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    Podcast report Podcast report Document Transcript

    • Center for Modern Language & Human Sciences UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG ISLAMIC AND ASIAN CIVILIZATIONS UHR 1012 PROJECT REPORT TITLE: “THE HUMAN COMMODITY” Prepared by:NURHASHIKIN BINTI ABU HASAN MG 12012 13PNURUL IZZATI BINTI MOHAMAD SOBRI MC 12013 13PNOR HASNI BINTI OTHMAN MC 12015 13PNORHABIBAH BINTI SANSUDIN MC 12014 13PNORUL ATIQAH BINTI CHE SHAARI ED 12050 13P Lecturer: MOHAMAD HILMI BIN MAT SAID Date of submission: 26 NOVEMBER 2012 1
    • Table of contentsDefinition.........................................................................................................................................3Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….....4Causes, Effects and Mitigation.......................................................................................................5Task delegation…………………………………………………………………………………...6Podcast............................................................................................................................................7Attachment……………………………………………………………………………………….8 Article……………………………………….............................................................................8 Table 1…………………………………………………………………………………………9 Table 2………………………………………………………………………………………...10 Script dialogue……………………………………………………………………………..11-12Value…………………………………………………………………………………………….13Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………14References……………………………………………………………………………………….15 2
    • DEFINITIONHuman trafficking is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, shelter or receivingpersons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud. Therealso mean abuse of power or position of vulnerability beside giving or receiving of payments orutilization to achieve the consent of a person and having control over others, for the purpose ofexploitation of prostitution, forced labor or servitude and removal of organ.Definition from Wikipedia:Human commodity is the illegal trade of human beings mainly for the purposes of commercial sexualexploitation or forced labor. Other purposes can be extraction of organs, or tissues or even surrogacy orova removal.The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women andChildren (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol) was adopted by the United Nations in Palermo, Italyin 2000, and is an international legal agreement attached to the United Nations Convention againstTransnational Organized Crime. The Trafficking Protocol is one of three Protocols adopted to supplementthe Convention. The Protocol is the first global, legally binding instrument on trafficking in over half acentury and the only one that sets out an agreed definition of trafficking in persons. The purpose of theProtocol is to facilitate convergence in national cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking inpersons. An additional objective of the Protocol is to protect and assist the victims of trafficking in personswith full respect for their human rights. The Trafficking Protocol defines human trafficking as:(a) the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat oruse of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of aposition of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of aperson having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at aminimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forcedlabour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;(b) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitationshall be considered “trafficking in persons” even if this does not involve any of the means set forth insubparagraph (a) of this article; 3
    • INTRODUCTIONMalaysia is a destination, and to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for women andchildren subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically conditions of forced prostitution and formen, women, and children who are in conditions of forced labor. The majority of traffickingvictims are foreign workers who migrate willingly to Malaysia from Indonesia, Nepal, India,Thailand, China, the Philippines, Burma, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Vietnam insearch of greater economic opportunities, some of whom subsequently encounter forced labor ordebt bondage at the hands of their employers, employment agents, or informal labor recruiters.While many of Malaysia’s trafficking offenders are individual business people, large organizedcrime syndicates are also behind some of the trafficking of foreigners in Malaysia. A significantnumber of young women are recruited for work in Malaysian restaurants and hotels, some ofwhom migrate through the use of “Guest Relations Officer” (GRO) visas, but subsequently arecoerced into Malaysia’s commercial sex trade.Some Malaysian citizens are trafficked internallyand abroad to Singapore, Hong Kong, France, and the United Kingdom for commercial sexualexploitation. There were approximately two million documented migrant