UML and Software Modeling Tools.pptx


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Unified Modelling Language and the use of a Software tool in developing a UML diagram in the course of the software development process.

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UML and Software Modeling Tools.pptx

  1. 1. UMLAND SOFTWARE MODELING TOOLS Presented by Obioma, Nwabueze N.
  2. 2. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an industry standard modeling language with a rich graphical notation, and comprehensive set of diagrams and elements. A standard language of creating visual models of business processes and functionality, interpreting user activities and client requirements of a software intensive system before any actual implementation in code. It’s a useful in specifying, visualizing, constructing and documenting software systems in software development methods. What is UML?
  3. 3. o A major reason for constructing a UML diagram is to manage complexity that is found in developing large software projects. o UML models can be used to capture all the software development processes of analysis, specification, code generation, design and testing. So each model will capture all the decisions made in each process. o So UML not only documents the results but also is used to arrive at the results themselves o UML is not a development method, but is designed to compatible with object oriented software development methods. Why do we need UML?
  4. 4. UML diagrams of a system can be represented using its: Structural View: Which places an emphasis on the static structure of the system using objects, attributes, operations and relationships. Behavioral View: Which emphasizes the dynamic behavior of the system by showing collaborations among objects and changes to the internal states of objects. UML Diagram Categories
  5. 5. UML Categories
  6. 6.  Class diagram: describes the structure of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, and the relationships among the classes.  Component diagram: describes how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components.  Composite structure diagram: describes the internal structure of a class and the collaborations that this structure makes possible. Structural View Overview
  7. 7.  Deployment Diagram: describes the hardware used in system implementations and the execution environments and artifacts deployed on the hardware.  Object Diagram: shows a complete or partial view of the structure of an example modeled system at a specific time.  Package Diagram: describes how a system is split up into logical groupings by showing the dependencies among these groupings.  Profile diagram: operates at the metamodel level to show stereotypes as classes with the <<stereotype>> stereotype, and profiles as packages with the <<profile>> stereotype. The extension relation (solid line with closed, filled arrowhead) indicates what metamodel element a given stereotype is extending. Structural Views Cont.…
  8. 8. Behavioral View Overview  Activity Diagram: describes the business and operational step- by-step workflows of components in a system. An activity diagram shows the overall flow of control.  UML State Machine diagram: describes the states and state transitions of the system.  Use Case Diagram: describes the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors, their goals represented as use cases, and any dependencies among those use cases.
  9. 9. Behavioral View Cont.… The Following are sub categories of Behavioral views know as Interaction UML  Communication diagram : shows the interactions between objects or parts in terms of sequenced messages. They represent a combination of information taken from Class, Sequence, and Use Case Diagrams describing both the static structure and dynamic behavior of a system.  Interaction overview diagram: provides an overview in which the nodes represent communication diagrams.  Sequence diagram: shows how objects communicate with each other in terms of a sequence of messages. Also indicates the lifespans of objects relative to those messages.  Timing diagrams: a specific type of interaction diagram where the focus is on timing constraints.
  10. 10. UML is a very broad subject and for this presentation we will discuss, 1. The Behavioral View of a Job Application System using:  Activity Diagram  Use Case Diagram 2. The Structural View using ,  Class Diagram  Component Diagram
  11. 11. Activity Diagram Activity diagram describes the flow control from one activity to another. These diagrams are used to model high level view of business requirements. It is also used to construct the executable system by using forward and reverse engineering techniques
  12. 12. Things to know before Drawing an Activity Diagram  we must have a clear understanding about the elements used in an activity diagram  The following should be identified before drawing an activity diagram  Activities  Association  Conditions  Constraints  An activity is a function performed by the system  After identifying the activities we need to understand how they are associated with constraints and conditions
  13. 13. Use Case Diagram Use case diagram is used to capture the dynamic nature of a system. It consists of use cases, actors and their relationships. Use case diagram is used at a high level design to capture the requirements of a system. So it represents the system functionalities and their flow.
