJECT TITLE:T.C. Ministry of Education Basic DisasterAwareness in Turkish SchoolsCOUNTRY/REGION:Turkey(first and second degreeearthquake zones)TIME PERIOD:24 Months(JANUARY 1, 2004 to DECEMBER 31ST, 2005)
  • 43. MAIN GOAL To create a sustainable infrastructure for the Ministry of Education in Turkey,to implement Basic Disaster Awareness Training at schools throughout Turkey.
  • 44. TARGET GROUP 250 volunteer teachers from 50 provinces (They get BDA training from Internet) 100 Leader Basic Disaster Awareness Instructors 25.000 Basic Disaster Awareness Instructors5.000.000 Students 100.000 Parents 250.000 Teachers
  • 45. OBJECTIVES / OUTPUTS 1. CURRICULUM MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 2. MASTER INSTRUCTOR TRAINING 3. CASCADING IMPLEMENTATION 4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYmeb.gov.triahep.org INFRASTRUCTURE 5. STRUCTURAL AWARENESS AND NON- STRUCTURAL MITIGATION ( Pilot in İstanbul.)
  • 46. 1. CURRICULUM MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT for children and adultsi) BDA Handbook for all ages.ii)To create BDA distance learning materials for self-study by school-based BDA instructor candidates. www.ahep.orgiii.ABCD 2004 Presentations(for instructors ABCD CD-Rom) continue...
  • 47. 1. CURRICULUM MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT for children and adultsiv. BDA activity guide for primary teachers (Grades 1-5) v. BDA activity guide for primary teachers (Grades 6-8) vi. BDA workbook for ages 7-11 vii. BDA workbook for ages 12-15viii.Structural Awareness andNon Structural AwarenessTrainings( pilot in Istanbul)
  • 48. BASIC DISASTER AWARENESS IN TURKISH SCHOOLSEnd of the programThe BDA training materials were inserted toto T.C Ministry of Education curriculium.* Primary and Middle School national curriculium(Instructor training / basic disaster awareness)* Industry Vocational High School(Instructor training for Structural Awarenessand Non Structural AwarenessTrainings
  • 49. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planing aspect- Central and local governor sides
  • 50. STRUCTURAL ASPECTEarthquake Code : “Specifications forBuildings to be Constructed in SeismicZones” was published in Official Gazette on6th March 2007.This document covers the rules and theminimum requirements for the design,construction, assessment and retrofit ofbuildings constructed in seismic zones.
  • 51. STRUCTURAL ASPECTIn March 2007 a version of Seismic Code has beenpublished. A new section has been added as;“ Assesment of Exist Building and Retrofitting”Basic Steps of Seismic Assessment of an existingbuilding can be summarized as;- Determination of existing material and soil properties- Building Analysis- Determination of performance in member level( columns, beams)- Determination of overall building performancebased on member performance- Determination of Retrofit Decision- Reassessment of the retrofitted building
  • 52. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planning aspect- Central and local governor sides- Universities
  • 53. URBAN PLANNING ASPECTAfter 1999 Marmara Earthquake,* new developments occurred in urban planning activities* regional policies based on the formation of disaster mitigation and preparedness measures* including legislation and training, public awareness, insurance, urban management strategies.
  • 54. URBAN PLANNING ASPECT In that, legislative and institutional restructuring for building code enforcement have come into existence at different levels in relation to: * Building retrofitting and comprehensive urban regeneration activities in disaster prone areas * Public land management approach (especially for the health and education buildings to be relocated and to evacuated) * Disaster plan making, contingency planning and microzonation studies * Building Inspection (Law numbered 4708, implemented in 19 pilot provinces
  • 55. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planing aspect-Governor sides- Universities
  • 56. ISTANBUL SEISMIC RISK MITIGATION AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROJECT (ISMEP)Country/Region : Turkey/IstanbulProject Duration : 5 YearsImplementing Agency: Istanbul Special Provincial Adm. Project Coordination Unit (İPCU)Funding : World BankLoan Amount : $ 400 million (Euro 310 million) www.ipkb.gov.tr / English
  • 57. ISMEP PROJECTEnhancing Emergency Seismic Risk Mitigation forPreparedness Capacity Enforcement of Priority Public Buildings (310,9) Building Codes (7,54) (73,36) Communication Retrofitting/Reconstruction of Public Awareness Systems Priority Public Facilities $ 0,23 mil. $ 32,84 mil. $ 305,62 mil. Emergency Management Risk Assessment for Lifelines and Development of Information System Vital Infrastructure Regulatory Framework $ 7,66 mil. $ 2,45 mil. $ 0,56 mil. Upgrading the Emergency Voluntary Accreditation and Risk Assessment of Cultural Response Capacity Training of Engineers Heritage Buildings $ 14,64 mi. $ 1,20 mil. $ 2,83 mil. Strengthening the Institutional Streamlining of Building Capacity of AYM Permits Issuance Procedures $ 5,55 mil. $ 9,77 mil. Public Awareness and Neighborhood Com. Volunteers $ 8,45 mil.
