Crop diversity


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  • Crop diversity

    1. 1. ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITYSCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIESPlant Biology and Biodiversity ManagementProgramme UnitCrop DiversityName. ZewdeAchisoID. No.GSR/0865/05June,2013
    2. 2. Outline Introduction Crop Diversity and their Role in sustaining Food securityDiversity in major and minor crops in EthiopiaConservation Strategies to Maintain Crop DiversityWhy Diversity of Crop Matters?Types of conservation In-situ conservationEx-situ conservationBenefits and Challenges of in-situ and ex-situ conservationValue of conserving crop diversity
    3. 3. IntroductionLife is all around us. From the microbes in our gut, the insectscrawling in our garden soil , the garden and wild variety ofplants to the largest mammal on earth -the blue whales.In other words, Biodiversity is the variability among livingorganisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine,and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecologicalcomplexes of which they are part: This includes diversity within species, between speciesand ecosystems.It is both essential for our existence and intrinsically valuable inits own right.Because it provides the fundamental building blocksfor goods and services a healthy environment provides
    4. 4. Agro-biodiversity is subpart of biodiversity thatincludes all the components of biological diversity ofrelevance to food and agriculture, andCrop diversity refers to the biological diversity foundin crops used for food and agriculture.It is sometimes referred to as `plant geneticresources for food and agriculture.This diversified crops and other plant species helpour ecosystem function; Basically to fix nitrogen, sequester carbon dioxideand stabilize soils,Directly or indirectly providing us with medicines,building materials, lubricants, resins, waxes,perfumes, dyes, fibers and, of course, food.Cont---
    5. 5. cont--- Diversity of crop both in landraces and in their wildrelatives provide important resources for Food security, Environmental sustainability andEconomic stability.Generally crops have values, like social, cultural,economic, and ecological and based on this valueswe will try to focus on the following pointsWhat crop diversity is, Diversity in major and minor crops,The role of crop diversity,Conservation strategies to maintain their diversity,Their benefits and challenges andValue of conserving crop diversity
    6. 6.  Crop diversity embraces the great variety within andbetween crops and their wild relatives.These varieties evolved over thousands of years in adynamic interaction between nature and farmers’ carefulselection and breedingAbout 7,000 plant species have been used for humanconsumption, but only four crops (wheat, maize, rice and potato) provideone-half of the total world food production andOnly 15 crops contribute two-thirds of the world population Crop Diversity and their Role in sustaining Food securitywheat maize rice potato
    7. 7. Eragrostis tefPisum sativumVitis viniferaRiceOryza sativa
    8. 8. Cont---
    9. 9. Diversity in major and minor crops inEthiopiaEthiopia is one of the richest genetic resource centers inthe world.This is principally attributed to the diversefarming systems, socio-economics, cultures and agro-ecologies.Crop plants such asCoffee (Coffea arabica),Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius),Tef (Eragrostis tef),Noug (Guizotia abyssinica), Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica),Enset (Ensete ventricosum), are known to haveoriginated in Ethiopia.
    10. 10. The four of the world’s widely grown food cropswheat, barley, sorghum and peas;The three world’s most important industrial crops linseed, castor and cotton;The most important cash crop (coffee) in the world; The number of food crops of regional and local importance Tef, Noug, Ethiopian mustard, Enset, Fingermillet, Cowpea, Lentil, andNumber of forage species of world importanceClovers, Medics, OatsGenerally Ethiopia is center of major and minor crops originand diversificationWhy Diversity of Crop Matters? Diversity is necessary to furnish new genes for crop improvementcont---
    11. 11. Conservation is crucial because the extent of diversityshows declining by the advancement of geneticallyuniform improved cultivars.The two forms of diversity are diversity among crops andwithin cropWider diversity is needed to meetHuman nutritional needsDependence on too few varieties is Dangerous because disease orPests can spread rapidly in genetically uniform cropBlack rot on carrot (left), nematode injury to carrots (middle),carrot weevil injury (right)
    12. 12. Most widely accepted scientific methods of biodiversityconservations are:(I)In situ methods & (ii) Ex situ methodsConservation Strategies to Maintain CropDiversity
    13. 13. Benefits and Challenges of in-situ and ex-situ conservationBoth conservation methods have their own benefits anddrawbacksThe merits of in situ conservation includesAvoidance of storage problems associated With field gene banks and Recalcitrant seeds, Allowance of evolution and Enhancement to continue through exposure to pest and Diseases and other environmental factors,Indirect benefits, like ecosystem support and the likeBut ex-situ conservation has advantages ofRescue of threatened germplasm, Requires limited space and, conserves adequaterepresentativeEase of accessibility and exchange of germplasm,Ease for documentation, no exposure to pests, disease andother hazards and more cost effectiveHowever, both methods have their own drawbacks
    14. 14. Value of conserving crop diversityAttaching the value of crop diversity is a complex task,But describing the kinds of benefits associated with theseresources is easierThe simplest benefit arises from the direct use of crop diversityProducing food and fiber orEvolving new varieties of crops andLivestock.Benefits of crop varieties can be measured inIncreased output,Higher quality, andBetter resistance to pests, diseases, stressCrop genetic resources are the basis from which all cropproduction stems andHaving large amount single crop can not satisfy the necessity ofhuman being ( see the above figure)But habitat loss, the dominance of scientific breed over farmer-developed varieties, and genetic uniformity are all threats tocontinued diversity