  14. 14. Things to Know Before Drawing a Use Case Diagram  Functional Requirements of the system and its components.  Identify external and internal factors influencing the system.  Interaction among the requirements are actors.  The actors can be a human user, some internal applications or may be some external applications.  Functional requirement to be represented as an use case  Relationships among the use cases and actors.
  15. 15.  Component diagrams are used to show the structural relationships between the components of a system.  Components are represented as a rectangular classifier with the keyword «component»; optionally the component may be displayed as a rectangle with a component icon in the right-hand upper corner. Component Diagram
  16. 16. Component Diagram Cont..  In UML 2, components are considered autonomous, encapsulated units within a system or subsystem that provide one or more interfaces (An interface is a collection of operations that are used to specify a service of a component).  The interfaces provided represent the formal contract of services the component provides to its consumers/clients. So a component encapsulates behavior and implements interfaces. Component Interface Relationship
  17. 17. The assembly connector bridges a component’s required interface (Job Application portal) with the provided interface of another component (User Applicant); this allows one component to provide the services that another component requires. Connectors and Ports Provided Interface Required Interface Using Ports with component diagrams allows for a service or behavior to be specified to its environment as well as a service or behavior that a component requires. Ports may specify inputs and outputs as they can operate bi-directionally.
  18. 18. Sample Component Diagram Job Application System Component Diagram Representation
  19. 19. Class Diagram  Class diagrams model static class relationships that represent the fundamental architecture of the system.  A class diagram consists of the following features:  Classes: These titled boxes represent the classes in the system and contain information about the name of the class, fields, methods and access specifiers.  ` Abstract roles of the class in the system can also be indicated.  Interfaces: These titled boxes represent interfaces in the system and contain information about the name of the interface and its methods.
  20. 20. Class Diagram Relationships Association A structural link between two peer classes. There is an association between UserRoles and HR_User Other forms of Association are: Composition: A composition models the notion of one object "owning" another and thus being responsible for the creation and destruction of another object. Aggregation:. An aggregation models the notion that one object uses another object without "owning" it and thus is not responsible for its creation or destruction.
  21. 21. Generalization The Generalization relationship ("is a") indicates that one of the two related classes (the subclass) is considered to be a specialized form of the other (the super type) and superclass is considered as 'Generalization' of subclass. The generalization relationship is also known as the inheritance or "is a" relationship. The super class(base class) in the generalization relationship is also known as the "parent", superclass, base class, or base type. Super class is Person with Sub classes Applicants and HR_Users
  22. 22. Class Responsibilities Knowing a. knowing about private encapsulated data b. knowing about related objects c. knowing about things it can derive or calculate Doing a. doing something itself, such as creating an object or doing Calculation a. initiating action in other objects b. controlling and coordinating activities in other objects
  23. 23. Class Diagram Cont.… Job Application System Class Diagram Representation
  24. 24. ERD Data Model
  25. 25. Entity Relationship Diagram Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs) is a data model that identifies the concepts or entities that exist in a system and the relationships between those entities. An ERD is often used as a way to visualize a relational database: each entity represents a database table, and the relationship lines represent the keys in one table that point to specific records in related tables. ERDs may also be more abstract, not necessarily capturing every table needed within a database, but serving to diagram the major concepts and relationships. So it can be used in the database design process for an e- resource management system, but does not identify every table that would be necessary for an electronic resource management database Note that ERD are data models and are not UML model diagrams, though some modeling tools use the representation of the data model to generate Class Diagrams and other UML diagrams.
  26. 26. Understanding the Model Entities An entity might be considered a container that holds all of the instances of a particular thing in a system. Entities are equivalent to database tables in a relational database, with each row of the table representing an instance of that entity. The diagram has an entity for “LoginDetails” This indicates that the system being modeled may contain one or more LoginDetails. The table representation is shown below, showing each attribute as a column
  27. 27. Understanding The ERD Cont.… Relationships Relationships are represented by lines between entities. Relationship lines indicate that each instance of an entity may have a relationship with instances of the connected entity, and vice versa. The diagram above infers that there is a relationship between Applicant and ScannedDocument. So an Applicant has zero or more ScannedDocument(s) or ScannedDocument has an Applicant
  28. 28. ERD Relationship Cont.…. Recursive Relationships Instances of entities may have relationships with other instances of the same entity. These relationships may be drawn with relationship lines that begin and end connected to the same entity. Common occurrences of these recursive relationships include User/Friend relationships for a social networking site: The diagram indicates that a user may be the friend of zero or many users, and that a user may have zero or one friend. (Not every user’s friend will be recorded in the system, so the relationship is modeled as optional).
