Human intelligence and creativity

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  • Figure 9.2 Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

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  • 1. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Intelligence and Creativity
  • 2. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Chapter 9 – Intelligence and Creativity• What is intelligence? – Adaptive thinking or behavior (Piaget) – Ability to think abstractly, solve RAISED RAISED TOGETHER APART problems? (Sternberg) IDENTICAL TWINS .86 .72• Genetics x Environment FRATERNAL (interaction) TWINS .60 .52
  • 3. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Theories and Tests of Intelligence• IQ tests – Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests attempt to measure an individual’s probable performance in school and similar settings. Binet (1857-1911) and Simon created 1st IQ ← test in 1905
  • 4. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Theories and Tests of Intelligence• The Stanford-Binet test – The Stanford-Binet test - V (2-85) – The mean or average IQ score for all age groups is designated as 100 ± 15 (85-115). – Given individually
  • 5. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Normal Distribution Normal Distribution
  • 6. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9
  • 7. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Individual Intelligence Tests The Wechsler Scales Overall IQ and also verbal and performance IQs. (WPPSI-III) Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Ages 2 ½ to 7 years, 3 months (WISC-IV) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Ages 6 to 16 years, 11 months (WAIS-III) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Revised Ages 16-89
  • 8. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 WPPSI-III WPPSI
  • 9. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9
  • 10. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9
  • 11. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 WISC-IV• Word Reasoning—measures reasoning with verbal material; child identifies underlying concept given successive clues.• Matrix Reasoning—measures fluid reasoning a (highly reliable subtest on WAIS® –III and WPPSI™–III); child is presented with a partially filled grid and asked to select the item that properly completes the matrix.• Picture Concepts—measures fluid reasoning, perceptual organization, and categorization (requires categorical reasoning without a verbal response); from each of two or three rows of objects, child selects objects that go together based on an underlying concept.• Letter-Number Sequencing—measures working memory (adapted from WAIS–III); child is presented a mixed series of numbers and letters and repeats them numbers first (in numerical order), then letters (in alphabetical order).• Cancellation—measures processing speed using random and structured animal target forms (foils are common non-animal objects).
  • 12. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Theories and Tests of Intelligence• Raven’s Progressive Matrices – Psychologists created “culture-reduced” tests without language. It tests abstract reasoning ability (non-verbal intelligence or performance IQ)
  • 13. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9Figure 9.2 Items similar to those in Raven’s Progressive Matrices test. The instructionsare: “Each pattern has a piece missing. From the eight choices provided, select the onethat completes the pattern, both going across and going down.” (You can check youranswers against answer A on page 339.)
  • 14. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 The Psychometric ApproachIntelligence -• A single attribute? – Spearman (1863-1945) 2 – factor theory of intelligence “g” = general ability “s” = special abilities
  • 15. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9Figure 9.3 According to Spearman (1904), all intelligent abilities have an area of overlap,which he called (for “general”). Each ability also depends partly on an s (for “specific”)factor.
  • 16. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9Figure 9.4a Measurements of sprinting, high jumping, and long jumping correlate withone another because they all depend on the same leg muscles. Similarly, the g factorthat emerges in IQ testing could reflect a single ability that all tests tap.
  • 17. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9• Many attributes? – Thurstone: 7 primary mental abilities • Spatial ability, perceptual speed, numeric reasoning, verbal meaning, word fluency, memory, inductive reasoning
  • 18. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 What is Intelligence?• Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence – Cattell & Horn believed that the “g” factor has two components: - Fluid intelligence is the power of reasoning, solving unfamiliar problems, seeing relationships and gaining new knowledge - Crystallized intelligence is acquired knowledge and the application of that knowledge to experience.
  • 19. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Concept Check:A 16-year-old is learning to play chess and isbecoming proficient enough to be accepted intothe school’s chess club. Is this fluid orcrystallized intelligence?
  • 20. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Concept Check:• Ten years later, the chess player achieves grandmaster status. Is this a result of fluid or crystallized intelligence?
