Task 1 Week 2 Cm

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Task 1 Week 2 Cm

  1. 1. TASK 1: STUDY THE GIVE CASES AND IDENTIFY BEHAVIOURS WHICH ARE NOT DESIRABLE. WHAT ACTIONS WOULD YOU TAKE?
  2. 2. Case 1: A pupil kicks another pupil after seeing this on the playground. As a teacher, what action would you take?
  3. 3. Method: Reinforcement <ul><li>Reinforcement is the act of following a response with a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><li>A reinforcer is a stimulus (encouraging activity) that increases the frequency or occurrence of a response it follows. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of reinforcement:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Positive reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement is the encouragement of a desired response (behaviour) by a pleasant stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>It increases the probability of the reoccurrence of the same response to the same situation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Negative reinforcement <ul><li>Negative reinforcement is the discouragement of an undesired response (behaviour) by an unpleasant stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>It decreases the probability of the reoccurrence of the same response to the same situation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Punishment <ul><li>Punishment is used to erase undesirable behaviours by presenting a distressing stimulus when the behaviour occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be classified into 2 types:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative punishment </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Types of punishment <ul><li>Positive punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An undesirable stimulus is received after a behaviour occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A desirable stimulus is lost or removed after a behaviour occurs. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Action taken <ul><li>The pupil who kicks another pupil will be given negative reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He/She was not allowed to play at the playground for a week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, if the negative reinforcement fails to avoid the undesirable behaviour, the pupil will be punished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative punishment: if he/she fails to behave good at the playground, he/she will not be given recess hour. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Case 2 : A group of pupils enter the classroom noisily and walk around the classroom. You want the pupils to enter the classroom, sit down and wait quietly.
  10. 10. Method 1: Behavior contract <ul><li>The behavior contract is a written agreement about how the individual will behave. </li></ul><ul><li>It will indicate the appropriate consequence if the student neglect to behave according to the contract and it also states the positive reinforcement to be used for successful compliance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Examples: <ul><li>Student Name: _________________________ Date: _________________________ Room: _________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>I, , will enter the classroom quietly without making any noise, sit down and wait quietly for the teacher to enter the classroom. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Method 2: Consequences <ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>occur immediately after a behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>may be positive or negative, </li></ul><ul><li>expected or unexpected, </li></ul><ul><li>immediate or long-term, </li></ul><ul><li>material or symbolic (grade), </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences occur after the desired behavior occurs, then either positive or negative reinforcement may be given. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Examples <ul><li>Provide instruction with simple and clear directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Gain student’s full attention before giving instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide one instruction at a time - do not provide too many different instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor compliance - provide time limits. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate consequences for compliance. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Group Consequences <ul><li>Provide a set of behavior rules or expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the interval of time for the contingency - the longer the interval, the more valuable the reward </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a menu of choices to avoid satiation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine criterion for reinforcement </li></ul>
  15. 15. Individual Consequences <ul><li>Surprise Tokens: delivered at times that are not predictable by students </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards(Random Drawing): students place their name on a piece of paper and place into a jar when they comply to rules, at the end of the day, conduct a drawing for prizes </li></ul>
  16. 16. CASE 3: A PUPIL CONSISTENTLY ANSWERS WITHOUT RAISING HIS HAND YOU WANT THE STUDENT TO RAISE HIS HAND BEFORE ANSWERING THE QUESTION
  17. 17. METHOD 1: EXTINCTION <ul><li>Extinction is a procedure in which the reinforcement that has been maintaining or increasing an inappropriate behavior is withheld entirely. </li></ul><ul><li>A common practice of the extinction procedure is ignoring behavior that is reinforced by attention. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Identifying behavioral reinforces and removing them can decrease a behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>An undesired behavior without reinforcement can diminish until it no longer occurs. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Extinction through accustomizing <ul><li>When a person receives a stimulus and experiences the conditioned response a number of times, then the intensity of the emotion they feel may well become dulled with familiarity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Extinction through extreme experience <ul><li>A strange thing that happens sometimes is that a behavior may become extinct not through ignoring the triggers that cause it, but actually exacerbating it to the extreme. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Guidelines to Follow: <ul><li>~ Briefly remove all attention from the student </li></ul><ul><li>~ Refuse to argue, scold or talk </li></ul><ul><li>~ Turn your head to avoid eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>~ Do not show anger in your manner or gestures </li></ul><ul><li>~ Act absorbed in some other activity </li></ul><ul><li>~ Be sure that the behavior does not allow him a material reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>~ Give lots of attention and reinforcement when the inappropriate behavior stops </li></ul>
  22. 22. REFERENCES <ul><li>http://www.afcec.org/tipsforteachers/tips_c3.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://changingminds.org/explanations/behaviors/conditioning/extinction.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.parentsunitedtogether.com/page41.html </li></ul>

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