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Artificial Intelligence (AI) Lecture No. 1 Rahman Ali Lecturer in Computer Science,  Quaid-e-Azam College of Commerce, Uni...
Agenda  <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></u...
Intelligence? Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
Can Intelligence be defined? <ul><li>Intelligence  can not be defined abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>There are probably as m...
Intelligence (defination)  <ul><li>from &quot; Mainstream Science on Intelligence &quot; (1994), an editorial statement by...
Intelligence  <ul><li>from &quot; Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns &quot; (1995), a report published by the Board of Scie...
Other definitions of intelligence <ul><li>capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental act...
Intelligence (summary) <ul><li>Intelligence is the ability of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abstract thought </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Intelligence of computer <ul><li>According to the British computer scientist  Alan Turing 's test in (1950): </li></ul><ul...
Artificial Intelligence? <ul><li>??? </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>“ A branch of a computer science which studies the development of software and hardware wh...
Artificial Intelligence  <ul><li>AI is the part of computer science concerned with designing  intelligent computer systems...
Other Definitions of AI …. <ul><li>“ AI is the study of how to make computer do things at which, at the moment, people are...
Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011   I...
Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing … <ul><li>Conventional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on algorithms whose in...
Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing … Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
Contributions of other disciplines to AI <ul><li>Philosophy Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical    system, found...
Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>1941 first electric computer was developed </li></ul><ul><li>1943  McC...
Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>1965 expert system DENDRAL started at Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>1965 ...
Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>1980--  AI becomes an industry  </li></ul><ul><li>1981-- Commercial NL...
Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>2008--Artificial  General Intelligence or AGI  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Applications of AI <ul><li>Game playing </li></ul><ul><li>General problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Expert system </li></u...
References  <ul><li>Gottfredson, L.S. (1997).  &quot;Foreword to &quot;intelligence and social policy&quot;&quot;   Intell...
References  <ul><ul><li>Crash Course in Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems by  Louise E. Frenzel. </li></ul></ul><...
Question???? Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011
<ul><li>  The end </li></ul>Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011
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Lect#1 (Artificial Intelligence )

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  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Lecture No. 1 Rahman Ali Lecturer in Computer Science, Quaid-e-Azam College of Commerce, University of Peshawar [email_address]
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution of other fields to AI </li></ul><ul><li>History of AI </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of AI </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>End </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  3. 3. Intelligence? Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  4. 4. Can Intelligence be defined? <ul><li>Intelligence can not be defined abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>There are probably as many definitions of intelligence as there are experts who study it. </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  5. 5. Intelligence (defination) <ul><li>from &quot; Mainstream Science on Intelligence &quot; (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly (conceptually), comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Gottfredson, L.S., 1997). </li></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  6. 6. Intelligence <ul><li>from &quot; Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns &quot; (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Neisser, 1997) and (Perloff, 1996) </li></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  7. 7. Other definitions of intelligence <ul><li>capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude (ability) in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>the faculty of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of an event, circumstance, etc., received or imparted; news; information. </li></ul><ul><li>the gathering or distribution of information, especially secret information </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www. dictionary.com </li></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  8. 8. Intelligence (summary) <ul><li>Intelligence is the ability of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abstract thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  9. 9. Intelligence of computer <ul><li>According to the British computer scientist Alan Turing 's test in (1950): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a computer would deserves to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human.” </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  10. 10. Artificial Intelligence? <ul><li>??? </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  11. 11. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>“ A branch of a computer science which studies the development of software and hardware which simulates human intelligence” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Dr. Ghassan Issa) </li></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  12. 12. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>AI is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems , that is, computer systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding languages, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solving problems, and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Barr and Feigenbaum, 1981) </li></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  13. 13. Other Definitions of AI …. <ul><li>“ AI is the study of how to make computer do things at which, at the moment, people are better” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Rich and Knight, 1991) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ AI is study of idea that enable computers to be intelligent” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Patrick H. Winston) </li></ul></ul></ul>Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011
