Introduction to neurology


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Introduction to neurology lecture data show for 5th year student

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Introduction to neurology

  1. 1. Introduction to Neurology Prof. Mamun Sarhan Head of Neurology Department
  2. 2. WHAT IS NEUROLOGY?Neurology is the branch of medicine thatdeals with diseases of the nervous system.
  3. 3. Major divisions Central nervous systemNervousSystem Peripheral nervous system
  4. 4. Intracranial Intracranial Spinal Spinal part part part part1.Cerebrum Spinal cord &2. Brain stem Cauda equina3. Cerebellum
  5. 5. CerebrumTwo cerebral hemispheresConnected to: 1. each other by corpus callosum 2. brain stem by cerebral peduncles
  6. 6. EACH CEREBRAL HEMISPHEREDEVIDEDINTO :four lobes: 1. Frontal 2. Parietal 3. Temporal 4. Occipital
  7. 7. Brain stem Formed of : Midbrain Pons MedullaConnected to: 1. Cerebral hemisphere by cerebral peduncles2. Cerbellum by cerebellar peduncles
  8. 8. Contains:• CN 3,4 in midbrain• CN 5,6,7,8 in pons• CN 9,10,11,12 in medulla
  9. 9. Names of cranial nerves• Ⅰ Olfactory nerve• Ⅱ Optic nerve• Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve• Ⅳ Trochlear nerve• Ⅴ Trigeminal nerve• Ⅵ Abducent nerve• Ⅶ Facial nerve• Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear nerve• Ⅸ Glossopharyngeal nerve• Ⅹ Vagus nerve• Ⅺ Accessory nerve• Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve
  10. 10. Classification of cranial nerves• Sensory cranial nerves: contain only afferent (sensory) fibers – ⅠOlfactory nerve – ⅡOptic nerve – Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear nerve• Motor cranial nerves: contain only efferent (motor) fibers – Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve – Ⅳ Trochlear nerve – ⅥAbducent nerve – Ⅺ Accessory nerv – Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve• Mixed nerves: contain both sensory and motor fibers--- – ⅤTrigeminal nerve, – Ⅶ Facial nerve, – ⅨGlossopharyngeal nerve – ⅩVagus nerve
  11. 11. Sensory cranial nervesN. Name Function AssessmentⅠ Olfactory Smell Examination of smellⅡ optic Vision Acuity, field & fundusⅧ Vestibular Equilibrim Caloric and part rotational chair Cochlear Hearing Watch test, part weber test
  12. 12. Motor cranial nervesN. Name Function AssessmentⅢ Oculomotor Motor to superior, inferior and Ptosis, pupil, eye medial recti; inferior oblique & movements & levator palpebrae superioris squint Parasympathetic to sphincter papillae and ciliary muscleⅣ Trochlear Motor to superior oblique Look to opposite shoulderⅥ Abducent Motor to lateral rectus Lateral eye movementⅪ Accessory Motor to sternocleidomastoid Elevaton of and trapezius shoulders and neck rotationⅫ Hypoglossal Motor to muscles of tongue Tongue movements
  13. 13. Mixed cranial nervesN. Name Function AssessmentV Trigeminal Muscles of Face sensations & mastication & power of muscles of sensations of face masticationVII Facial Muscles of facial Muscles of facial expression & taste expression & taste sensation in ant. 1/3 sensation in ant. 1/3 of of tongue tongueX Vagus Sensation and Palatal and pharyngeal movements of reflexes & movements of Larynx, pharynx, uvula thoracic and abdominal organsXII Glossopharyng- Taste in post 2/3 of Taste & general eal tongue & gen. sensation and sensation pharyngeal reflex
  14. 14. Cerebellum• Behind the brain stem• Formed of : medline vermis two cerebellar hemispheres• Composed of : outer grey matter and inner White matter
  15. 15. Cerebellar peduncles MB Pons C MO Superior peduncle connects cerebellum with midbrain. Middle peduncle connects cerebellum with pons. Inferior peduncle connects cerebellum with medulla oblongata
  16. 16. Hemispheres and vermis left right hemisphere hemisphere vermis Cerebellar hemispheres are the two bilateral structures. Vermis is the unpaired midline structure between the two hemispheres.
  17. 17. Spinal cord• Inside spinal canal• End at lower border of L1• The lowest 3 segments = Conus• The above 4 segments = Epiconus• Inner grey matter and outer white matter
  18. 18. Cauda equina• Lumbosacral roots collection fills the lower part of the spinal canal bellow L1
  19. 19. Cauda equinaBrachial plexusLumbosacral plexusCervical enlargementLumbosacral enlargement
  20. 20. Peripheral nervous system• A.H.Cs• Roots• Plexuses• Peripheral nerves
  21. 21. mo to r Upper co motor rte x neuron internal capsule Medullaanterior horn cell Lower motor neuron
  22. 22. Motor pathway
  23. 23. UMNL LMNLTone Increased, with Decreased ‘clasp knife’ qualityClonus Present AbsentFasciculations Absent PresentMuscle Wasting Absent, but disuse Present (within 2-3 atrophy eventually weeks) resultsTendon Reflexes Increased. Extensor Decreased or plantar reflexes. absent. Flexor plantar reflexes.Distribution Whole limbs, with Specific muscle more weakness in groups affected (e.g. the upper limb in the distribution of extensors and lower a spinal segment, or limb flexors just the proximal muscles, etc.)
  24. 24. Thank You!!!