workers in Malaysia in2009, and an additional estimated 1.9 million who were undocumented.Many migrant workers in plantations, construction sites, textile factories, and employed asdomestic workers throughout Malaysia experienced restrictions on movement, deceit and fraudin wages, passport confiscation, or debt bondage, which are practices indicative of trafficking.Some Malaysian employers reportedly did not pay their foreign domestic workers three to sixmonths’ wages in order to recoup recruitment agency charges, making them vulnerable totrafficking. Refugees were particularly vulnerable to trafficking, and Malaysians from ruralcommunities and indigenous groups were also vulnerable.The Government of Malaysia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for theelimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Because theassessment that the government had made significant efforts is based in part on its commitmentsto undertake actions over the coming. During the reporting period, senior government officials,including the Prime Minister, publicly acknowledged Malaysia’s human trafficking problem, thegovernment increased its investigations of trafficking cases and filed an increased number ofcriminal charges against traffickers, significantly expanded training of officials on the 2007 anti-trafficking law, conducted a public awareness campaign on human trafficking, opened threemore shelters for trafficking victims, and launched a five-year national action plan on trafficking.Nevertheless, these early efforts will require continued attention, as there are many seriousconcerns remaining regarding trafficking in Malaysia, including the detention of traffickingvictims in government facilities. 4
    • CAUSES, EFFECTS AND MITIGATION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKINGCauses of Human Trafficking• Lack of employment opportunities in the area of origin.• Poor enforcement of laws within a state.• Lack of formal employment especially for women.• Government member on the protection of migrant workers• high economic growth in the area or place of destination.• increased demand labor from outside the area or wilayEffects of Human Trafficking• People suffering from mental and physical harassment.• People suffering from mental harassment and trauma• People suffering from infectious diseases such as HIV, AIDS and others.• Victims of trafficking shame lifetime.• The country will lose the energy and expertise in terms of economic, political and socialMitigation• Law enforcement should be tightened by the government to curb human trafficking.• The existence of the National Action Plan (NAP) under the Anti-Trafficking in Persons(ABLE) to reduce human trafficking.• Organize a campaign to increase understanding and professionalism in the enforcement of thegovernment machinery Trafficking in Persons Act of 2007.• Society must also be more aware and take care of the problem. 5
    • TASK DELEGATION: NO DATE ACTIVITY 1 11/9/2012 Group formation and first meeting. Deciding on which one project to do. 2 30/9/2012 Discuss on the proposal of the podcast. 3 1/10/2012 Submit the proposal. Segregation of duties among member group. 4 19/11/2012 Collect all the material and information that have been task. 5 24/11/2012 Prepare on the script and record the audio. 6 26/11/2012 Submit the project report and audio file.Segregation of duties: 1) Nurhasyikin bt Abu Hasan definition of human commodity 2) Nurul Izzati bt Sobri introduction 3) Nor Habibah bt Sansudin causes 4) Norul Atiqah bt Che Shaari effect 5) Nur Hasni bt Othman mitigation 6
    • PODCASTTopic: Human CommodityType: DialogueSituation: Dicussion between teacher and her student during English class.Duration: 4 minute 8 secondCharacter: Teacher Hasni: Nor Hasni bt Othman Zaza: Nurul Izzati binti Sobri Shikin: Nurhashikin bt Abu Hasan Tiqah: Norul Atiqah bt Che Shaari Habibah: Nor Habibah bt Sansudin 7
    • ATTACHMENT:ARTICLE Illinois Right to Life Committee Fall 2006 IRLC News Human Life as a CommodityWhen the founders of our nation stated in the Declaration of Independence that we are “endowed by our Creatorwith certain inalienable rights,” they declared their belief that human life is not to be treated like a commodity.They recognized that each human being is unique with the same rights as every other human being. Fast forwardfrom 1776 to 2006. Recently, three separate reports demonstrated just how far we have fallen from protecting thisprinciple proclaimed in 1776. How can we claim to be more advanced when human life has become acommodity?Many ethicists have warned that the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology with pre-implantation geneticdiagnosis, combined with recent breakthroughs in understanding of human genetics, will lead to the nightmare ofbabies made to order in labs and sold as commodities. An exclusive private IVF facility in San Antonio, Texasoffers the chance to buy embryos screened for hair and eye color, along with other characteristics, and have themimplanted. The facility creates the embryos entirely in the