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Cs 1114 - lecture-2

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  • 1. Programming Fundamentals
  • 2. This Course Problem Solving Using Computers Implementing the Solution using a Programming Language 1 2 The first part is mostly ignored which leads to poor programming skills Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 3. 1
  • 4. Steps in Problem Solving Define the Problem Design the Solution 1 2 Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 5. 1. Define the Problem
    • After careful reading, the problem should be divided into three separate components
      • Input
        • Data provided to the problem
      • Output
        • What is required from the solution
      • Processing
        • List of actions needed to produce the required output
    Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 6. 2. Design the Solution Solution of a Problem in your mind Solution in terms of no. of steps Transform There are more than 1 ways to do that but we will use a graphical approach which will involve usage of Geometrical Shapes to represent different kinds of steps in a solution Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 7. Example-1 Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 8. Step-1: Define the Problem Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 Problem : Find the sum of two numbers Input Output Processing Number1 Sum Add Numbers Together Number2
  • 9. Step-2: Design the Solution
    • Start by drawing a “Start” symbol
    • Show a symbol for Input
    • Show process symbol(s) for processing
      • There can be more than 1 such steps depending on the complexity of the problem
    • Show a symbol for Output
    • Finish by drawing a “Stop” Symbol
    Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 10. Step-2: Design the Solution Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 START READ number1, number2 sum = number1 + number2 DISPLAY sum STOP
  • 11. Legend Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 Symbol Meaning Terminal Symbol (Oval) : indicates the beginning and ending of a program Input-Output Symbol (Parallelogram): shows an input or an output operation Process Symbol (Rectangle): shows an instruction other than input or output
  • 12. Other Simple Examples
    • Find sum of three numbers
    • Division, multiplication, subtraction of two/three numbers
    • Find Average of two numbers
    • Find square of a number
    • Find acceleration for a given velocity and time
    • Find Velocity
    Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 13. Average of Two Numbers Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 START READ number1, number2 sum = number1 + number2 DISPLAY average STOP average = sum / 2
  • 14. Square of a Number Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 START READ number square = number * number DISPLAY square STOP
  • 15. Acceleration Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 START READ v1, v2, t change = v2 – v1 DISPLAY acceleration STOP acceleration = change / t
  • 16. Velocity Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 START READ d1, d2, t1, t2 positionChange = d2 – d1 DISPLAY velocity STOP timeChange = t2 – t1 velocity = postionChange / timeChange
  • 17. Why to use Computers?
    • Can do many complicated tasks at very high speeds and can store large quantities of data
    • Some Situations
      • Extensive Input
      • Extensive output
      • Method of solution is too complicated to implement manually
      • If done manually, it takes an excessive long time to solve
  • 18. Tasks (to be done before next lecture)
    • Calculate area of a rectangle
      • area = base  height
    • Find Cube of a Number
    • Calculate Marks Percentage
      • (marks obtained / total marks)  100
    • Calculate Sales Tax
      • amount  (tax percent / 100)
    • Find “no. of minutes” and “no. of seconds” for given “no of years”
    Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2
  • 19. Programming Fundamentals | Lecture-2 BE READY FOR QUIZ IN NEXT LECTURE