Stress and adaptatiton

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Stress and adaptatiton

  1. 1. STRESS AND ADAPTATION ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M.Sc.NURSING (2013-14)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION:  Stress is a part of life. Everyone feels stress at one time or another. The experience of stress & the way one response to it are unique to each individual. The process of responding to stress is constant & dynamic & is essential to the person’s physical, emotional & social well being.
  3. 3. TERMINOLOGY: STRESS “ It is a condition in which the human system responds to changing in its normal balanced state .stress result from a change in the environment ,that is presided as a challenge a threat or a danger and can have both negative and positive effects.” - Pender and Parsons (2006)
  4. 4. CONTI… 2) STRESSOR “ stressor are themselves neither positive nor negative but they can have positive and negative effects as the persons responds to the changes.”
  5. 5. CONTI…. ADAPTATION “ when person is in a threatening situation immediate response occur .those response are often involuntary ,are called coping response. The change that take places as a result of the responses to a stressor is adaptation .”
  6. 6. HOMEOSTASIS “The various physiologic mechanism within the body responses to internal changes to maintain relative constancy in the internal environment is called homeostasis.”  PHYSIOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS  PSYCHOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS
  7. 7. PHYSIOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS Autonomic nervous system & the endocrine system primarily control homeostasis mechanisms. self regulatory, occur without conscious thought, & usually function to correct abnormal conditions. Short term & long term stress can threaten the physiologic homeostasis & result in illness,
  8. 8. TYPES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS LOCAL ADAPTATION RESPONSE GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
  9. 9. LOCAL ADPTAVIE RESPONSE THE REFLEX PAIN RESPONSE THE INFLAMANTORY RESPONSE
  10. 10. GAENRAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME According to “Hans Selye” Three distinct stages:- ALARM REACTION STAGE STAGE OF RESISTANCE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION
  11. 11. ALARM RESPONSE  This is the “ Fight or Flight” response that prepares the body for immediate action
  12. 12. STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE  If the source persists, the body prepares for long-term protection, secreting hormones to increase blood sugar levels. This phase is common and not necessarily harmful, but must include periods of relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress response. Fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and lethargy result as the stress turns negative.
  13. 13. STAGE OF EXHAUSTION  In chronic stress situations, sufferers enter the exhaustion phase: emotional, physical and mental resources suffer heavily, the body experiences ‘ adrenal exhaustion’ leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness and collapse.
  14. 14. PSYCHOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS  Each person needs to feel loved & a sense of belonging, to feel safe & secure & to have self-esteem. When these needs are not met or a threat to need fulfillment occurs homeostatic measures in the form of coping or defense mechanisms help return the person to emotional balance.
  15. 15. TYPES OF STRESS
  16. 16. NEGATIVE STRESS It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems, skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers. Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on mental, physical and spiritual health.
  17. 17. POSITIVE STRESS Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations. Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations.
  18. 18. TYPES OF STRESSOR ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESSORS SOCIAL STRESSORS THOUGHTS
  19. 19. EFFECTS OF THE STRESSOR Family reaction to illness Health and illness Basic human need
  20. 20. THE SOURCE OF STRESS Developmental stress Situational stress TYPES OF STRESSOR EXPERIENCED Physiologic stressor Psychological stressors PERSONAL FACTORS
  21. 21. ADAPTATION TO STRESS (IMBALANCE )
  22. 22. ADAPTATION TO STRESS (BALANCE ) Perception of stress Sources Coping mechanism Balance
  23. 23. PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ADAPTATION Mind body interaction Anxiety Coping mechanisms
  24. 24. MIND BODY INTERACTION  humans react to threats of danger as if they were physiologic threats of a person perceives the threat on an emotional level& the body prepares itself to either resist the danger or to run away from it. Each person reacts in Backache  Constipation  Diarrhea  Dilated pupils  Dry mouth  Headache nausea  Sleep disturbances
  25. 25. ANXIETY MILD ANXIETY MODERATE SEVERE PANIC
  26. 26. COPING MECHANISMS COMPENSATION DENIAL DISPLACEMENT INTROJECTION PROJECTION RATIONALIZATION REACTION FORMATION REPRESSION SUBLIMATION UNDOING
  27. 27. INTERVENTIONS TO REDUSE ANXIETY  a). Exercise:- Regular exercises help to maintain physical & emotional health.  b). Rest and sleep:- Rest and sleep helps the body to maintain homeostasis & restore energy levels.  c). Nutrition:- It plays an important role in maintaining the body’s homeostatic mechanisms & in increasing resistance to stress. Obesity & malnutrition are major stressors & greatly increase the risk of illness.  d). Encouraging the use of support system:- Support system provides emotional support that helps a person identify & verbalize feelings associated with stress.
  28. 28. STESS AS A TRANSACTION BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL & THE ENVIRONMENT PRECIPITATING EVENT PREDISPOSING FACTORS GENETIC INFLUENCE EXISTING CONDITION PAST EXPERIENCES COGNITIVE APPRAISAL PRIMARY IRRELEVANT BENIGN POSITIVE STRESS APPRAISAL NO RESPONSE PLEASURABLE RESPONSE HARM THREAT CHALLENGE SECONDARY Availability of coping strategies Perceived effectiveness of coping strategies Perceived ability to use coping strategies effectively QUALITY OF RESPONSE ADAPTIVE MALADAPTIVE
  29. 29. STUART STRESS ADAPTATION MODEL PREDISPOSING FACTORS BIOLOGICAL PPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIOCULTURAL PRECIPITATING STRESSORS NATURE ORIGIN TIMING NUMBER APPRAISAL OF STRESSOR COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORAL SOCIAL COPNING RESOURCES PERSONAL ABILITIES SOCIAL SUPPORT MATERIAL ASSETS POSITIVE BELIEFS COPING MECHANISMS CONSTRUCTIVE DESTRUCTIVE CONTINUUM OF COPING RESPONSES ADAPTIVE MALADAPTIVE RESPONSE RESPONSE NURSING DIAGNOSIS
  30. 30. STRESS MANAGEMENT MEDITATION PROBLEM SOLVING RELAXATION INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION WITH CARING PETS MUSIC AWARENESS

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