7 Communication 130919_rz
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7 Communication 130919_rz

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7 Communication 130919_rz 7 Communication 130919_rz Presentation Transcript

  • Communication Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg robert.zaugg@swissonline.ch
  • Communication 2Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Learning Objectives •  Discuss the nature of communication in organizations. •  Identify and describe the primary methods of communication. •  Describe the communication process. •  Note how information technology affects communication. •  Identify and discuss the basic kinds of communication networks. •  Discuss how communication can be managed in organizations.
  • Communication 3Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Nature of Communication in Organizations •  Communication: The social process in which two or more parties exchange information and share meaning •  Purposes of Communication in Organizations •  Achieve coordinated action •  Information sharing •  Express feelings and emotions
  • Communication 4Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 11.1 Three Purposes of Organizational Communication
  • Communication 5Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Nature of Communication in Organizations Communication Across Cultures •  The effects on interpersonal relations of issues involving: •  language •  Different meanings for same words •  Nonverbal communication differences •  coordination •  Differences in time zones
  • Communication 6Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
  • Communication 7Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
  • Communication 8Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
  • Communication 9Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Methods of Communication •  Primary Organizational Communication Methods •  Written •  Oral •  Nonverbal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfDWQG47pAQ http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=IGpjvE74Wy4&feature=related •  Choice Considerations •  Audience (physical or not physical presence) •  Nature of the message (urgency and secrecy) •  Costs of transmission
  • Communication 10Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 11.2 Methods of Communication in Organizations
  • Communication 11Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Methods of Communication Written Communication •  Types •  Letter •  Office memorandum •  Email •  Reports •  Manuals •  Forms Source: © Royalty-Free/Corbis
  • Communication 12Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Methods of Communication Oral Communication •  Aspects to Consider •  Changes in tone, pitch, speed, volume •  Possibilities of feedback Source: © Royalty-Free/Corbis
  • Communication 13Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Methods of Communication Nonverbal Communication Elements Involved •  Facial expressions •  Interest-excitement, enjoyment-joy, surprise-startle, distress-anguish, fear-terror, shame-humiliation, contempt-disgust, anger-rage •  Physical movements/Body language •  Handshake, eye contact, sitting on the edge of a chair, sitting back with arms folded •  Environmental elements •  Buildings, office space, furniture, office arrangements
  • Communication 14Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Communication Process 1.  Source: individual/group/organization interested in communicating something to another party. 2.  Encoding: the process by which the message is translated from an idea/thought into transmittable symbols. 3.  Transmission: the process through which the symbols that represent the message are sent to the receiver; the medium is the channel or path through which the message is transmitted.
  • Communication 15Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg The Communication Process (cont.) 4.  Decoding: The process by which the message receiver interprets its meaning 5.  Receiver: Individual/group/organization that perceives the encoded symbols 6.  Feedback: The process in which the receiver returns a message to the sender that indicates receipt of the message 7.  Noise: Any disturbance in the communication process that interferes with or distorts communication
  • Communication 16Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 11.3 The Communication Process
  • Communication 17Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Electronic Information Processing and Telecommunications Workplace Changes Due to Technology Innovation •  Computerized information processing systems •  New types of telecommunication systems •  The Internet •  Organizational intranets/extranets •  Combinations of the above
  • Communication 18Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Electronic Information Processing and Telecommunications Today’s Office of the Future •  Virtual offices link managers, clerical employees, professional workers, sales personnel, suppliers, customers •  Advantages •  Computerized data storage, retrieval, transmission systems •  Improves productivity •  Increases idea sharing/knowledge sharing •  Risks •  Reduction in face-to-face meetings leads to depersonalization of the office •  Reduction of office social structures
  • Communication 19Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Communication Networks Communication links individuals and groups in a social system Stages of organizational communication link development 1.  Task-related communication links 2.  Small group communication networks 3.  Larger organizational networks Function of communication networks 1.  Structure flow/communication content 2.  Support organizational structure, culture, beliefs, value systems
  • Communication 20Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 11.14 Small-Group Communication Networks
  • Communication 21Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Communication Networks Small-Group Networks Patterns of Information Flow •  Wheel network: Information flows between the person at the end of each spoke and the person in the middle •  Chain network: Each member communicates with the person above and below, except for the individuals on each end who communicate with only one person •  Circle network: Each member communicates with the people on both sides but with no one else •  All-channel network: All members communicate with all other members
  • Communication 22Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Communication Networks Characteristics of Communication Networks •  Form spontaneously as interactions among workers continue. •  Rarely are permanent. •  Task is crucial to the choice of network pattern. •  Environment can affect the frequency and types of interactions among members. •  Personal factors and group performance factors influence the communication network. •  The network strongly influences group effectiveness. •  Electronic groups may have little face-to-face communication but are the emerging trend.
  • Communication 23Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Communication Networks Organizational Communication Networks •  Communication and information flows do not necessarily follow the lines of an organization chart. •  Downward communication provides directions. •  Upward communication provides feedback. •  Horizontal communication is related to task performance.
  • Communication 24Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Communication Networks Organizational Communication Networks (cont.) Roles as they contribute to the functioning of the network •  Gatekeeper: Strategic position which permits the control of information flow through channels •  Liaison: Bridge between groups which ties groups together; facilitates the communication flow needed to integrate group activities •  Cosmopolite: Links the organization to the external environment; may be the group opinion leader •  Isolate/Isolated dyad: Those who work alone and interact/ communicate little with others
  • Communication 25Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Figure 11.5 Comparison of an Organization Chart and the Organization’s Communication Network
  • Communication 26Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
  • Communication 27Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg
  • Communication 28Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Managing Communications Improving the Communication Process Communication fidelity: The degree of correspondence between the message intended by the source and the message understood by the receiver Typical Problem Areas •  Source •  Encoding/Decoding •  Receiver •  Feedback
  • Communication 29Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Managing Communications Area Symptom Solution Source Information filtering Understand underlying basis Encoding- Decoding Lack of common experience base Improve semantics Reduce jargon Receiver Selective attention, value judgments, source credibility, overload Reduce dissonance and overload Feedback Lack of feedback leads to improper response Source must be more concerned with message, symbols, medium, receiver feedback. Receiver needs to be source oriented
  • Communication 30Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Table 11.1 Improving the Communication Process
  • Communication 31Organizational Behavior Prof. Dr. Robert J. Zaugg Managing Communications Improving Organizational Factors in Communication •  Reduce noise (rumor grapevine). •  Foster informal communication. •  Develop a balanced information network.