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  • Photography & Photographic Practice

Transcript

  • 1. Editing How...? What...? When...? Where...? Which…? Who...? Why...?
  • 2. Contents Definition and Key Themes The Principles of Editing Editing Techniques Editing Transitions Web Pages
  • 3. Editing What is it…? - Write your own definition for video editing… - Video editing can be described as the process of piecing together raw footage, which has been captured on a video camera, in order to create a complete video product. - Editing itself is a powerful tool. It can manipulate time, space and interpretation within a media product (e.g. films, television programmes, radio programmes, newspaper articles, video games, etc).
  • 4. Editing Key themes relating to editing… - Storyline - Narrative * What is the difference between these two key terms…? - Storyline = The plot. - Narrative = The arrangement of events that reveal and complete the storyline.
  • 5. Editing Storyline and narrative… - Open-ended storyline - Closed storyline - Linear narrative - Non-linear narrative
  • 6. Editing Storyline and narrative… - Open-ended = A storyline that is left incomplete. This could be to continue the story in a subsequent programme, or to allow audiences to complete the storyline using their own imagination. - Closed = A storyline that is left complete, with no questions left unanswered (regarding the storyline). - Linear = Events, of the storyline, that unfold in a chronological order. - Non-linear = Events, of the storyline, that unfold in a non-chronological order.
  • 7. Editing The principles of editing 1. Storytelling - Editing is used to piece together scenes in a (usually) logical sequence to tell a story. 2. Combination of shots - Editors will combine a mixture of shot types and angles in order to draw in the viewer and establish settings, feelings and relationships. - A combination of shots should be edited together in a logical order. For example, LONG SHOT  MID-SHOT  CLOSE-UP  EXTREME CLOSE-UP. A combination of shots (good and bad) in Fist of Fury (1972) Dir: Lo Wei
  • 8. Combination of shots
  • 9. Editing The principles of editing 3. Creating pace - In order to create a sense of pace or speed within a TV programme or film, the editing techniques used must match the sounds or music used within the video. Taio Cruz – Break Your Heart (2009) Creating pace in a music video Framelines TV – Fast and Slow Cutting
  • 10. Editing The principles of editing 4. The 180o rule - This rule states that once two (or more) actors have been established on a certain side of the screen, then they must remain on that side throughout the edit. - This rule applies to camera work and editing when filming two or more characters (during interviews, interrogations, conversations, etc.). Framelines TV – The 180o Rule
  • 11. Breaking the 180o Rule The Shining (1980) Dir: Stanley Kubrick Lèon: The Professional (1994) Dir: Luc Besson
  • 12. Editing Editing techniques Continuity editing Ensuring the mise-en-scène is kept constant throughout the cuts – that is, the settings, the props and the costumes. BBC’s Great Movie Mistakes For further continuity errors, try: www.moviemistakes.com
  • 13. Editing Editing techniques Match on action An action that begins in one shot, is continued or completed in the next shot, which is from a different angle. Horrors of War (2006) Dir: Peter John Ross & John Whitney
  • 14. Editing Editing techniques Parallel editing Cutting between two or more storylines that are occurring at the same time, but in different places.
  • 15. Editing Editing techniques Cutaway Cutting away from the main subject to show other things happening around it. Main subject(s) Cutaway Cutaway The Longest Yard (2005) Dir: Peter Segal
  • 16. For A Few Dollars More (1965) Dir: Sergio Leone Main subject(s)
  • 17. Cutaway
  • 18. Cutaway
  • 19. Cutaway
  • 20. Back to main subject(s)
  • 21. Editing Editing techniques Jump cut A way of reducing a long take by editing out one or more sections. Breathless (1960) Dir: Jean-Luc Goddard
  • 22. Editing Editing techniques Match cut An action that is shown in one scene will then be repeated in a similar fashion in the next scene. Graphic (match) cut An object / shape in one shot, ‘transforms’ into something similar in the next shot. A graphic (match) cut with a dissolve Match cuts from the John Lewis 150th anniversary advert (2014)
  • 23. Editing Editing techniques Shot-reverse-shot Character A looks at character B. The shot then cuts to character B looking at character A. Then back to the original shot. Two subjects talking Shot Reverse Shot
  • 24. Editing Editing transitions Fade out / fade in A gradual transition from one shot to another; one darkens and the next brightens. Dissolve One scene fades out while another fades in over the top of it – the two scenes mix into each other (see the graphic match cut example). Wipe The subsequent scene wipes over the prior scene. Wipes from Star Wars A fade up during the opening scene of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)
  • 25. Editing Editing transitions Superimposition One image is placed on top of another. Slow motion / fast motion Slowing down or speeding up time or an action. Ellipsis The editing out of a period of time or series of events, leaving the viewer to fill in the narrative using their own imagination. Superimposition in The Lion King (1994) Dir: Roger Allers & Rob Minkoff Slow motion in The Matrix (1999) Dir: Andy & Laurence Wachowski An ellipsis in Bruce Almighty (2003) Dir: Tom Shadyac
  • 26. Editing Exercise * Note down what you think the purpose and/or effects of the following editing techniques are… - Cutaway - Jump cut - Shot-reverse-shot - Fade in / fade out - Dissolve - Slow motion / fast motion
  • 27. Editing Techniques & Effects
  • 28. Editing Exercise * You will watch an extract of a film / TV drama. * You must note down all of the editing principals and editing techniques that are used. * If you have identified the editing techniques used, you can go on to explain the effects of these editing techniques within the programme.
  • 29. The Cutting Edge: The Magic of Movie Making New Media Rights – Video Editing Techniques Basic editing techniques explained Yale University – Editing Techniques Web Pages