Dengue in Pakistan


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Dengue in Pakistan

  1. 2. DENGUE FEVER by Dr. Zeeshan Ali
  2. 3. Aim To acquaint you with the Dengue Fever
  3. 4. Seq <ul><li>What is Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>World distr of Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreak in Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito-characteristics and life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of Dengue Fever </li></ul>
  4. 5. What is Dengue Fever <ul><li>Dengue Fever also known as the ‘Break Bone Fever’ is an illness caused by infection by a virus (Flavi Virus) transmitted by the mosquito Aedes Aegypti rarely Aedes Albonictus </li></ul>
  5. 6. What is Dengue Fever <ul><li>Flavi Virus </li></ul>hjhjvjvjvjvvvvvvvvjvb
  6. 7. Global Status of Dengue Fever <ul><li>New infections annually -- 50 mn </li></ul><ul><li>Death -- 24,000 annually </li></ul><ul><li>People at risk -- 2.5 to 3 bn </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitalized cases- 50,000 /yr </li></ul><ul><li>(90% affected are children) </li></ul><ul><li>Disease burden -- 4,65,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the world lives in HOT ZONE </li></ul>
  7. 8. World dist of Dengue Fever
  8. 9. Outbreak in Pakistan <ul><li>The first case of Dengue Fever was detected in Pakistan in the yr 1994 in Karachi </li></ul><ul><li>The first outbreak of Dengue Fever was in the yr 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Since then dengue cases detected per yr are on the rise </li></ul>
  9. 10. Out break in Pakistan 2006
  10. 11. Out break in Pakistan 2011 <ul><li>Over 4000 cases have been reported all over Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>NIH shows 2143 confirmed and 2708 suspected cases of Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Max cases have been seen in Punjab Province where up to 10 deaths have been confirmed </li></ul><ul><li>In GB Province no case have been confirmed </li></ul>
  11. 12. Out break in Pakistan 2011 *NIC stats of 9 Sept 11 05 Azad Jammu Kashmir 4. 08 Khyber Pakhtoon Khuwa 3. 176 Sind 2. 2170 Punjab 1. Confirmed Cases Province Sr No
  12. 13. Out break in Pakistan <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Unplanned urban overpopulation of areas </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate housing and public health systems (water, sewerage and waste management) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor vector control, e.g., stagnant pools of water for mosquito breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change and viral evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Increased intl travel (recreational, business or military) to endemic areas </li></ul>
  13. 14. Characteristics of Mosquito <ul><li>Aedes Mosquito </li></ul><ul><li>One distinct physical feature – black and white stripes on its body and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Bites during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Lays its eggs in clean, stagnant water </li></ul>
  14. 15. Characteristics of Mosquito <ul><li>Only the female Aedes mosquito feeds on blood because they need the protein found in blood to produce eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Male mosquitoes feed only on plant nectar </li></ul><ul><li>On average, a female Aedes mosquito can lay about 300 eggs during her life span of 14 to 21 days </li></ul>
  15. 16. Characteristics of Mosquito <ul><li>Anopheles Mosquito </li></ul><ul><li>Aedes Mosquito </li></ul>
  16. 17. Life cycle of Aedes Mosquito Stagnant water 1-2 days Eggs Larvae Pupae 2-3 days 4-5 days
  17. 18. Transmission of Dengue Fever
  18. 19. Symptoms of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Manifestation of Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue Fever (DF) </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Symptoms of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Dengue Fever(DF) </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>High grade fever </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen glands </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle joints pain </li></ul><ul><li>Positive tourniquet test </li></ul><ul><li>Basic symptoms in 90% of patients </li></ul><ul><li>Settles in two weeks </li></ul>Dengue Triad
  20. 21. Symptoms of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever(DHF) </li></ul><ul><li>All prev symptoms of Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>9% of patient </li></ul><ul><li>Recover with hospital care </li></ul>
  21. 22. Symptoms of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Clammy cold skin </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>1% of patients </li></ul><ul><li>Need ICU care </li></ul>
  22. 23. Treatment of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Treatment is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intake for adequate hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>NSAID </li></ul><ul><li>Acetoaminophen </li></ul><ul><li>Codeine </li></ul>
  23. 24. Treatment of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Chemeri Vax Dengue </li></ul><ul><li>A tetravalent vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Yellow Fever vaccine as base </li></ul><ul><li>20% sero conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Still under research </li></ul>
  24. 25. Prevention of Dengue Fever <ul><li>Focus on vector control </li></ul><ul><li>Use mosquito nets, spray and repellent oil </li></ul><ul><li>Drain stagnant water sites </li></ul><ul><li>Use mosquito nets </li></ul><ul><li>Wear full clothes at dusk and dawn </li></ul><ul><li>Fumigation </li></ul>
  25. 26. Prevention of Dengue Fever Public Awareness
  26. 27. Facts about Dengue Fever <ul><li>It is caused by a Virus </li></ul><ul><li>No specific medicine or antibiotic to treat it </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Illness with fever and myalgias lasts about one to two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>DHF is a specific syndrome that tends to affect children under 10 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of dengue fever req control or eradication of the mosquitoes carrying the virus </li></ul>
  27. 28. Thank You
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