  • 58. PROJE BİLEŞENLERİNİN DAĞILIMI BREAKDOWN OF PROJECT COMPONENTS $7,54 $73,30 2% 19% Enhancing Emergency Preparedness Capacity (Component A) Seismic Risk Mitigation for Priority Public Buildings (Component B) Enforcement of Building Codes (Component C)$310,90 79%
  • 59. ISMEP PROJECTEnhancing Emergency Seismic Risk Mitigation forPreparedness Capacity Enforcement of Priority Public Buildings (310,9) Building Codes (7,54) (73,36) Communication Retrofitting/Reconstruction of Public Awareness Systems Priority Public Facilities $ 0,23 mil. $ 32,84 mil. $ 305,62 mil. Emergency Management Risk Assessment for Lifelines and Development of Information System Vital Infrastructure Regulatory Framework $ 7,66 mil. $ 2,45 mil. $ 0,56 mil. Upgrading the Emergency Voluntary Accreditation and Risk Assessment of Cultural Response Capacity Training of Engineers Heritage Buildings $ 14,64 mi. $ 1,20 mil. $ 2,83 mil. Strengthening the Institutional Streamlining of Building Capacity of AYM Permits Issuance Procedures $ 5,55 mil. $ 9,77 mil. Public Awareness and Neighborhood Com. Volunteers $ 8,45 mil.
  • 60. PUBLIC AWARENESS ANDNEIGHBORHOOD COMMUNITY VOLUNTEERS
  • 61. CREATING PUBLIC AWARENESS ON DISASTERPREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE A Consultant had been appointed for the Neighborhood VolunteerSystem Assessment.Mission Period: May 30 – July 31, 2006In terms of disaster preparedness, risk mitigationand response; www.ipkb.gov.tr • Current volunteer practices • Activities • Roles and participation in disaster management system • Organization structure • Neighborhood selection criteria • ‘Vulnerability and capacity measurement methods’ in Neighborhood • Suggestion of a model for sustainability
  • 62. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF ASSESSMENT OF NEIGHBORHOOD VOLUNTEER SYSTEMLack of a common understanding of disaster volunteers: Concept and role of disaster volunteers are not clear. Education programs are different Blind men describe the elephant
  • 63. Inadequate legal provisions and institutional support: Volunteers are defined as individuals not teams. Their place in the disater management system is not clear. Legal provisions are inadequate.
  • 64. Lack of a monitoring and evaluation systems:
  • 65. Lack of fund raising capacity
  • 66. Limited participation and knowledge sharing:
  • 67. Challanges in recruitting andRetaining volunteers • lack of knowledge about the initiative • lack of awareness about their own risks • lack of willingness to acknowledge their risks • not believing that something can be done to reduce their vulnerabilities • not knowing his/her own responsibilities • not being aware of his/her capacity or the capacities of the community • confusion about the roles and responsibilities of different organizations (public/non profit/ private, who is doing what?) • lack of mutual trust between the authorities and the public
  • 68. Provincal Level Ist. ISMEP Governorship P DMC Legal regulation, standarts, system development, P CD S&R coordination, monitoring Unit &evaluation. NGO’s and Consultants Kaymakamlık Municipality District Civ. Def. Man. Local Level Fire Brigade Applications, organization, coordination, monitoring &evaluation, financial aid. Mukhtar/ Headman Neigh. Vol. Groupscommunity initiatives, Volunteers participation, application Risk reduction/ culture of Toplum Üyeleri safety life Citizens
  • 69. DISASTER COORDINATION CHART of DISASTER MANAGEMENT CENTER OF ISTANBUL GOVERNORSHIP Garrison Commander Garrison Crises Centre Kaymakam Garrison Disaster Ope. Governor/Deputy CenterDISTRICT CRISES CEN. Governor District Disaster PROV. CRISES CEN. Operation Centre Provin. Dis.Op. Centre (AYM) DDVC District emergency relief service groups Disaster Volunteers Coordination Unit Provincial Director Emergency relief service groups Crises comm. units of Transportation government organizations Communications Disaster comm. units of Search and rescue government organizations Health and First Aid Damage Ass. And Temporary Shelter Security Istanbul Metr. Municipality Procurement and distribution AgricultureCrises Communication Centre Utilities Disaster Operation Centre command cooperation
  • 70. ASSESSMENT OF THEVOLUNTEER SYSTEM INDISASTER RESPONSEAim of the study: toassess the existing disastervolunteer programs inIstanbul and providerecommendations for asustainable communitydisaster volunteers model(conceptual, organizationaland practical aspects).
