• MEANING OF AGRICULTUE.• AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES.• STEPS FOR AGRICULTURE PRACTICES.• PREPIRATION OF SOIL.• SOWING.• ADDING MANURE AND FERTILIZERS.• IRRIGATION.• PROTECTION FROM WEEDS.• HARVESTING.• STORAGE.
AGRICULTUREAgriculture is also called farming or husbandry. It is the cultivation ofanimals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel andother products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the keydevelopment in the rise of sedentary human civilization, wherebyfarming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurturedthe development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known asagricultural science. Agriculture generally speaking refers to humanactivities, although it is also observed in certain species of ant andtermite. Agricultural practices such as irrigation, croprotation, fertilizers, pesticides and animals were developed long ago.
AGRICULTURE PRACTICESAgricultural Practices means the steps involved in agriculture whichcan be seen generally been done by farmers and gardeners. Agriculturalpractices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, pesticides andanimals were developed long ago, but have made great strides in thepast century. The history of agriculture has played a major role inhuman history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor inworldwide socio economic change. Division of labor in agriculturalsocieties made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures. So, too, are arts such as epic literature andmonumental architecture, as well as codified legal systems. Whenfarmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of theirown families, others in their society were freed to devote themselves toprojects other than food acquisition. Historians and anthropologistshave long argued that the development of agriculture made civilizationpossible. The total world population probably never exceeded 15million inhabitants before the invention of agriculture.
STEPS FOR AGRICULTUREPRACTICES PREPERATION OF SOIL. SOWING. ADDING MANURE AND FERTILIZERS. IRRIGATION. PROTECTION FROM WEEDS. HARVESTING. STORAGE.
PREPIRATION OF SOILPrior to planting, the soil needs to be prepared, usually by some form oftillage or chemical "burn-down" to kill the weeds in the seedbed thatwould crowd out the crop or compete with it for water and nutrients.Depending on the amount of crop residue they leave on the surface.Residue slows the flow of runoff that can displace and carry away soilparticles.
SOWING PROCESSSowing is the process of planting seeds. Seed soaking is generally doneby placing seeds in medium hot water for at least 24 to up to 48 hoursSeed cleaning is done especially with fruit (as the flesh of the fruitaround the seed can quickly become prone to attack from insects orplagues. To clean the seed, usually seed rubbings with cloth/paper isperformed, sometimes assisted with a seed washing. Seed washing isgenerally done by submerging cleansed seeds 20 minutes in 50 degreeCelsius water. This (rather hot than moderately hot) water kills anyorganisms that may have survived on the skin of a seed. Especially witheasily infected tropical fruit such as leeches and rambutans, seedwashing with high temperature water is vital
ADDING MANURES ANDFERTILZERS Plant requires food/nutrients/elements for its growth and development which are absorbed through soil. The nutrient supplying sources are manures and fertilizers. Application of manures and fertilizers to the soil is one of the important factors which help in increasing the crop yield and to maintain the soil fertility. Manure: It is a well decomposed refuse from the stable and barn yards including both animal excreta and straw or other litter. Or he term manure implies to the any material with the exception of water which when added to the soil makes it productive and promotes plant growth. Fertilizers: These are industrially manufactured chemicals containing plant nutrients. Or It is an artificial product containing the plant nutrients which when added to soil makes it productive and promotes plant growth.
IRRIGATIONIrrigation is the process of supplying dry land with water by meansof ditches etc .It is the artificial application of water to the land orsoil. It is used to assist in the growing of agriculturalcrops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soilsin dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in cropproduction, which include protecting plants against frost,
PROTECTION FROM WEEDSA wild plant growing where it is not wanted and in competition withcultivated plants. Weeds can compete with productive crops orpasture, or convert productive land into unusable scrub. Weeds are alsooften poisonous, distasteful, produce burrs, thorns or other damagingbody parts or otherwise interfere with the use and management ofdesirable plants by contaminating harvests or excluding livestock.
HARVESTING. Harvesting crops involves getting the crop out of the field and transported to market. Most crops are harvested in the fall, except for hay which is cut several times over the course of the summer. Field crops are harvested by machine, while small fruits and other food crops are typically harvested by hand, although in certain cases, they may be harvested by machine. Equipment Used For Harvesting.1. Tractors.2. Forage Harvesters.3. Combines.4. Cotton Harvesters.5. Grain Carts.6. Balers.
STORAGE OF GRAINThe purpose of any grain storage is to prevent grain quality loss fromweather, wind and moisture; rodents, birds and insects, andmicroorganisms. Many types of buildings such as pole buildings usedfor machinery storage, empty barns, and stud framed shops or garagescan be used for grain storage. Seed stored for more than six weeks mustbe protected against insect damage. Seed should only be stored whendry, as grain of high moisture causes temperatures to rise and mouldto develop. High temperatures reduce the efficacy of grainprotectants, allowing insects to multiply. Cooling of grain (below 15degrees C) helps to suppress insect activity.
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