Seawater Desalination – A need for
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
Global seawater desalination capacity
Lattemann and Höpner (2009), primary datafrom IDA (2007). Map includes all plants that presumed online or in construction ...
Ashkelon (330,000 m3/day)
Projected growth
Australian SWRO projects


                     Gold Coast:
                     133,000 m3/d




                     Syd...
Résumé of the introduction
Energy demand
Energy use and CO2 emissions
Energy demand in perspective — Sydney
Is energy demand significant?
Desalination using renewable energy
 no large desalination plant directly driven by RE,
 only used as a compensation measu...
Concentrating solar thermal collectors
                   Parabolic system
                   Trough       Dish




Linear...
National Initiative for Solar Desalination
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh:

  Initial phase (3 yea...
Spanish approach
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
Australian approach
Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests
Whole effluent toxicity tests
SWRO Plant          Species              No. of species       Species protection
           ...
Desalination – a green technology?
Sustainable projects | green technologies



            UNEP Guidance on       internationally accepted
            EIA f...
Conclusions
Resource-intensive process with significant impacts
   need for project- and site-specific EIA studies
   need...
Mitigating energy use & GHG emissions
Minimization:
 •   energy use minimized to reduce costs in most projects
     by usi...
Mitigating salinity impacts
Regulatory mixing zones:
•   define the spatial & temporal distribution limit
    of the conce...
Mitigating chemical use
Treatment:
of all intermittent wastes
 • pretreatment backwash (media filters, UF/MF)

 • cleaning...
Conclusions
 Resource-intensive process with significant impacts
    need for project- and site-specific EIA studies
    n...
Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
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Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)

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Dr. Sabine Lattemann, הרצאה ביום עיון צלול 25.4.10

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Seawater desalination – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)

  1. 1. Seawater Desalination – A need for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Best Available Techniques (BAT)
  2. 2. Global seawater desalination capacity
  3. 3. Lattemann and Höpner (2009), primary datafrom IDA (2007). Map includes all plants that presumed online or in construction and all sites and a capacity with am3/day. > 1,000 m3/day. Lattemann & Höpner (2009), primary data from IDA (2007). Map includes all plants that are are presumed online or in construction with all sites > 1,000 capacity
  4. 4. Ashkelon (330,000 m3/day)
  5. 5. Projected growth
  6. 6. Australian SWRO projects Gold Coast: 133,000 m3/d Sydney: 250,000 m3/d Extension: 250,000 m3/d? Perth 144,000 m3/d Additional projects: 144,000 m3/d (2011)? 450,000 m3/d (2020)?
  7. 7. Résumé of the introduction
  8. 8. Energy demand
  9. 9. Energy use and CO2 emissions
  10. 10. Energy demand in perspective — Sydney
  11. 11. Is energy demand significant?
  12. 12. Desalination using renewable energy no large desalination plant directly driven by RE, only used as a compensation measure mostly small stand-alone systems directly driven by RE: Solar energy Wind / Tidal Solar still Heat (collector) Radiation (PV) Mechanical (turbine) Non-concentrating Concentrating - flat plate or tube design - parabolic trough / dish for domestic purposes - flat mirrors (Fresnel) - power tower Electricity MD MED MSF ED RO TVC
  13. 13. Concentrating solar thermal collectors Parabolic system Trough Dish Linear receivers Point receivers Planar mirrors Fresnel Tower
  14. 14. National Initiative for Solar Desalination King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh: Initial phase (3 years): • Energy: 10 MW produced by solar energy • Water: 30,000 m3/d in Al Khafji Second phase (3 years): • building a 300,000 m3/d solar-powered desalination plant Third phase (3 years): • implementation of solar desalination plants in several parts of the country
  15. 15. Spanish approach 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30
  16. 16. Australian approach Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests
  17. 17. Whole effluent toxicity tests SWRO Plant Species No. of species Species protection protection used in trigger value level WET tests (safe dilution ratio) Gold Coast 95% * 6 species 9:1 Perth 95% * 5 species 12 : 1 Sydney 95% * 5 species 30 : 1 Olympic Dam 99%** 15 species 45 : 1 Ecosystems: * slightly to moderately disturbed ** high conservation value 0.7 psu above ambient in 300 m in 90% of time 1100 m in 99% of time
  18. 18. Desalination – a green technology?
  19. 19. Sustainable projects | green technologies UNEP Guidance on internationally accepted EIA for desalination BAT standards for desalination projects (2008) plants are still missing www.unep.org.bh/ U.S. EPA announced new Publications/ rulemaking on drinking water Type7.asp treatment effluents including “facilities that discharge […] Extensive EIA and monitoring desalination concentrates […]” studies in progress for several desalination projects worldwide
  20. 20. Conclusions Resource-intensive process with significant impacts need for project- and site-specific EIA studies need for technology standards (BAT) Mitigation measures exist for all significant impacts sustainable desalination is technically feasible, even with existing technologies three examples
  21. 21. Mitigating energy use & GHG emissions Minimization: • energy use minimized to reduce costs in most projects by using state of the art technology Compensation: of energy use if considered significant environmental impact • most countries entered an international agreement to reduce GHGs (Kyoto Protocol)! • Australia: all SWRO projects use indirect renewable energy • Carlsbad project, Southern California: Climate Action Plan at an estimated US$ 76 million imposed on the project
  22. 22. Mitigating salinity impacts Regulatory mixing zones: • define the spatial & temporal distribution limit of the concentrate plume Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests: • determine the safe dilution ratio of the concentrate • to be met at the edge of the regulatory mixing zone Modeling studies: • determine the best diffuser location and design to achieve the safe dilution ratio Field monitoring studies • to detect possible ecological impacts using a before-after, control-impact (BACI) approach
  23. 23. Mitigating chemical use Treatment: of all intermittent wastes • pretreatment backwash (media filters, UF/MF) • cleaning solutions (SWRO, UF/MF membranes) Substitution: of harmful chemicals where possible • Tampa Bay (Florida), London (UK), Jumeirah (UAE): chlorine replaced by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) due to elevated chlorination by product formation • 2 plants in the Middle East: offline use of DBNPA (U.S. EPA approved biocide) to control regrowth of biofouling organisms
  24. 24. Conclusions Resource-intensive process with significant impacts need for project- and site-specific EIA studies need for technology standards (BAT) Mitigation measures exist for all significant impacts sustainable desalination is technically feasible, even with existing technologies Compensation measures, advanced technology, and extensive environmental studies increase water costs BUT: sustainable desalination is still economically viable

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