  29. 29. ERD Relationships Multiple Relationships Between Entities An entity may have multiple relationships with another entity. In the sample ERD section shown below a HR_User can have one or more UserRoles and a UserRole can be assigned to zero or more HR_Users. So a mapper entity is used “HR_User_UserRoles” is used to map the multiple relationship between the entities
  30. 30. Understanding The ERD Cont.… Optionality and Cardinality Symbols at the ends of the relationship lines indicate the optionality and the cardinality of each relationship. “Optionality” expresses whether the relationship is optional or mandatory. “Cardinality” expresses the maximum number of relationships. Where the end of a relationship line meets an entity two symbols will appear. The first of those is the optionality indicator.  A circle (  ) indicates that the relationship is optional—the minimum number of relationships between each instance of the first entity and instances of the related entity is zero.  A stroke ( | ) indicates that the relationship is mandatory—the minimum number of relationships between each instance of the first entity and instances of the related entity is one.
  31. 31. Understanding The ERD Cont.… The second symbol indicates cardinality.  A stroke ( | ) indicates that the maximum number of relationships is one.  A “crows-foot” ( ) indicates that many such relationships between instances of the related entities might exist. All Possible Combinations of two entities Each instance of A is related to zero or more instances of B Each instance of C is related to a maximum of one instance of D Each instance of E is related to one or more instances of F Each instance of G is related to zero or one instance of H
  32. 32. ERD Data Model Job Application System ERD Representation
  33. 33. Modeling Tools
  34. 34. UML modeling tool is a software application that is used in the creation and editing of diagrams associated with some or all of the notation and semantics of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). UML Modeling tools are useful tools in Software Engineering, Application Analysis and Development and Testing using various functions as shown in the next slides. What is a UML Modeling Tool?
  35. 35. Code Generation  UML diagrams which have some connoted model data can be used by a UML tool to derive from the part or all of the source code in the any of the major programming languages for a software system.  In some tools the user can provide a skeleton of the program source code, in the form of a source code template, where predefined tokens are then replaced with program source code parts during the code generation process.
  36. 36. Some UML tools can read program source code or the database schema as input and derive a model data and its corresponding graphical UML diagrams from it. This is useful in situations where a graphical description of an inherited software application is required where only the database or the source code is available Reverse Code Generation
  37. 37.  UML diagrams can be used to design object relation models which can be used as input to generate databases schema for major relational database managements systems such as MySQL, MS SQL Server, Oracle, PostgresSQL, DB2 etc.  The database schema can be reverse engineered to build other UML graphical models and source code of the software system Database Generation
  38. 38.  UML diagrams are model-driven architecture initiative that have the capacity to transform a model into another model.  An example is to transform a platform-independent domain model into a Java or PHP5 platform-specific model for implementation. It is also possible to refactor UML models to produce more concise and well-formed UML models Model Transformation
