Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV) Zehnder America
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Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV) Zehnder America

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This presentation provides an overview of different types of mechanical ventilation systems and discusses why heat recovery ventilation (HRV) and energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems are ...

This presentation provides an overview of different types of mechanical ventilation systems and discusses why heat recovery ventilation (HRV) and energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems are characterized by a high level of energy efficiency and as an effective means for improving indoor air quality.

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Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV) Zehnder America Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV) Zehnder America Presentation Transcript

  • Zehnder America, Inc. 540 Portsmouth Avenue Greenland, NH 03840 Tel: (603) 422-6700 Fax: (603) 422-9611 Toll-Free:1-888-778-6701 Email: info@zehnderamerica.com Web: www.zehnderamerica.com Heat Recovery Ventilation: Why Efficiency Matters ©2013 Zehnder America, Inc. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Zehnder America, Inc. and remains its property. Questions or concerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor.
  • Heat Recovery Ventilation: Why Efficiency Matters Presented by: Zehnder America, Inc. 540 Portsmouth Avenue Greenland, NH 03840 Description: Provides an overview of different types of mechanical ventilation systems and discusses why heat recovery ventilation (HRV) and energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems are characterized by a high level of energy efficiency and as an effective means for improving indoor air quality.
  • Purpose and Learning Objectives Purpose: Provides an overview of different types of mechanical ventilation systems and discusses why heat recovery ventilation (HRV) and energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems are characterized by a high level of energy efficiency and as an effective means for improving indoor air quality. Learning Objectives: At the end of this program, participants will be able to: • • • • identify the advantages and weaknesses of supply, exhaust, and balanced ventilation systems discuss how heat recovery ventilation enables a comfortable and healthy environment determine the role of an HRV/ERV system in an energy efficient home, and evaluate HRV/ERV systems and select the most effective system for a specific application.
  • Mechanical Ventilation: Why Is It Important? Why has mechanical ventilation become increasingly important? In the last couple of decades, houses have become progressively air tight due to energy efficiency and cost concerns. While air infiltration and ex-filtration rates have been significantly reduced, the need for an efficient ventilation system has become extremely important. An inadequate ventilation system impacts our energy consumption and the air we breathe. Some homes are experiencing issues with moisture and mold control, and air pollution from allergens and chemicals that enter the indoor environment from building materials, cleaners, furniture, carpets, and other products. Poor ventilation impacts the health and comfort of the occupants. A constant supply of fresh air in the indoor spaces in which we spend more than 70% of our time is vital to our health.
  • Technologies for System Components Information systems, others? Heat recovery ventilation, >thermal insulation, >efficiency >air tightness air tightness, noise protection renewable energies Thermal insulation Low This graphic shows the changes to a residential building envelope since the 1950s. By the mid-twentieth century, most homes had central heating. At that time, the role a high R-value and air tight wall assembly played in both human comfort and energy costs was not well understood. As insulation levels and air tightness of the envelope increased, comfort level went up and energy consumption went down. High Over time, as HVAC system designs changed and improved, energy consumption increased. This trend is reversing as more efficient systems and better building envelopes are installed. Comfort levels have steadily increased, and system costs are starting to level off with the acceptance of better techniques and technologies for system components. Central heating, 2nd bathroom 1950 1970 1990 Energy consumption 2000 2012 Comfort Year of construction Construction cost
