8 Leadership 130919_rz
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8 Leadership 130919_rz 8 Leadership 130919_rz Presentation Transcript

  • Leadership Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg robert.zaugg@swissonline.ch
  • Leadership 2Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Learning Objectives •  Characterize the nature of leadership •  Trace the early approaches to leadership •  Discuss the emergence of situational theories and models of leadership •  Discuss the path-goal theory of leadership •  Describe Vroom’s decision tree approach to leadership •  Identify and describe contemporary situational theories of leadership •  Discuss leadership through the eyes of followers •  Identify and describe alternatives to leadership •  Describe the changing nature of leadership •  Identify and discuss emerging issues in leadership
  • Leadership 3Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Nature of Leadership •  A process which involves the use of noncoercive influence. •  A property which is the set of characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to use influence successfully. •  Influence, which is the ability to affect the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, motivation, and/or behavior of others.
  • Leadership 4Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Table 12.1 Distinctions Between Management and Leadership Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group, from A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management, by John P. Kotter, 1990. Copyright © 1990 by John P. Kotter, Inc.
  • Leadership 5Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Management Skills Leaderships Skills Administration Challenge/Inspiration Control Trust Focus on Short-Term Results Long-Term View Ask How, Who and When Ask What and Why Imitate / Optimize Innovate Optimize Status Quo Seek opportunities Analytical Thinking Visioning & Creative Thinking Reactive Proactive Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation Shareholder oriented Stakeholder oriented Task/Work-oriented Person/Relationship- and Task-oriented Management versus Leadership I
  • Leadership 6Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg „Most U.S. corporations today are overmanaged and undereled.“ John P. Kotter, Professor of organizational behavior at the Harvard Business School Management versus Leadership II
  • Leadership 7Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Reward and Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Legitimate Power Informational Power Bases of Power (French/Raven 1959)
  • Leadership 8Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg •  Locomotion function (reaching of objectives) •  Cohesion function (team building) Basic Leadership Functions
  • Leadership 9Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg AUTOCRATIC CHARACTERISTICS Tells others what to do Limits discussion on ideas and new ways of doing things Group does not experience feeling of teamwork High Task-orientation WHEN EFFECTIVE Time is limited Individuals/Group lack skill and knowledge Group does not know each other WHEN INEFFECTIVE Developing a strong sense of team is the goal Some degree of skill/knowledge is in group members Group wants an element of spontaneity in their work Classic Leadership Styles I
  • Leadership 10Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg DEMOCRATIC CHARACTERISTICS Involves group members in planning and carrying out activities Asks before tells Promotes teamwork High Person/Relationship-orientation WHEN EFFECTIVE Time is available Group is motivated and/or a sense of team exists Some degree of skill or knowledge among members of the group WHEN INEFFECTIVE Group is unmotivated No skill/knowledge is in group members High degree of conflict present Classic Leadership Styles I
  • Leadership 11Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Early Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify stable and enduring character traits that differentiate effective leaders from non-leaders focusing on: –  identifying leadership traits –  developing methods for measuring them –  using the methods to select leaders Current limited set of leadership traits –  Emotional intelligence, drive, motivation; honesty and integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge of the business, charisma
  • Leadership 12Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from non-leaders •  The Michigan Studies •  The Ohio State Studies •  The Leadership Grid Source: © Royalty-Free/Corbis
  • Leadership 13Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 12.1 Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
  • Leadership 14Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Early Studies: The Michigan Studies •  Results indicated existence of two fundamental leader behaviors: Job-centered and Employee- centered. •  Job-centered behavior involves paying close attention to the work of subordinates, explaining work procedures, and demonstrating a strong interest in performance. •  Employee-centered behavior involves attempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals.
  • Leadership 15Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Early Studies: The Ohio State Studies •  Defined leader consideration and initiating-structure behaviors as independent dimensions of leadership •  Consideration behavior involves being concerned with subordinates’ feelings and respecting subordinates’ ideas •  Initiating-structure behavior involves clearly defining the leader-subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them
  • Leadership 16Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Early Approaches to Leadership Behavioral Approaches to Leadership The Leadership Grid (formerly the Managerial Grid) •  Provides a means for evaluating leadership styles and then training managers to move toward an ideal style of behavior
  • Leadership 17Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 12.2 The Leadership Grid The Leadership Grid Figure from Leadership Dilemmas: Grid Solutions by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse. (Formerly the Managerial Grid by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton) Houston: Gull Publishing Company, p. 29. Copyright 1997 by Grid International, Inc. Reproduced by permission of the owners.
  • Leadership 18Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Emergence of Situational Leadership Models Situational Models Assumptions –  Appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another –  The goal is to identify key situational factors and to specify how they interact to determine appropriate leader behavior –  The leadership continuum model by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt underlies research in this field
  • Leadership 19Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 12.3 Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum An exhibit from “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern” by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, Harvard Business Review (May-June 1973). Reprinted by permission of the Harvard Business Review. Copyright © 1973 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.