lab with donated sperm and ova. Demand is high andthere is a waiting list for white, blue-eyed, blonde-haired babies.Women from around the world are traveling to clinics in various locations that are now offering facelifts andcosmetic surgery using tissue from aborted babies. To produce the treatments, clinics are using tissue from babieskilled in abortions from 8 to 12 weeks into pregnancy to inject into a client’s face. The injected tissue is supposedto begin a rejuvenation process that makes the skin look younger. To obtain the cells, women in underdevelopednations are paid up to $200 dollars to carry a baby up to the 8 to 12 week period when the fetuses are “harvested”for their stem cells, which are then sold to exclusive cosmetic clinics.At some locations, stem cells obtained from killing human embryos are used instead of or in addition to tissuefrom aborted babies. Dr. Janice Shaw Crouse of Concerned Women for America observed, “This savage andrepulsive ‘brave new world’ of human sacrifices in the quest for eternal youth is a prime example of the endresults when all moral boundaries are destroyed.”There is a growing push from the medical community to increase the number of available human transplantorgans by removing organs from non-brain-dead donors who experience “cardiac death,” or 5 minutes of cardiacarrest. A recent article in the New Scientist, entitled “Not brain-dead, but ripe for transplant,” discussed thisprocedure, known as “donation after cardiac death” (DCD) or non-heart beating organ donation (NHBD). When apatient is deemed unlikely to recover, though not “brain dead,” doctors remove ventilation from the patient andthen wait for the heart to stop beating. If the heart stops for five minutes, death is pronounced and organs areharvested by another surgical team.A presentation at the World Transplant Congress claimed that the widespread practice of NHBD could increasethe number of available transplant organs by 20%. In essence, if the doctor judges a patient to be “hopeless”, the 8
    • patient becomes a commodity of transplant organs ready to be harvested.Pro-Life advocates and a number of doctors are strongly against using NHBD to put more harvested organs in themedical market, especially since there have been a number of cases where patients have recovered after theproposed 5 minutes for determining “cardiac death”. The New Scientist also revealed that three US transplantcenters use a 2-minute interval, since they claim by that time there is complete loss of brain function, and theheart could only rarely start beating again.These already shrinking criteria for NHBD demonstrate the slippery slope of disrespect for life that occurs whenhuman beings are reduced to commodities. We have now entered the age of human history where human lifebegins as a commodity, then uses other expendable human lives as commodities to stay young, but ultimatelybecomes a commodity when seriously injured or disabled. We need to rediscover the founding principles of ournation and reject these expedient developments that have turned human beings into commodities. Otherwise, wewill continue to lose our inalienable rights to the human commodity traders. Bill BeckmanTABLE 1:Refugee movements into Malaysia by groups and countries of origin Years Entered Malaysia Refugee Groups and Countries of Origin 1970s Filipino (Philippines) Vietnamese (Vietnam) Champa (Cambodia) 1990s Bosnian (Bosnia) Acheh (Indonesia) Indonesian-Chinese ethnic (Indonesia) Rohingya, Chin, Mon (Myanmar) 2000s South-Thailand (Thailand) Somalian (Somalia) Iraqi (Iraq) Afghan (Afghanistan) Sri Lankan (Sri Lanka) Source: UNHCR, “Refworld” at http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/ refworld/rwmain (retrieved February 22, 2012). 9
    • TABLE 2:List of global migration problems and affected countriesGlobal Migration Problem Affected Countries1.Migrant Workers’ Rights Exploitation China, India, Malaysia, Middle East, etc.2. Human Trafficking Europe, Asia, America, etc3. Human Smuggling Europe, Asia, America, etc4. Drug Trafficking Europe, Asia, Middle East, etc.5.Racism Europe, Australia, United States, Indonesia, India, etc6. Anti-immigrant Violence United Kingdom, Indonesia, United States of America, South Africa, etc. Source: International Organization for Migration (IOM) Website http://www. iom.int (retrieved February 22, 2012). 10
