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Open Educational Resources (OER) for Enhancing Teaching and Learning
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Open Educational Resources (OER) for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

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International Training Course in “Enhancing Training Quality in Higher Education”

International Training Course in “Enhancing Training Quality in Higher Education”

Participating countries: Cambodia; Lao PDR and Vietnam

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  • Through this address I hope to first provide a brief overview of the OERAsia survey and what us Asians are currently engaged in. I will then attempt to paint the macro picture of the current situation in terms of OER creation, use and re-use from the perspectives of both individuals as well as institutions in Asia. You will then be provided with an overview of the readiness of institutions in the region with respect to adopting an institutional policy; and a few points for action which will provide a potential benchmark for policymakers for encouraging wider adoption of open educational resources in Asia.
  • The key aspect of an OER is that it is both discoverable online – so that people can find it AND openly licensed - so that people can legally make use of it. OER includes texts, different forms of media, ideas, as well as documented teaching strategies/techniques or practices. Advocates of openness would suggest that the value in OER is in its potential to support learning in many ways and in many contexts.
  • So open educational resources are part of a larger open movement, which harnesses the affordances provided by the internet, and aims to increase access to information. Open access to research, open availability of data, open science for global collaboration, open source software are all part of this movement.
  • Source: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/247
  • source: OECD, 2007
  • http://www.slideshare.net/ellyssa/open-education-and-libraries-presentation
  • Image 1: http://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/2922421696/ Image 2: http://veja.abril.com.br/imagem/professorantenado.jpgImage 3: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stylianosm/3706684606/Image 4: http://www.flickr.com/photos/langwitches/3460307056/
  • So what is meant to happen is a cycle of teaching material evermore being improved and shared. Plus it is all legal under the terms of the open license. Adapted from Conole, G., McAndrew, P. & Dimitriadis, Y., 2010
  • P=Partners
  • OCW makes the materials used in the teaching of MIT's subjects available on the Web. http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm
  • The OpenCourseWare Consortium is a worldwide community of hundreds of higher education institutions and associated organizations committed to advancing OpenCourseWare and its impact on global education.http://www.ocwconsortium.org/en/members/application
  • Khan Academy is an organization on a mission. We're a not-for-profit with the goal of changing education for the better by providing a free world-class education for anyone anywhere.
  • www.edx.org
  • (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching). In 1997, the California State University Center for Distributed Learning (CSU-CDL at www.cdl.edu) developed and provided free access to MERLOT (www.merlot.org). Under the leadership of Chuck Schneebeck, CSU-CDL's Director, MERLOT was modeled after the NSF funded project, "Authoring Tools and An Educational Object Economy (EOE)". http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm
  • Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free electronic books, or eBooks. Michael Hart, founder of Project Gutenberg, invented eBooks in 1971 and continues to inspire the creation of eBooks and related technologies today. http://www.gutenberg.org/
  • http://highscalability.com/blog/2013/4/1/khan-academy-checkbook-scaling-to-6-million-users-a-month-on.htmlhttp://www.tofp.org/resume/Program_Eval_March_2004.pdf
  • MIT report, 2004
  • All the data will be made available openly on the OERAsia website in the coming months. ref. http://www.slideshare.net/ishansa/oer-in-asia-pacific-trends-and-issues?from_search=18
  • Participating are from these 3 countries Educationists
  • http://www.voer.edu.vn/
  • Discussion (writing & oral) –group or individual
  • http://edtechpost.wikispaces.com/OER+Benefits
  • http://mfeldstein.com/itoe-motivations-for-open-education/
  • The respondents agree that the use of open educational resources will have great impact with respect to the reduction of costs for both students and institutions promoting a win-win situation. It is also encouraging to see that OER are seen as a movement which can potentially improve the standards of living for many developing countries in Asia.