  • 71. Pre meeting with Istanbul Governorship authorities was done.The next step is; the suggested “disastervolunteers road map/model” is discussed with therelated institutions at a “search conference’’.On May, 17th.2007
  • 72. ISMEP PROJECTEnhancing Emergency Seismic Risk Mitigation forPreparedness Capacity Enforcement of Priority Public Buildings (310,9) Building Codes (7,54) (73,36) Communication Retrofitting/Reconstruction of Public Awareness Systems Priority Public Facilities $ 0,23 mil. $ 32,84 mil. $ 305,62 mil. Emergency Management Risk Assessment for Lifelines and Development of Information System Vital Infrastructure Regulatory Framework $ 7,66 mil. $ 2,45 mil. $ 0,56 mil. Upgrading the Emergency Voluntary Accreditation and Risk Assessment of Cultural Response Capacity Training of Engineers Heritage Buildings $ 14,64 mi. $ 1,20 mil. $ 2,83 mil. Strengthening the Institutional Streamlining of Building Capacity of AYM Permits Issuance Procedures $ 5,55 mil. $ 9,77 mil. Public Awareness and Neighborhood Com. Volunteers $ 8,45 mil.
  • 73. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL RETROFITTING A study on the ”social aspects of retrofitting” has been initiated in order to reduce the problems arising from the retrofitting works and to inform the beneficiaries on the retrofitting works.
  • 74. PROVINCE MoE MEETING PARTICIPANTS: Province MoE Deputy Man. + 8 District MoE Man.+ 25 Principles +ISMEP ( Tech.Dep Dir.+Social Scn.) CONTEX/RESULT • ISMEP Retrofitting works • World Bank, tender process • Cosultant Firm /mid. Nov. • Single school/ inspected • Retrofitting/ Reconstruction • Evacuation plans of schoolsThen... THE NEXT STEPInterwievs were made, within the • Announcement of discussioncontext of the social aspects of w/each single schoolretrofitting study,with the school directors, parentunions of schools and the ProvincialDirectorate of Education DistrictDirectors of schools included in CB1.1tender package.
  • 75. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL RETROFITTING From topThe information obtained was evaluatedand an article on non-structural risk reductionand the school equipment protection was addedto sub consultants contract.IPCU observes the information flow betweenProvincial Directorate ofEducation District Directors and the target groups,determining probable problemsthat may arise and also act as a facilitator when necessary. From bottom
  • 76. ISMEP PROJESİNDE İHALESİNE ÇIKILAN (1. İHALE İLANI) OKULLARLA İLGİLİ GÖRÜŞME TAKVİMİ*/**NO TARIH SAAT İLÇE OKUL ADI1 16 EKIM 14.00 Maltepe Hasan Şadoğlu Lisesi2 Maltepe Orhangazi Lisesi3 14.45 Beyoğlu Piripaşa İÖO4 Beyoğlu Taksim İÖO5 15.30 Kadiköy Hasan Leyli İÖO6 Kadiköy Kaptan Hasanpaşa İÖO7 Kadiköy Bostancı Atatürk İÖO8 17EKIM 10.00 Kartal Emine Hasan Aytaşman İÖO9 Kartal İhsan Bayrakçı İÖO10 10.45 Kartal Şeyh Şamil İÖO11 Kartal Nermin Ahmet Hasoğlu İÖO12 11.30 Kartal Beyhan Şenyuva İÖO13 Kartal İbni Sina İÖO14 12.15 Beykoz Fevzi Çakmak Lisesi15 18 EKIM 10.00 Ümraniye Osmangazi İÖO16 Ümraniye Şehit Öğretmen Sevda Aydoğan İÖO17 10.45 Ümraniye Şehit Öğretmen İzzet Yüksel İÖO18 Ümraniye Şehit Öğretmen Yasemin Tekin İÖO19 11.30 Ümraniye Arif Nihat Asya İÖO20 Ümraniye Alemdağ İÖO21 Ümraniye 60. Yıl Meyveli Bahçe İÖO22 19 EKİM 10.30 Adalar H.Rahmi G.Ç.P.L(A, B, CBlok ve Sp)23 Avcılar Mehmetçik İÖO24 Avcılar Necdet Semker İÖO25 Avcılar Abdülkadir Uztürk İÖO (A Blok) * Görüşme Yeri: Il MEM Brifing Salonu **Görüşmeye Katılacaklar - İlçe MEM Şb. Md. - Okul Müdürü - Okul Aile Birliği Bşk. ve Yrd.