  • 2012 Building Codes & Standards The newest round of residential building codes requires significantly tighter dwellings. Most North American climate zones require three air changes per hour (ACH) at 50 pascals pressure. 2012 ICC (International Code Council) Residential Building Code • N1102.4.1.2 (R402.4.1.2) Testing - The building or dwelling unit shall be tested and verified as having an air leakage rate of not exceeding 5 air changes per hour in climate zones 1 and 2, and 3 air changes per hour in zones 3 to 8. Testing shall be conducted with a blower door at a pressure of 0.2 inches w.g. (50 Pascals) ENERGY STAR® Qualified Homes – Version 3 (2012) • 6 ACH50 in climate zones 1, 2 • 5 ACH50 in climate zones 3, 4 • 4 ACH50 in climate zones 5, 6, 7 • 3 ACH50 in climate zones 8
  • Ventilation Options Many typical American homes use bath fans and range hoods to meet the ventilation requirements established by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE, www.ashrae.org). ASHRAE 62.2-2010 requires 1 cfm (cubic feet per minute) of mechanical ventilation for every 100 sf (square feet) of occupied space and an additional 7.5 cfm per bedroom, plus 1. The latest version of ASHRAE 62.2-2013 adjusts this formula slightly. ASHRAE 62.2-2010 is presently the most prescribed standard in building codes; the International Code Council (ICC) uses ASHRAE 62.2 as its standard for residential ventilation, as does the new ENERGY STAR v.3 residential standard. In a residential home, three types of mechanical ventilation are possible. 1. Exhaust ventilation systems 2. Supply ventilation systems 3. Balanced ventilation systems
  • Exhaust Ventilation A typical exhaust ventilation system uses bath fans and range hoods to expel air from wet spaces. Make-up air occurs through passive trickle vents (somewhat controlled), or simply through leaks in the building envelope (uncontrolled and unpredictable). Additionally, make-up air may enter the interior space through cracks and leaks from crawl spaces or basements at the sill, or from unconditioned attics. This make-up air may contribute to poor indoor air quality since radon, dust, and mold may be located at each source. Source: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/whole-houseventilation
  • Supply Ventilation Supply ventilation is commonly achieved with a supply duct from the outside that is tied directly to the return plenum of an air handler. Outside air is pushed into the home and stale air exits the space through random leaks in the building envelope. In some cases, a make-up air duct is controlled with a damper which opens and closes on a timed schedule. Although the make-up air can be heated in a furnace/air handler, it requires a lot of energy to heat the air on cold days. Source: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/whole-houseventilation
  • Balanced Ventilation A balanced ventilation system typically uses two fans and two duct systems with exhaust and supply vents in suitable places throughout the home. A balanced ventilation system that uses a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) or an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) is a cost effective, energy efficient system that improves the interior comfort levels of a home. HRV and ERV systems are the focus of the remainder of this presentation. Source: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/whole-houseventilation
  • Introduction: HRV Terminology HRV systems are balanced ventilation systems that provide for comfort, health, and energy efficiency. Balanced ventilation means that pollutants from the kitchen, the bathroom, the toilet(s) and possibly the storage room are extracted, while the same amount of fresh air is blown into the living room and bedrooms. Gaps under or near the doors ensure a good throughflow of air in the dwelling. The air circulation is in balance. Comfort Besides ensuring a healthy balance between incoming and outgoing air, the system also provides the benefit of heat recovery. Heat recovery means that energy is transferred between stale, exhaust air and fresh, intake air with the result of the incoming air temperature being close to the same temperature as the exhaust air. Indoor Climate Solutions Health Energy-efficiency
  • HRV Systems: Where Are They Used? HRV systems can be used for single-unit as well as multi-family homes. In addition, the systems can be used for small commercial applications, classrooms, nursery school facilities, and retirement communities. The systems are used in both retrofit and new construction projects.
  • Solution with HRV/ERV Ventilation Fresh air is fed into the HRV/ERV system via an external wall vent and is distributed primarily to bedrooms and to living spaces. Stale, exhaust air is removed from bathrooms and kitchen. The ventilation device recovers up to 95% of the energy from the extracted air and returns it to the fresh air. This can be humidified, dehumidified, heated and cooled using optional components. The fresh air distribution system channels optimally tempered fresh air to individual rooms as needed and vents extracted air to the outside. The air volume can be adjusted individually for each room.