  39. 39. Some UML Tools UML Tool Code (Languages)Generated Reverse Engineered Language Can be Integrated with Software License Development Programming Language BOUML C++, Java, PHP, IDL, Python C++, Java, PHP Commercial from Ver. 5.0 C++/Qt Visual Paradigm for UML Java, C#, C++, PHP, Ada, Action Script (all only in commercial version) Java, C# (binary), C++, PHP (all only in commercial version) Eclipse, NetBeans and IntelliJ Free Community version, Commercial Version Java Enterprise Architect ActionScript, C, C#, C++, Delphi, Java, PHP, Python, Visual Basic, Visual Basic .NET, DDL, EJB, XML Schema, Ada, VHDL, Verilog, WSDL, BPEL, Corba IDL ActionScript, C, C#, C++, Delphi, Java, PHP, Python, Visual Basic, Visual Basic .NET, DDL, XML Schema, WSDL Eclipse, Visual Studio, TcSE Commercial C, C++, C#, Java, PHP, Delphi, VB, Actionscript Magic Draw UML Java, C++, C#, CIL, CORBA IDL, DDL, EJB, XML Schema, WSDL Java, C++, C#, CIL, CORBA IDL, DDL, EJB, XML Schema, WSDL Eclipse, EMF, NetBeans Commercial Java Rational Rhapsody(IBM) C++, C, Java, Ada, C#, Corba, Customizable for other languages C++, C, Java, Ada, C#, Customizable for other languages Visual Studio, Eclipse, TcSE, WindRiver, Green Hills, Qnx, Linux, Commercial C++ Umbrello UML Modeller C++, Java, Perl, PHP, Python C++, IDL, Pascal/Delphi, Ada, Python, Java; import XMI, RoseMDL KDE General Public Licnese C++, KDE
  40. 40. Sample Database/Code Generation Using Visual Paradigm
  41. 41. Visual Paradigm for UML (VP-UML) is a powerful, cross-platform and yet the most easy-to-use visual UML modeling and CASE tool. It provides software developers the cutting edge development platform to build quality applications faster, better and cheaper What Visual Paradigm for UML provides. Visual Paradigm Editions  Enterprise Edition  Professional Edition  Standard Edition  Modeler Edition  Community Edition
  42. 42. Available Features Requirement Modeling Database Modeling(ERD) Business Process Modeling Object Relational Mapping(ORM) Team Collaboration Document Generation UML diagrams available in VP-UML include: Class Diagram Use Case Diagram Sequence Diagram Communication Diagram State Machine Diagram Activity Diagram Component Diagram Deployment Diagram Package Diagram Object Diagram Composite Structure Diagram Timing Diagram Interaction Overview Diagram
  43. 43. For the sample code and database generation I am using Visual Paradigm’s Smart Development Environment plug in for NetBeans/Sun™ ONE Enterprise Edition. (Go to for more information) A. Using the Job Application Entity Relationship Diagram data model previously shown we can generate a database for any of the database options:  MySQL  MS SQL Server  PostgresSQL  Sybase  Informix  DB2 etc. For this presentation , a MySQL Database schema will be generated
  44. 44. B. Using the Job Application Class Diagram, code can be generated in any of the following languages Java PHP C# etc. For this presentation PHP class files will be generated. Note that code generated contains no logic or any application process flow, but object classes that a direct representation of the class object diagrams. So you still have develop the logic of your application.
  45. 45. Starting up the SDE for NetBeans, the database selected has to be configured to enable a successful database generation DATABASE CONFIGURATION Browse to the location of the database adapter file Select the Adapter Driver Data Source Name Details of the Database Test the database configuration Save the configuration
  46. 46. Right Clicking in the Class Diagram View, navigate to the ORM option and select Wizards.. Note: VP SDE provides other ways to generate database and code. Select any Of the options you find convenient.
  47. 47. Select the Language to generate to Select the option to generate from class diagram Click on Next
  48. 48. Select the classes that you want to be persistable (i.e. Tables generated ) Click on Next
  49. 49. Edit the names of the Table or Class to be generated The attribute names, column names of the Class and Table respectively of the currently selected options above. These fields are also editable . Click on Next
  50. 50. Select option of creating, update, drop and create or drop database Check to generate DDL file for the database Update Database Settings as appropriate Test Connection Click on Next
  51. 51. Browse to location where the Class files will be generated to. Select if the code’s programming interface Name of the directory source Click on Finish
  52. 52. Viewed using HeidiSQL 7.0 Generated Database Structure
  53. 53. Generate PHP Code To Generate PHP Class codes select the instant Generator from the Modeling menu option and select PHP.
  54. 54. Browse to location where you want to generate the location Select Class Diagram to generate code from Click to preview structure of generated codes Generate PHP Code
  55. 55. PHP Class files Generated Classes been generated
  56. 56. Generated Classes
  57. 57. QUESTIONS?
  58. 58. Oriented Modeling and Design using UML References