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Cell biology



A Short, Basic presentation for learners about what are Microbodies and Lysosomes.. ..

A Short, Basic presentation for learners about what are Microbodies and Lysosomes.. ..




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Cell biology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lysosomes and Microbodies Done By : Zeophuen Sahoo
  • 2. CELLhttp://www.google.co.in/imgres?qM:&imgrefurl=http://scienceblogs.com/clock/2006/11/09/cell-structure/
  • 3. Lysosomes
  • 4. History of LysosomesThe history of most cell organelles has been early descriptionby microscopists followed many years later by isolation andbiochemical characterization. Some found it in themitochondrial fraction (Palade, 1951; Schneider andHogeboom, 1952), while others, using somewhat lowercentrifugal force, found it in their microsome fraction (Novikoffet al., 1953).This problem was resolved by DeDuve and hisassociates, who were able to separate the classicalmitochondrial fraction into two subfractions.
  • 5. Structure of Lysosomes•Membranous sacs filled with enzymes.• Found - eukaryotic cells•Act as garbage disposal of the cell•Size ranges between 0.1 to 1.2μm.•Varing in size from organism toorganism.•Manufactured by the Golgiapparatus, by budding, in the cell andthe various digestive enzymes, that arepresent in the lysosomes reproduced inthe endoplasmic reticulum.
  • 6. Electron Microscopic pictures of lysosomes.www.biology.unm.edu
  • 7. Location of Lysosomes•A lysosome is a small spherical organelle found near the golgi apparatus in a cell.• It is found in both plant and animal cells, but is more common in animal cells.•An easy way to remember it is to imagine a ‘can of Lysol’.•Lysosomes are not visible under a light microscope.
  • 8. Another example of lysosomes clustered in the Golgi region. On these thelimiting membrane, which is one of their defining characteristics, is clearlyvisible. It is often very closely applied to contents of similar density and istherefore difficult to resolve.(The Cell Book)
  • 9. Types of Lysosomes Peroxisome Proteosomes•Vesicle containing •Tiny barrel-shaped oxidases and catalase. structure•Smooth ER of the that contain proteases.animal cell • Degrading unneeded,•Oxidizing amino acids damaged, or faultyand fatty acids; also proteins by cutting themdetoxifing alcohol. into small peptides.
  • 10. Functions of Lysosomes•disposal system of the cell.•To breakdown complex into simplercompounds(proteins, carbohydrates, lipids ).•phagocytosis process.•Another interesting function repair the damages to theplasma membrane.They serve as membrane patch and help in sealing thewound in the plasma membrane.
  • 11. Functions of Lysosomes (cont.)Lysosomes are also involved in programmed cell death, orautolysis, which is a catabolic process involving degradationof the cells own components.This is the reason why lysosomes are often known assuicide sacs.
  • 12. History of Microbodies•A membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle thatcontains oxidative enzymes.• Microbodies possess a single membrane, arefrequently spherical, and typically measure from 20 to 60nanometers in diameter.•They occur in many types of eukaryotic cells, includingthose of animals, higher plants, and protozoa.•Microbodies are believed to originate in theendoplasmic reticulum. Two principal types areperoxisomes, found in vertebrates, andglyoxysomes, found in plants and microorganisms.
  • 13. Ultra structure of Microbodieswww.biology.unm.edu
  • 14. Functions of MicrobodiesGlyoxysomes are found in germinating seeds of plantsas well as in filamentous fungi.Woronin bodies are special organelles found only infilamentous fungi.One established function of Woronin bodies is theplugging of the septal pores after hyphalwounding, which restricts the loss of cytoplasm to thesites of injury.
  • 15. Location of MicrobodiesMicrobodies are found in cellsof plants, protozoa, andanimals. There are many typesof microbodies found ineukaryotic cells. Invertebrates, microbodies areespecially prevalent in the liverand kidney organs. Types of Microbodies Types include peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, glycosomes and Woronin bodies.
  • 16. References :•Cell Biology by Pawar•The Cell by Robert Brown•The Cell by Fawcett•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysosome•http://www.authorstream.com•http://www.slideshare.net
  • 17. Questions1. What are lysosomes? Explain its types.2. SN on lysosomes.3. Give ultra structure of lysosomes.4. Describe in detail peroxisomes and proteosomes.5. What is microbodies? Who discovered it?6. Types of microbodies?7. Ultra structure of microbodies?8. Which organelle is known as the suicidal bag of the cell?9. How many types of lysosomes occur? List them out.
  • 18. 10. Lysosomes are formed by the ________. (a) Mitochomdria (b) golgi apparatus (c)ribosomes (d) nucleus11. Malfunctioning of lysosomes can cause _________ disease. (a) arthritis (b) malaria (c) both a and b (d) none of the above12. Malformed peroxisomes caused_______. (a) zellweger’s syndrome (b) jaundice (c)AIDS (d) none of the above13. Peroxisomes metabolizes _______________. (a) hydrogen peroxide (b) hydrogen oxide (c) both a and b (d) none of the above14. Microbodies are of which types?15. What is the size of the lysosomes?16. Which organelle is responsible for programed celldeath?
  • 19. Research articleLysosome-related organellesESTEBAN C. DELL’ANGELICA,CHRIS MULLINS,STEVE CAPLAN andJUAN S. BONIFACINO1+ Author AffiliationsCell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health andHuman Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland20892-5430, USA↵Correspondence: 1Correspondence: CBMB, NICHD, National Institutes ofHealth, Bldg. 18T Room 101, 18 Library Dr. MSC 5430, Bethesda, MD 20892-5430. USA. E-mail: juan@helix.nih.govAbstractLysosomes are membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles involved inintracellular protein degradation. They contain an assortment of soluble acid-dependent hydrolases and a set of highly glycosylated integral membraneproteins.
  • 20. Most of the properties of lysosomes are shared with a group of cell type-specific compartments referred to as ‘lysosome-related organelles’, whichinclude melanosomes, lytic granules, MHC class IIcompartments, platelet-dense granules, basophil granules, azurophilgranules, and Drosophila pigment granules. In addition to lysosomalproteins, these organelles contain cell type-specific components that areresponsible for their specialized functions. Abnormalities in bothlysosomes and lysosome-related organelles have been observed in humangenetic diseases such as the Chediak-Higashi and Hermansky-Pudlaksyndromes, further demonstrating the close relationship between theseorganelles. Identification of genes mutated in these human diseases, aswell as in mouse and Drosophila pigmentation mutants, is beginning toshed light on the molecular machinery involved inthe biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles.—Dell’Angelica, E. C., Mullins, C., Caplan, S., Bonifacino, J. S. Lysosome-related organelles.