  • Occupant Health HRV systems remove unwanted moisture, pollution and smells. Fresh air is provided and excess humidity is removed automatically, thus providing an environment where mold and bacteria cannot grow.
  • Occupant Comfort Since an HRV system controls the flow of outside air into and out of a building, windows can remain closed. With closed windows, the risk of air pollutants, insects and outside noise in the home is reduced, and security is improved.
  • Summary: Benefits of HRV Systems Heat recovery ventilators: • • • • • • • • provide a continuous supply of fresh air provide a uniform distribution of fresh air filter outside air and prevent pollen and insects from entering the interior environment remove air pollutants such as odors, smoke, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. prevent the growth of mold and mildew protect the building against damage that is often caused by excessive moisture and humidity protect the health of the building occupants, and meet the requirements of future energy performance building standards.
  • Leading Energy Efficiency Standards Europe, specifically Switzerland, Germany and Austria, leads the world when it comes to remodeling and building energy efficient dwellings. The USA and Canada are improving their building practices quickly. • • • • • Switzerland established the MINERGIE® building standard which requires buildings to lower energy consumption and provide a higher level of comfort. The German Passivhaus Institut (Passive House Institute – PHI) established a design process with performance-based energy standards for building components and construction systems. The Passivhaus standard is used around the world. KlimaHaus, established in Italy, encourages energy saving strategies and protection of the environment. BREEAM®, established in England, is a design and assessment rating system for sustainable buildings. American and Canadian standards include the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) green building certification program, ENERGY STAR (a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy), and the NAHB (National Association of Home Builders) Green Standard.
  • Leading Energy Efficiency Standards low Energy efficiency high This graphic is a comparison of a number of voluntary building standards from both North America and Europe for building cost and energy efficiency. low Building cost high
  • Zero-Heating-Energy Dwellings Pictured here is a ―laboratory on a hill‖ in Wädenswil, overlooking Lake Zurich in Switzerland. In 1990, these five duplex homes were built to use solar heat and test components of energy efficient home construction—notice the different sizes of radiant solar panels located on the end of each home. These zero-heating-energy dwellings showed that an air tight and well insulated building envelope combined with heat recovery ventilation can reduce the energy demand for space heating to a very low level at reasonable cost. Source: Kriesi, Ruedi, Dr.sc.Tech. ―Comfort ventilation—a key factor of the comfortable, energy-efficient building.‖ REHVA Journal May 2011. http://www.minergie.ch/tl_files/download_en/Comfort%20ventliation_REHVA%20Journal,%20May2011.pdf
  • Determining Factors: Energy Use in Zero-Energy Homes This graph identifies the components of construction that contribute to the reduction of energy use in the zero-energy homes. Notice the significant reduction in energy use provided by high- performance heat recovery ventilation. The ―0 ZH‖ line (highlighted in green) represents the energy use of a typical Swiss home, and each ―Effect of Measures‖ represents the reduction in energy use that measure provides. The ―Remaining Needs‖ indicates how much reduction each cumulative step accounts for in the total reduction in energy use.
  • Specific Investment: Low for Reduction, High for Solar System This graphic includes the amortized cost of each component. Note that the cost of the first five components is almost zero, including HRV use. The diminishing returns are in the solar radiant system and waste water recovery system. In the next few slides, we’ll look at the costs of HRV use in different climate zones.
  • Example of Energy Savings in a Cold Climate: Finland with Energy Recovery In a cold climate, the energy savings are nominal, but still important. Keep in mind that energy is still being saved while clean, fresh air is being provided. Additionally, damage issues associated with mold growth are prevented and occupant comfort is increased. • Average heat consumption for space heating in dwellings in Finland: 29,000 kWh • Consumption with energy recovery: 24,500 kWh • Net saving is 4500 kWh per year or 15%
  • Example of Energy Savings in Hot Climate: Abu Dhabi with Humidity Recovery Meanwhile, in a hot, humid climate the savings can be very significant. This is due to the benefit of providing enthalpy recovery. By reducing the relative humidity of the incoming air, the cost of cooling and dehumidification are reduced accordingly. • Average electricity consumption for cooling in dwellings in Abu Dhabi: 3800 kWh • Consumption with energy recovery: 2080 kWh • Net saving is 1677 kWh per year or 45%
  • Yearly Savings This map illustrates the projected savings of using an HRV system by climate zones.