    • SCRIPT DIALOGUE:Project: PodcastTitle:The Human CommodityDuring English class, Teacher Hasni with her students are discussing on human commoditytopic. Below are the conversation.Teacher seni : Hello everyone! Today we will discuss on human commodity. Did you familiarwith this topic?Zaza : Isn’t it human commodity is a form of slavery. This occurs due to the demand for labor,sexual services, debt and poverty. Children are the primary victims of human traffickingoffenders. The women are weak and cannot protect themselves often forced to do something tobe desired as an illegal maid in law, unlicensed babysitters, GRO or prostitutes.Teacher seni: Good zaza. What do you think, syikin?Syikin: As far as I know, human commodity is defined as the recruitment, transportation,transfer, shelter or receiving persons by means of threat or use of force in other forms ofcoercion, abduction and fraud. Such as abuse of power for the purpose of exploitation inprostitution, forced labor or servitude and removal of organs. Victims usually are not given anychoice and not be able to report their suffering as a result of tight control by the syndicate.Human commodity not only occur in underdeveloped countries but also in developed countriesTikah: Teacher is it human commodity is the same as human trafficking?Teacher seni: Yes, human trafficking is one of the activity of human commudity. For yourinformation, human trafficking is the term used for transports of human across internationalborders. Tikah, please tell us the causes of this problem!Tikah:There are some causes of human trafficking. Such as lack of employment opportunities inthe area of origin.This happen in undevelopement country. Beside that, poor enforcement of lawswithin a state. Next is, lack of formal employment especially for women. Lastly, there also higheconomic growth in the area or place of destination that increased demand labor from outside thearea or region. 11
    • Teacher seni: That’s great Tikah. Good explanation. Who want to share with us the effects ofhuman trafficking?Habibah: I want teacher! Let me explain. There is a lot of impact by this phenomenon. One ofthat, a lot of people suffering from mental and physical harassment. In addition to, humansuffering from infectious diseases such as HIV, AIDS and others. In long term effect, is beingvictims of trafficking shame lifetime. Country will lose the energy and expertise in terms ofeconomic, political and social.Teacher seni: Now, I want everyone give me one of the step should be taken in order to solvethis problem.Zaza: I think law enforcement should be tightened by the government to curb human trafficking.This will reduce the number of cases on this phenomenon.Syikin: Creating an association such as NAP. The existence of the National Action Plan (NAP)under the Anti-Trafficking in Persons (ABLE) are able to reduce human trafficking.Tikah:Organize a campaign to increase understanding and professionalism in the enforcement ofthe government machining by using, Trafficking in Persons Act of 2007.Habibah: In my opinion, society must also be more aware and take care of the problem.This isbecause society is one of community part that contribute to human awareness.Teacher seni: In conclusion, without realizing we have fallen in the midst of victims of humantrafficking. According to findings from independent bodies and found a number of cases,particularly Sabah Malaysia is a transit point for women and children trafficked for commercialsexual exploitation, while men used as forced labor.That’s all for today class. I hope you cansummarize on this topic and hand in to me before this coming Thursday.All student: Alrite, teacher. 12
    • VALUE: 13
    • CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, without realizing we have fallen in the midst of abject victims of humantrafficking. According to findings from independent bodies and found a number of cases,particularly Sabah Malaysia is a transit point for women and children trafficked for commercialsexual exploitation, while men used as forced labor.All in all, human trafficking is a serious crime that not many people are informed about. Youngwoman and children are forced into this sickening business everyday. Woman and childrenliving in poverty do not know the meaning of human trafficking due to the lack of education.The highest percentage with people carrying the HIV/AIDS virus is for woman on this planet,many believing part of the percentage is because of human trafficking. Not many woman andchildren know the risks they are taking when they have no choice but to sell their bodies.Government all over the world should be providing information on human trafficking because nonation is immune from this crime.Knowledge of this crime must be extended to all levels of society. All parties must instill a senseof responsibility in combating this problem in addition to the efforts made by the government.We hope this project will enlighten the public on the symptoms that quietly become the enemywithin the country. Therefore, let us together fight relentlessly. 14
    • REFERENCEShttp://manusiasebagaikomoditi.blogspot.com "Colombian soap opera raises awareness about humantrafficking".http://www.unodc.orghttp://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2009&dt=1001&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Rencana&pg=re_06.htmr.Agustin, Laura, 2008, Sex at the Margins: Migration, Labour Markets and theRescue Industry, London and New York: Zed Books.Migration Information Programme. Trafficking and prostitution: the growingexploitation of migrant women from central and eastern Europe. Geneva,International Organization for Migration, 1995.Chauzy JP. Kyrgyz Republic: trafficking. Geneva, International Organization forMigration, 20 January 2001 15