  • 21. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
  • 22. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Savant Syndrome  condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill  Calculation abilities  Drawing  Musical
  • 23. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory• Contextual Component (“street smarts or practical”) – Adapting to the environment• Experiential Component: (creative) – Response to novelty – Automatization• Componential Component (“academic or analytical”) – Information processing – Efficiency of strategies
  • 24. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9Figure 9.2
  • 25. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9TABLE 9.2 Four theories of intelligence
  • 26. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 The Infant• Developmental Quotients (DQ) – Bayley Scales: Ages 2-30 months – Correlations with Child IQ – low to 0 – Useful for diagnostic purposes• *Best predictors – From measures of information processing – E.g., attention, speed of habituation, preference for novelty
  • 27. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 The Child AGE OF CORREL- CORREL- CHILD ATIONS ATION• DQ does not predict WITH IQ AT AGE 9 WITH IQ AT AGE 12 later IQ• IQ gains – Parents foster 4 .46 .42 achievement – Neither strict nor lax parenting 7 .81 .69• IQ drops: Poverty – Cumulative deficit hypothesis 9 ---- .80
  • 28. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 The Adolescent• Brain growth spurt at age 11/12 (puberty) – Formal operational thinking – Improved memory and processing skills – Stability of IQ evident• IQ score a good predictor of school achievement• +.50 correlation between IQ score and grades• Adolescents with high IQ less likely to drop out of high school and more likely to go to college
  • 29. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 The Adult• Strong relationships between – IQ and occupational prestige – IQ and job performance – IQ and good health/longevity
  • 30. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Mental Retardation• Below-average intellectual functioning: IQ 75• Limited adaptive behavior: before age 18 – Self-care and social skills• Below age-appropriate expectations• Causes – Organic: e.g., Down syndrome – Cultural-familial: genes & environment
  • 31. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 The Dynamics of Intelligence
  • 32. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9
  • 33. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Creativity• Adams: “The combination of seemingly disparate parts into a functioning, useful whole.”• Picasso: “Every act of creation is an act of destruction” and “art is a lie that makes us realize the truth.”• Einstein: “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”
  • 34. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Three Creativity Elements• Expertise: In-depth knowledge about a field• Creative Skills: Problem-solving skills, creative process skills• Intrinsic Task Motivation: Intrinsic rewards: Love of the work, the process involved, not extrinsic reward such as money, awards *
  • 35. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Creativity Blocks• Accepting conventional wisdom• Not taking time to investigate or elaborate• Seeking only to satisfy the perceived needs of bosses• Having tunnel vision, compartmentalizing problems• Looking for quick, yes-no answers
  • 36. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Creativity Blocks• Fearing rejection of ideas• Being afraid of making mistakes• Expecting others to be creative• Being unwilling to question others• Being unwilling to accept others’ input• Being unwilling to collaborate – Darwin: “...those who learned to collaborate and improvise...prevailed.”
  • 37. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Creativity Enhancers• Assume every experience can stimulate personal growth. – Look for positives, growth, opportunities: Chinese character, “crisis.”• Clearly visualize a positive outcome.• Don’t react too quickly. Give yourself time (incubation), have patience.
  • 38. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Methods For Killing Creativity• Evaluation – Fear of evaluation kills the love of creative activity.• Surveillance – Looking over creative people’s shoulder or policing them de-motivates them.
  • 39. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Methods For Killing Creativity• Reward – Extrinsic rewards lower motivation. – Reward creative people with autonomy, the opportunity to learn.• Competition – Win-lose competition kills creativity. – In a competitive environment, people think about how not to lose instead of how to win.
  • 40. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Methods For Killing Creativity• Restricted Choice – Making choices for creative people or severely limiting their options lowers creative output.• Extrinsic Orientation – External rewards such as prizes and money hurt creativity. – Creative people love the intrinsic rewards of doing the job.
  • 41. Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 9 Resources• “How To Manage Creative People” – www.charleswarner.us/indexppr.html• Creative Whack Pack cards: – http://www.amazon.com/Creative-Whack-Pack-Roger-Oech/dp/08• Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, Daniel H. Pink, Riverhead Books, New York, 2009.