  • Case Study: HRV Energy Use The next few slides demonstrate how efficiency really does matter with regards to heat recovery ventilation. Assuming a modest-sized home in a northern climate, we can see the savings realized with various ventilation schemes. Assumptions: • Home: 3 bedrooms, 1 bath, 1500 SF (square feet), 8 FT (foot) ceilings • Passive house ventilation: 0.3 ACH = 60 CFM • Outside air temperature: 30 F • Inside air temperature: 70 F
  • Case Study: HRV Energy Use Stated below is the energy usage for two bath fan options—an intermittent bath fan, and a continuous running bath fan. The continuous bath fan reflects the new ASHRAE 62.22013 requirement for residential ventilation. • Bath Fan Case, 60 cfm continuous Energy Usage = (1.085)(60 cfm)(70 F - 30 F)(24 hours) = 62,496 Btu/Day • Bath Fan Case, 120 cfm intermittent (2 hours per day) Energy Usage = (1.085)(120 cfm)(70 F - 30 F)(2 hours) = 10,416 Btu/Day Ventilation Thermal Energy Usage Make-up Air Temperature
  • Case Study: HRV Energy Use When a 75% efficient HRV is used, the amount of energy lost from the home is lower than the amount when the continuous bath fan is used, but higher than that of the intermittent bath fan use. Notice the temperature of the make-up air for all three options. On a cold night of 30 F, the 75% efficient HRV provides 60 F air to the home. • 75% Efficient HRV Case, 60 cfm continuous Energy Usage = (1.085)(60 cfm)(70 F - 30 F)(24 hours)(1 - 0.75) = 15,624 Btu/Day Make-up air temperature = 30 F + (70 F - 30 F)*(0.75) = 60 F Ventilation Thermal Energy Usage Make-up Air Temperature
  • Case Study: HRV Energy Use When a 90% efficient HRV is used, the energy loss is much less, and the incoming air is a full 6 F warmer (very close to the interior air temperature of the home). • 90% Efficient HRV Case, 60 cfm continuous Energy Usage = (1.085)(60 cfm)(70 F - 30 F)(24 hours)(1 - 0.90) = 6,250 Btu/Day Make-up air temperature = 30 F + (70 F - 30 F)*(0.90) = 66 F Ventilation Thermal Energy Usage Make-up Air Temperature
  • HRV Energy Use This affordable housing project in Charlotte, Vermont, incorporates high-efficiency heat recovery ventilation to achieve outstanding energy efficiency and comfort. Monitoring of the homes and systems has helped to fine-tune efficient operation of the HVAC systems.
  • HRV Energy Use As shown here, this HRV system is using very little energy to operate, and providing very good indoor air quality (IAQ). A reading below 1,000 for the IAQ reading is considered good. The left axis is the parts per million for CO2 equivalent. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • HRV Energy Use As seen here, the outside temperature hovers around 40 –50 F, and the range of the room temperatures is quite tight. However, notice the spike in temperature on the left of the graph (blue line). This spike indicates a ―bath event‖—the shower is used and the bathroom temperature rises. Following this event, the temperatures in the bedrooms see a little boost, which means that the heat from the bathroom is raising the incoming fresh air above the ambient temperature. This is only possible with a very highefficiency HRV or ERV. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • HRV Energy Use This graph shows a trend of ―bath events‖ that are followed by a rise in temperature in other rooms. There are a few exceptions, but the trend is obvious. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • Summary: Benefits of HRV Systems Heat recovery ventilators: • • reduce the energy penalty associated with mechanical ventilation, and help to balance temperatures throughout the home.