  • 77. Ofical letterFrom ISMEP to Prov. MoEGen.Dir.Meetings w/ each single 25SchoolDistr. MoE Man+ Principles +President Family Union + ISMEPSoc. Scientist Average discussion duration/ single school 25 ‘ - 30 ‘
  • 78. COMMON CONCERNS/QUESTIONS FROM SCHOOL • Is structural retrofitting sure? ‘they have been waiting since 2004’ • Will the consultant firm come to our school TOO? ( or check over the project) ISMEP MAIN MESSAGES • Protection of registred property (•ISMEP is interested in just PC lab.,chemist lab., desks, etc.)‘structural retrofitting’ • Needed restrotion ? (wet areas,•The consultant firm /mid Nov. roof, utilities, etc. )•The consultant firm will check the • What is the prosedure ofbuilding of school over the existed demolishing?project. • ‘Structural Retrofitting is•The current situation of the school unrealible’ Why retrofitting insteadevacuation plan of recontruction. • This work should be done in summer season. • Exist projects are unrealible.
  • 79. Testing the brochure w/ parents, teachers, students
  • 80. Testing the brochure w/ parents, teachers, students
  • 81. Testing of the brochure w/ parents, teachers, students
  • 82. CONSULTANCY SERVICES FOR DESIGNING OF PUBLIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGN AND MATERIALS FOR DISASTER PREPAREDNESS”• The EoI was published on August 24, 2006 in the Official Gazette and also in the development business and national press.• The expressions of interests were evaluated and the short list consisting of five firms was sent to the Bank for no- objection on October 31, 2006.
  • 83. PUBLIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGN AND MATERIALS FOR DISASTER PREPAREDNESS•Individual/Family Disaster Preparedness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Disaster Preparedness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module forNeighborhood Disaster Volunteers•Disaster Preparedness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module for disabled people•School Disaster Preparedness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Hospital Disaster Preparedness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Business Community Disaster Preparedness Manual and Instructor Module•Survival under Extraordinary Conditions Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Psychological First-Aid Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Structural Awareness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Non-Structural Risk Awareness Training Program (Manual) and Instructor Module•Preparation of Sample Materials regarding Structural Retrofitting of Buildings.•Preparation of Sample Materials regarding Awareness ofCompulsory Earthquake Insurance.(DASK)
  • 84. PUBLIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGN AND MATERIALS FOR DISASTER PREPAREDNESS• Instructor resources; instructor manual, PP Presentation CD,flip chart presentation, training forms) and sample materials of campaign(brochures, posters, info cards, billboard, poster, spot film, etc.)• Getting into contact and cooperationwith The ..............................Ministry of Health, Provincial Directorate of Healthand other related institutes to get their views and suggestions under IPCUcoordination.
  • 85. Preparedness for Disasters- Law aspect- Social aspect- Educational aspect- Structural/ building aspect- Urban planing aspect- Central and local governor sides- Universities
  • 86. Boğaziçi’ University (BU):BU has established a Centre for Disaster Management (CENDIM) in January 2001. http://www.cendim.boun.edu.tr
  • 87. ‘Istanbul’ Technical University (ITU):The Centre of Excellence for Disaster Management has been established in 2001. http://www.aym.itu.edu.tr/
  • 88. Middle East Technical University:The Disaster Management Research and Implementation Center (DMC)were created in November 1997 http://www.dmc.metu.edu.tr
  • 89. CRISEHAZARD OPPORTUNITY
  • 90. 1855 ANSEI-EDO EARTHQUAKE
  • 91. AFTER 1855 ANSEI-EDO EARTHQUAKE
  • 92. RELATED LINKSwww.ibb.gov.tr Master Plan_JICAwww.ipkb.gov.tr ISMEP Projectwww.ahep.org Trainingswww.istanbul.gov.tr Governorship
  • 93. THANK YOU