  14. 14. Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011   Intelligent Computing   Conventional Computing 1 Does not guarantee a solution to a given problem. 1 Guarantees a solution to a given problem. 2 Results may not be reliable and consistent 2 Results are consistent and reliable. 3 Programmer does not tell the system how to solve the given problem. 3 Programmer tells the system exactly how to solve the problem 4 Can solve a range of problems in a given domain. 4 Can solve only one problem at a time in a given domain
  15. 15. Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing … <ul><li>Conventional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on algorithms whose instructions are stored in memory and executed in sequential way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AI Computing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not based on algorithms but based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge base (symbolic representation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses reasoning and inferencing over the knowledge base to search and perform pattern matching. </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  16. 16. Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing … Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  17. 17. Contributions of other disciplines to AI <ul><li>Philosophy Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system, foundations of learning, language, rationality (wisdom) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics Formal representation and proof of algorithms, computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability </li></ul><ul><li>Economics utility, decision theory </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience how do brain process information (neuron operation) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology 1- How do humans and animals think and act 2- phenomena of perception and motor control, experimental techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Computer engineering building fast computers </li></ul><ul><li>Control theory 1- How can artifacts (objects) operate under their own control? </li></ul><ul><li>2- design systems that maximize an objective function over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics knowledge representation, grammar </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  18. 18. Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>1941 first electric computer was developed </li></ul><ul><li>1943 McCulloch & Pitts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boolean circuit model of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1949 first “stored program” computer was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1950 Turing proposed his “Turing Test” for intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>1955 early chess playing programs demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>1956 in Dartmouth conference birth was given to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Artificial Intelligence&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1957 LISP language by John McCarthy at MIT </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  19. 19. Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>1965 expert system DENDRAL started at Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>1965 Robinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>1966 expert system MACSYMA started at MIT </li></ul><ul><li>1969—79 Early development of knowledge-based systems </li></ul><ul><li>1970 implementation of the Prolog language </li></ul><ul><li>1972 expert system MYCIN developed at Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>1972 SHRDLU natural language robot demonstrated at MIT </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  20. 20. Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>1980-- AI becomes an industry </li></ul><ul><li>1981-- Commercial NLP system “Intellect” available from NLP group </li></ul><ul><li>1986-- Neural networks return to popularity </li></ul><ul><li>1987-- AI becomes a science </li></ul><ul><li>1995-- The emergence of intelligent agents </li></ul><ul><li>1995-2007 HLAI (Human Level AI): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AI should return to its roots of striving &quot;machines that think, that learn” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hays and Efros (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discuss the problem of filling in holes in a photograph </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  21. 21. Abridged history of artificial intelligence <ul><li>2008--Artificial General Intelligence or AGI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AGI looks for a universal algorithm for learning and acting in any environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Halevy et al_ 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning algorithm </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  22. 22. Applications of AI <ul><li>Game playing </li></ul><ul><li>General problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Expert system </li></ul><ul><li>Natural language Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Computer vision </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Gottfredson, L.S. (1997). &quot;Foreword to &quot;intelligence and social policy&quot;&quot; Intelligence 24 (1): 1–12. doi : 10.1016/S0160-2896(97)90010-6 . http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1997specialissue.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Neisser, U.; Boodoo, G.; Bouchard Jr, T.J.; Boykin, A.W.; Brody, N.; Ceci, S.J.; Halpern, D.F.; Loehlin, J.C.; Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; Others, (1998). &quot;Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns&quot; . Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development 1997 . ISBN   9780876308707 . http://books.google.com/?id=gLWnmVbKdLwC&pg=PA95&dq=Intelligence:+Knowns+and+unknowns . </li></ul><ul><li>Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; Urbina, S. (1996). &quot;Intelligence: knowns and unknowns&quot;. American Psychologist 51 . </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ghassan Issa, Artificial intelligence, retrieved from: http://www.uop.edu.jo/issa/ai/ai-part1.htm , retrieved date: 04 Oct, 2011. </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  24. 24. References <ul><ul><li>Crash Course in Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems by Louise E. Frenzel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter No.1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach 3rd ed - S. Russell, P. Norvig (Prentice-Hall, 2010) WW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter No.1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  25. 25. Question???? Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011
  26. 26. <ul><li> The end </li></ul>Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011
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