  • Introduction In this section, we take a look at what you need to know to be able to select an efficient HRV or ERV for your home. • • • • HRV/ERV components Sizing the unit Efficiency testing Options (ground source pre-heater or pre-coolers)
  • Components of HRV/ERV Devices The following are the main components of HRV/ERV devices: • • • • heat exchanger (dark green core in the center) filters (gray parts at the upper right and left positions on the heat exchanger) intake and exhaust fans and motors (red boxes) controls (bottom center)
  • Components of Heat Recovery The top image shows the basic operation of an HRV or ERV. Below is an HRV or ERV operating with the summer bypass activated. The summer bypass allows the cooler outside air to be brought directly into the dwelling when the inside temperature has increased above a set comfort temperature. This is accomplished with a damper that opens to re-route exhaust air around the heat transfer core, thus temporarily stopping heat recovery— similar to opening the windows, but without the associated disadvantages.
  • Enthalpy Recovery Systems In an ERV that utilizes an enthalpy exchanger (shown on the right), the channels of the heat recovery core are made of a membrane that allows moisture, as well as heat, to transfer to the incoming or outgoing air stream. High-humidity air is prevented from entering a house in a hot, humid environment, or alternatively, humidity is retained in a house in a cold, dry climate. Membrane RETURN AIR VAPOUR VAPOUR OUTSIDE AIR Humidity exchange by semi-permeable membrane • Efficiency for heat recovery: 80% • Efficiency for humidity recovery: 65%
  • Heat Exchanger vs. Energy Exchanger In many climates, there is not a definitive answer to the question of whether to use an HRV which transfers heat only, or an ERV that also transfers moisture. However, there are a few guidelines to consider, depending on the geographic location of the building. • Locations in the hot, humid South will usually use an ERV. • Locations west of the Rocky Mountains predominantly install an HRV.
  • Heat Exchanger vs. Energy Exchanger For all other locations, it is important to remember that an HRV has a slightly higher heat recovery efficiency, while an ERV can retain humidity in winter in cold climates, and reject humidity in warm climates. Counterflow-heat-exchanger Counter flow-heat-exchanger Counterflow energy exchanger Counter flow energy-exchanger HRV in a cool climate and an ERV in a warm, humid climate
  • Sizing A good rule of thumb with respect to installing the right size device to meet the desired air changes for a specific application is to plan for a continuous ventilation rate of a maximum of 60% of the HRV/ERV device capacity. This allows for a low setting to accommodate a low occupancy in the dwelling and higher settings to boost ventilation for bathrooms or kitchen as required.
  • HRV/ERV Testing: North America When selecting an HRV/ERV for your home, look for those with third-party testing showing, at a minimum, energy performance of the unit. Here is an HRV being tested at the accredited HVI testing center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Example: ERV Listing This is a sample ERV listing from the HVI (Home Ventilating Institute, www.hvi.org). Notice that although the ASE (apparent sensible effectiveness—the gross recovery number, shown as a percentage) seems good at 94% at 28 cfm, the SRE (sensible recovery efficiency) is significantly lower. The SRE is a corrected number that takes into account the motor energy or heat, cross-flow leakage (leakage of air between the incoming and outgoing air streams), and case leakage (heat transferred from the outside unit to the air passing through the unit). This unit uses 73 watts of power for 28 cfm—a lot of power, which is a factor in warming the incoming air, and reduces the real energy efficiency of this ERV.
  • Example: ERV Listing This sample ERV listing shows a more efficient unit, which uses less than 1/3 (one-third) watt of power per cfm and has a high ASE and SRE. The ASE is important for comfort, as it indicates how close to the ambient temperature the incoming air will be, while the SRE is a better overall indicator of total energy efficiency. Operating parameters can be manipulated to increase the ASE, but the SRE is corrected for these factors.