  • Leadership 20Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The LPC Theory of Leadership •  Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation •  Task versus Relationship motivation •  High LPC (Least Preferred Coworkers) leaders are more concerned with interpersonal relationships •  Low LPC leaders are more concerned with task relevant problems •  Situational Favorableness •  Leader-member relations •  Task structure •  Leader position power
  • Leadership 21Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Table 12.2 The LPC Theory of Leadership
  • Leadership 22Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Contingency Model: Fiedler
  • Leadership 23Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
  • Leadership 24Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Contemporary Situational Theories From the LPC theory, the Path-Goal Theory, and Vroom’s Decision Tree Model evolved new situational theories: –  The Leader-Member Exchange Model –  The Hersey and Blanchard Model –  Updated versions of the original models
  • Leadership 25Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Contemporary Situational Theories The Leader-Member Exchange Model –  George Graen and Fred Dansereau suggest that leaders form unique independent relationships with each of their subordinates. –  A key factor in the nature of this relationship is whether the individual subordinate is in the leader’s out-group or in-group.
  • Leadership 26Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 13.1 The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model
  • Leadership 27Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Contemporary Situational Theories The Hersey and Blanchard Model –  Suggest that leader behaviors should vary in response to the readiness of followers –  As follower readiness improves, the leader’s basic style also should change
  • Leadership 28Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 13.2 The Hersey and Blanchard Theory of Leadership The Situational Leadership Model is the registered trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies, Escondido, CA. Excerpt from P. Hersey, Management Organizational Behavior Utilizing Human Resources, 3rd ed., 1977, p. 165.
  • Leadership 29Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Maturity Style Match: Hersey/Blanchard
  • Leadership 30Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Primary Approaches to Leadership Through the Eyes of the Follower –  Transformational Leadership –  Charismatic Leadership –  Attributions of Leadership Source: © Royalty-Free/Corbis
  • Leadership 31Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg by Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones Harvard Business Review, September-October 2000. Characteristics of successful leaders: •  They selectively show their weaknesses. By exposing some vulnerability, they reveal their approachability and humanity. •  They rely heavily on intuition to gauge the appropriate timing and course of their actions. Their ability to collect and interpret soft data helps them know just when and how to act. •  They manage employees with something we call tough empathy. Inspirational leaders empathize passionately—and realistically—with people, and they care intensely about the work employees do. •  They reveal their differences. They capitalize on what's unique about themselves. Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?
  • Leadership 32Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Transformational Leadership –  The set of abilities that allows the leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively.
  • Leadership 33Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Transformational Leadership
  • Leadership 34Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Organisational Energy Quelle: Bruch/Vogel 2005
  • Leadership 35Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Charismatic Leadership –  Charisma is an individual characteristic of the leader which inspires support and acceptance –  Leadership is based on the leader’s personal charisma
  • Leadership 36Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 13.3 The Charismatic Leader David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman, “Beyond the Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change,” California Management Review, Winter 1990, pp. 70-97.
  • Leadership 37Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Leadership Code Ulrich et al. 2008
  • Leadership 38Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Leadership Through the Eyes of Followers Attributions of Leadership –  Holds that when behaviors are observed in a context associated with leadership, others may attribute varying levels of leadership ability or power to the person displaying those behaviors
  • Leadership 39Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Alternatives to Leadership •  Leadership Substitutes: Individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader’s ability to affect subordinates’ satisfaction and performance •  Leadership Neutralizers: Factors that render ineffective a leader’s attempts to engage in various leadership behaviors
  • Leadership 40Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Table 13.1 Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership plus Values and Corporate Culture
  • Leadership 41Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Changing Nature of Leadership Leaders as Coaches New Roles: Leader as Mentor –  Help select team members/other new employees –  Provide general direction –  Help train/develop the team and member skills –  Help acquire information/resources –  Help resolve conflict and mediate disputes
  • Leadership 42Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Emerging Issues in Leadership Strategic Leadership The capability to: –  understand the complexities of both the organization and its environment. –  lead change in the organization so as to achieve and maintain a superior alignment between the organization and its environment. Managerial requirements –  Thorough/complete understanding of the organization. –  Firm grasp of the organization’s environment. –  Awareness of the firm’s alignment with the environment. –  Ability to improve the alignment.
  • Leadership 43Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Emerging Issues in Leadership Ethical Leadership –  Increasing environmental pressure for stronger corporate governance models. –  Increasing pressure for high ethical standards for leadership positions. –  Increasing pressure to hold leaders accountable for their actions.
  • Leadership 44Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Emerging Issues in Leadership Virtual Leadership –  Leadership and mentoring change as personal contact moves virtual. –  Nonverbal communication becomes difficult. –  Written communication through email takes on a more important role for conveying appreciation, reinforcement, constructive feedback. –  Face-to-face leadership skills become critical as the opportunities decrease for direct contact.