  • OER includes: OCW, single images, general campus lectures, image collections, singular learning modules, paper or article; OCW includes: syllabi, lecture notes, presentation slides, assignments, lecture videos - all related to a course;
  • Before probing the practice with respect to OER, the survey tried to identify the extent of the practice with respect to digital resources which forms the superset of OER.Ref. http://www.slideshare.net/ishansa/oer-in-asia-pacific-trends-and-issues?from_search=18
  • Doug McAbee “Taking a break”
  • Wiley, D. (2012) Openness and the Future. ETS Future of Assessment Conference. Presentation available: http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/openness-and-the-future-of-assessment
  • Soruce: Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education by UNESCO (2011)
  • http://www.amitydubd.blogspot.com/
  • http://www.slideshare.net/Zakir-Hossain/internet-search-techniques-by-zakir-hossain
  • Any accredited organization who supports to build OER?
  • OER Commons by

Open Educational Resources (OER) for Enhancing Teaching and Learning Open Educational Resources (OER) for Enhancing Teaching and Learning Presentation Transcript

  • Open Educational Resources (OER) for Enhancing Teaching and Learning by Zakir Hossain International Training Course in “Enhancing Training Quality in Higher Education” Participating countries: Cambodia; Lao PDR and Vietnam SEAMEO Regional Training Center Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  • Talking Points 1. Overview of OER 2. OER initiatives 3. OER initiatives in Asia/participating countries 4. Why funding/ creating OER 5. Benefits of OER 6. OER vs. OCW vs. e-Learning 7. OER challenges 8. Creative commence 9. OER guidelines 10. How can I SHARE my RESOURCES as OER
  • 1. OER? Digitized materials offered freely and openly to educators, students and self‐learners to use, re-use and remix for teaching, learning and research without an accompanying need to pay royalties or license fees.
  • According to UNESCO (2002)- Open Educational Resources are defined as ‘technology‐enabled, open provision of educational resources for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for noncommercial purposes.’ They are typically made freely available over the Web or the Internet. Their principle use is by teachers and educational institutions to support course development, but they can also be used directly by students. Open Educational Resources include learning objects such as lecture material, references and readings, simulations, experiments and demonstrations, as well as syllabuses, curricula, and teachers’ guides. OER? cont…
  • OER? cont… Shared Shared freely and openly to be… Used Improved Redistributed … used by anyone to … … adapt / repurpose/ improve under some type of license in order to … … redistribute and share again. So, OER are the educational materials which are discoverable in online and openly licensed that can be:
  • The Open Movement OER @ Open Movement Open Source Software Open Access Open Licences Open Science Open Society Open Data
  • History of OER  In 1994 Wayne Hodgins coined the term “learning object”  In 1998 David Wiley coined the term “open content”  In 2001 Larry Lessig and ….. “the Creative Commons”  In 2001 MIT announced its “OpenCourseWare initiative”  In 2002 UNESCO Forum ..“Open Educational Resources”
  • OER Anatomy • Learning content: Full courses, courseware, content modules, learning objects, collections and journals. • Tools: Software to support the development, use, reuse and delivery of learning content, including searching and organisation of content, content and learning management systems, content development tools, and online learning communities. • Implementation resources: Intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials, design principles of best practice and localise content.
  • What types of materials can become OER? • Classroom Materials: including lecture presentations, reading lists, syllabi, etc. • Websites • Videos • Image Collections • Software
  • Producers Consumers o Higher Education Institutions Lifelong Learners o International /Regional Organizations Students o National Governments Educators Who’s who of OER?
  • OER Development Cycle
  • Example of OER development Original diagram in a PhD thesis … Improved and adapted for the Portuguese context … Translated into Greek … Adapted and translated to Spanish … Adapted at the SEAMEO RETRAC
  • Available to other faculties, students and institutions. Other educators can now discover and reuse. Learning activity or resource Creates Publishes as OER on web Shares with students and other faculties Traditional sharing of teaching materials Sharing educational resources as OER Additional considerations: • Clearing of copyright issues • Formatting for web and accessibility for reuse • Addition of metadata • Publishing in repository or referatoryEducator …sharing beyond the classroom
  • 2. OER Initiatives ……
  • OER initiatives at a glance • Over 10,000 courses available from more than 500 universities/ consortiums worldwide MIT & MITx ParisTech (11p) Japan Open Course Ware Consortium (22 p) CORE Consortium (70 p) Coursera (83 p) edX (28 p) • Thousands of learning objects available in repositories Connexions by Rice University MERLOT by California State University
  • OER styles  Full-package courses  MIT OCW & MITx 2,150+  Edx 62+  Coursera 397+  Saylor Foundation 296+  Video courses  Academic Earth 15,000+  Khan Academy 4,200+  Smarthistory (KA) 500+
  •  Repositories  Merlot 43,999+  Connexions 17,000+  NROC n/f  iTunesU 500,000+  OER Commons 46,645+  Textbooks  Global Text Project 1,000+  Global Textbook Project n/f  WikiBooks 2,690+  Project Gutenberg 43091+
  • OER initiative ..... cont. MIT Started : 2002 Courses : 2,150 “The idea is simple: to publish all of our course materials online and make them widely available to everyone.”- by Dick K.P. Yue, Pf SE
  • MIT audience for OCW?
  • OER initiative ..... cont. Open Courseware Consortium Started : 2005 Courses : 3643  Over 250 Higher Education institutions & associations world wide dedicating to creating OCW *Institutions must publish at least 10 courses
  • OER initiative ..... cont. Khan Academy Started : 2006 Collection : 4,200 videos "I teach the way that I wish I was taught. The lectures are coming from me, an actual human being who is fascinated by the world around him."—Salman Khan
  • OER initiative ..... cont. edX Started : 2012 Collection : 62
  • Sample of edX Certificate
  • OER initiative ..... cont. MERLOT Started : 1997 Collection : 43,999 Putting Educational Innovations Into Practice
  • OER initiative ..... cont. Project Gutenberg Started : 1971 Collection : 43,091 To encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks.
  • OER initiative ..... cont. DOAJ Project Started : 2003 Collection : 9915 Journals
  • User statistics (approx.) 10 1.2 4.05 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 MIT/MITx edx Coursera Khan Academy Users (millions)
  • How are the OER resources used?
  • 3. OER initiatives in Asia
  • OER initiatives in Participating Countries Cambodia Lao PDR Vietnam
  • Vietnam OER @ VOER
  • Courses offer by VOER
  • Why Funding OER? Why should anyone give away anything for free? Why should anyone create OER? 4. Why?
  • At the heart of the movement toward Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the World Wide Web in particular provide an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse knowledge. OER are the parts of that knowledge that comprise the fundamental components of education—content and tools for teaching, learning, and research. The Hewlett Foundation 4a. Why funding OER?
  • • Today, there are over thirty million people who are fully qualified to enter a university, but there is no place available. This number will grow to over 100 million during the next decade • To meet the staggering global demand for advanced education, a major university needs to be created every week. • In most of the world, higher education is mired in a crisis of access, cost, and flexibility. Why funding OER?
  • 4b. Why Creating OER? Strategic Economic Pedagogic Philanthropic
  • ….for faculty Recognition Freedom of access both for yourself and others Connect with other collaborators To bring down costs for students To publicize a commercial version of the content (Commercial benefits) 5. Benefits of OER
  • Benefits of OER in teaching • Gaining access to the best possible resources • Promote scientific research and education as publicly open activities • Bringing down costs for students • Bringing down costs for course development for institutions • Outreach to disadvantaged communities • Assisting developing countries • Becoming independent of publishers • Creating more flexible materials • Conducting research and development • Building sustainable partnerships
  • Benefits of OER for the university Internationalization Recruit better students Increase reputation globally To prepare incoming students Decrease duplication, increase efficiency To create an archive of educational content Contribution to society by advancing education Share expertise and curricula with other institutions
  • 6. OCW vs. OER OCW focuses on sharing open content that is developed specifically to instruct a course (locally taught) OER includes any educational content that is shared under an open license, whether or not it is a part of a course *OCW is a subset of OER
  • 6a. eLearning vs. OER eLearning are electronic instructional resources that are not necessarily Openly Licensed. OER materials are designed to be the physical or electronic building blocks of instructional resources and are always Openly Licensed.
  • 6c. Digital Resources viz. OER OER Digital Resources (DR) Educational Resources (ER)
  • 7. OER Challenges
  • Major Challenges Sustainability Curation and Preservation of Access Quality Assessment and Enhancement Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues Computing and Communication Infrastructure
  • IP & Copyright OER Challenges….Cont.
  • © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet Internet Enables What to do? Copyright Forbids
  • SOLUTION ANY
  • LICENSES & LICENSES licenses
  • Licenses Non-Software Licenses Creative Commons GNU Free Documentation License Software Licenses GPL Apache BSD
  • 8. Creative Commence Licenses
  • Clauses Clauses at Creative Commons
  • More about CC
  • • Would you allow commercial uses of your work? • Yes • No • Would you allow modifications or derivatives of your work? • Yes • No Questions to ask
  • How to have a CC license? @ http://creativecommons.org/
  • CC License Selection Tools
  • Edit/Cite a CC Licensed Material To cite a CC Licensed object in your edited materials, you use the following: 1. Author 2. Source 3. License Abbreviation (e.g. CC BY) 4. License URL
  • 9. OER Guidelines…
  • GLs for Higher Education Stakeholders Who are Higher Education Stakeholders
  • Governments Higher education institutions Quality assurance/ accreditation bodies Academic staff
  • GLs for Government  Support the use of OER through their policy- making role in higher education  Consider adopting open licensing frameworks  Consider adopting open standards  Contribute to raising awareness of key OER issues  Promote national ICT/connectivity strategies  Support the sustainable development and sharing of quality learning materials
  • GLs for Academic staff Consider publishing OER Encourage student participation Provide feedback about the existing OER Promote OER through publishing about OER Update knowledge of IPR, copyright policy etc Assemble, adapt and contextualize existing OER
  • GLs for HE Institutions Develop institutional strategies for the integration of OER Provide incentives to support high quality learning materials Consider creating flexible copyright policies Ensure ICT access for staff and students Develop institutional policies and practices to store and access OER
  • GLs for quality assurance/accreditation bodies  Develop their understanding of OER  Engage in debates on OER, in particular on copyright  Accept OER as good practice in quality assurance and recognition
  • 10. How can I SHARE my RESOURCES?
  • Use Blogs to create OER
  • Sample blog
  • Upload PowerPoint Slides & Create Slidecasts
  • Record Webinars/Online talks
  • Finally……
  • 10a. Any accredited organization who supports to create OER?
  • OER Commons Created by ISKME
  • Learn more @ OER resources
  • OPEN EDUCATION @ MOOCS’ @ OPLI
  • HTTP://WWW.JOCW.JP/OCWHISTORY.HTM HTTP://WWW.WSIS-COMMUNITY.ORG/PG/DIRECTORY/DISPLAY/673314 HTTP://WWW.COL.ORG/PUBLICATIONDOCUMENTS/GUIDELINES_OER_HE.PDF HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/ELLYSSA/OPEN-EDUCATION-AND-LIBRARIES- PRESENTATION HTTPS://WWW.UDACITY.COM/ HTTP://WWW.ISEEK.ORG/EDUCATION/ONLINERESOURCES.HTML HTTP://WWW.OERCOMMONS.ORG/ HTTP://WWW.OPENCULTURE.COM/ HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=AETLXTEOPLA HTTP://OPENCONTENT.ORG/BLOG/ARCHIVES/247 References
  • For more info. please visit @ http://works.bepress.com/zakir_hossain/ This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.