  • HRV Testing: Passive House Institute, Germany The Passive House Institute (PHI) in Germany tests and certifies HRVs and ERVs somewhat differently to the guidelines followed in North America. The PHI tests a unit for both heat recovery efficiency and energy use, as well as crossflow leakage and noise levels. Presently, North American architects, designers and engineers predominantly use the HVI reports, whereas the Passive House movement relies more on the PHI certification. PHI certification numbers can be applied directly to the PHPP (Passive House Planning Package) for determining the total efficiency of a dwelling.
  • Ground Source Pre-heater or Pre-cooler An option for use with an HRV is a ground source pre-heater or pre-cooler. This image shows a ground loop of glycol and a small circulating pump to pre-heat or pre-cool and dehumidify incoming air with a hydronic coil. When called for, either for pre-warming to prevent frost and to increase efficiency, or for pre-cooling to increase efficiency and possibly provide some tempering of hot or warm air, a pump in the unit circulates ground temperature glycol through a coil, and incoming air is run across it to temper it. At a very small cost for powering the pump, significant reductions in energy use and increases in comfort can be achieved. The ground source pre-heater or pre-cooler is the beige rectangular unit shown on the right of the HRV.
  • Ground Source Pre-heater or Pre-cooler Here is a closer view of the ground source pre-heater or pre-cooler. The ground source loop is shown connected by copper pipes—the incoming air is run over the coil inside the unit, after passing through the filter box.
  • Ground Source Pre-heater or Pre-cooler The lines on this graph represent the following air temperatures: • outside (red) • between the ground source pre-heater or pre-cooler and the HRV (blue) • coming out of the HRV (green) • room (light blue) As shown, the lowest outside air temperature (near 0 F) was tempered to nearly 40 F by the ground source pre-heater or precooler. This air was then introduced to the interior room within a couple of degrees of the inside temperature. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • Ground Source Pre-heater or Pre-cooler In the system shown here, the incoming air is delivered straight into the ground source pre-heater or pre-cooler, then into the HRV, and then distributed through small ducts to and from the rooms in the house.
  • Commissioning Commissioning (a systematic, documented process that is completed to ensure specific building systems perform in accordance with a building’s operational needs) is a critical element in the installation of HRVs and ERVs. The air that flows to each register or diffuser is measured, and the total supply air and total return air flows are determined. The total supply air and total return air flows should be balanced to provide optimum efficiency and to confirm that the supply and exhaust flows meet design and code requirements.
  • Installation Many HRV and ERV installations in North America tie the HRV to the air handler of the forced air heating and cooling system. This can be problematic, as is shown in this graph. When the air handler is turned on and off, it brings about a change in the static pressure of the system. This change causes an HRV to lose balance, and efficiency of the heat recovery process suffers greatly. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • Installation This graph shows a system with excellent balance and a high efficiency. It was commissioned for balance, and utilizes a separate ducting system for the ventilation system. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • Installation And again, an air handler tied system. Source: Peter Schneider, Energy Consultant, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT
  • In Summary… In a residential home, three types of mechanical ventilation are possible: exhaust, supply, and balanced ventilation systems. Balanced systems that utilize an HRV (heat recovery ventilator) transfer heat only, whereas systems with an ERV (energy recovery ventilator) also transfer moisture. Climatic conditions and geographic location of the building will determine which system is selected for a specific application. HRV/ERV systems: • provide a continuous supply of fresh air • provide a uniform distribution of fresh air • filter outside air and prevent pollen and insects from entering the interior environment • remove air pollutants such as odors, smoke, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. • prevent the growth of mold and mildew • protect a building against damage that is caused by excessive moisture and humidity • protect the health of the building occupants • meet the requirements of future energy performance building standards • reduce the energy penalty associated with mechanical ventilation, and • help to balance temperatures throughout the home.
  • Conclusion ©2013 Zehnder America, Inc. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Zehnder America, Inc. and remains its property. Questions or concerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor.