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Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
Task 1 week 2 cm
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Task 1 week 2 cm

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  • 1. TASK 1: STUDY THE GIVE CASES AND IDENTIFY BEHAVIOURS WHICH ARE NOT DESIRABLE. WHAT ACTIONS WOULD YOU TAKE?
  • 2. Case 1: A pupil kicks another pupil after seeing this on the playground. As a teacher, what action would you take?
  • 3. Method: Reinforcement
    • Reinforcement is the act of following a response with a reinforcer.
    • A reinforcer is a stimulus (encouraging activity) that increases the frequency or occurrence of a response it follows.
    • There are 2 types of reinforcement:-
      • Positive reinforcement
      • Negative reinforcement
  • 4. Positive reinforcement
    • Positive reinforcement is the encouragement of a desired response (behaviour) by a pleasant stimulus.
    • It increases the probability of the reoccurrence of the same response to the same situation.
  • 5. Negative reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement is the discouragement of an undesired response (behaviour) by an unpleasant stimulus.
    • It decreases the probability of the reoccurrence of the same response to the same situation.
  • 6. Punishment
    • Punishment is used to erase undesirable behaviours by presenting a distressing stimulus when the behaviour occurs.
    • Can be classified into 2 types:-
      • Positive punishment
      • Negative punishment
  • 7. Types of punishment
    • Positive punishment
      • An undesirable stimulus is received after a behaviour occurs.
    • Negative punishment
      • A desirable stimulus is lost or removed after a behaviour occurs.
  • 8. Action taken
    • The pupil who kicks another pupil will be given negative reinforcement.
    • For example:
      • He/She was not allowed to play at the playground for a week.
      • However, if the negative reinforcement fails to avoid the undesirable behaviour, the pupil will be punished.
      • Negative punishment: if he/she fails to behave good at the playground, he/she will not be given recess hour.
  • 9. Case 2 : A group of pupils enter the classroom noisily and walk around the classroom. You want the pupils to enter the classroom, sit down and wait quietly.
  • 10. Method 1: Behavior contract
    • The behavior contract is a written agreement about how the individual will behave.
    • It will indicate the appropriate consequence if the student neglect to behave according to the contract and it also states the positive reinforcement to be used for successful compliance.
  • 11. Examples:
    • Student Name: _________________________ Date: _________________________ Room: _________________________
    • I, , will enter the classroom quietly without making any noise, sit down and wait quietly for the teacher to enter the classroom.
  • 12. Method 2: Consequences
    • Consequences:
    • occur immediately after a behavior,
    • may be positive or negative,
    • expected or unexpected,
    • immediate or long-term,
    • material or symbolic (grade),
    • Consequences occur after the desired behavior occurs, then either positive or negative reinforcement may be given.
  • 13. Examples
    • Provide instruction with simple and clear directions.
    • Gain student’s full attention before giving instructions.
    • Provide one instruction at a time - do not provide too many different instructions.
    • Monitor compliance - provide time limits.
    • Provide appropriate consequences for compliance.
  • 14. Group Consequences
    • Provide a set of behavior rules or expectations
    • Determine the interval of time for the contingency - the longer the interval, the more valuable the reward
    • Provide a menu of choices to avoid satiation
    • Determine criterion for reinforcement
  • 15. Individual Consequences
    • Surprise Tokens: delivered at times that are not predictable by students
    • Rewards(Random Drawing): students place their name on a piece of paper and place into a jar when they comply to rules, at the end of the day, conduct a drawing for prizes
  • 16. CASE 3: A PUPIL CONSISTENTLY ANSWERS WITHOUT RAISING HIS HAND YOU WANT THE STUDENT TO RAISE HIS HAND BEFORE ANSWERING THE QUESTION
  • 17. METHOD 1: EXTINCTION
    • Extinction is a procedure in which the reinforcement that has been maintaining or increasing an inappropriate behavior is withheld entirely.
    • A common practice of the extinction procedure is ignoring behavior that is reinforced by attention.
  • 18.
    • Identifying behavioral reinforces and removing them can decrease a behavior.
    • An undesired behavior without reinforcement can diminish until it no longer occurs.
  • 19. Extinction through accustomizing
    • When a person receives a stimulus and experiences the conditioned response a number of times, then the intensity of the emotion they feel may well become dulled with familiarity
  • 20. Extinction through extreme experience
    • A strange thing that happens sometimes is that a behavior may become extinct not through ignoring the triggers that cause it, but actually exacerbating it to the extreme.
  • 21. Guidelines to Follow:
    • ~ Briefly remove all attention from the student
    • ~ Refuse to argue, scold or talk
    • ~ Turn your head to avoid eye contact
    • ~ Do not show anger in your manner or gestures
    • ~ Act absorbed in some other activity
    • ~ Be sure that the behavior does not allow him a material reinforcer
    • ~ Give lots of attention and reinforcement when the inappropriate behavior stops
  • 22. REFERENCES
    • http://www.afcec.org/tipsforteachers/tips_c3.html
    • http://changingminds.org/explanations/behaviors/conditioning/extinction.htm
    • http://www.parentsunitedtogether.com/page41.html

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