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Quant qual research(1)
 

Quant qual research(1)

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    Quant qual research(1) Quant qual research(1) Presentation Transcript

    • Quantitative & Qualitative Research Studies NEXT
    • Objectives of the Chapter By the end of the chapter, you should be able to: - Define quantitative and qualitative research. - Identify what characteristics that distinguish and are similar for quantitative and qualitative research in each of the six steps of research . - Identify the types of research design used as procedures in quantitative, qualitative, or combined (or mixed) approaches.
    • Objectives of the Chapter By the end of the chapter, you should be able to: - Define quantitative and qualitative research. - Identify what characteristics that distinguish and are similar for quantitative and qualitative research in each of the six steps of research . - Identify the types of research design used as procedures in quantitative, qualitative, or combined (or mixed) approaches.
    • Objectives of the Chapter By the end of the chapter, you should be able to: - Define quantitative and qualitative research. - Identify what characteristics that distinguish and are similar for quantitative and qualitative research in each of the six steps of research . - Identify the types of research design used as procedures in quantitative, qualitative, or combined (or mixed) approaches.
    • Objectives of the Chapter By the end of the chapter, you should be able to: - Define quantitative and qualitative research. - Identify what characteristics that distinguish and are similar for quantitative and qualitative research in each of the six steps of research . - Identify the types of research design used as procedures in quantitative, qualitative, or combined (or mixed) approaches.
    • What are Quantitative & Qualitative Research ? Quantitative research… It is a type of educational research in which the researcher decided what to study; asks specific, narrow questions; collects quantitative data from participants; analyzes these number using statistics; and conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective manner. Qualitative research… It is a type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the view of participants; asks broad, general questions; collect data consisting largely of words (or text) from participants, describes and analyzes these words from themes; and conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner. If you are done this section, click here
    • Characteristics of Quantitative & Qualitative Research that we see today: Quantitative research… - An emphasis on collecting and analyzing information in the form of numbers. - An emphasis on collecting scores hat measure distinct attributes of individuals and organizations. - An emphasis on the procedures of comparing groups or relating factors about individuals or groups in experiments, correlations studies, and surveys. Qualitative research… - A recognition that researchers need to listen to the views of participants in their studies. - a recognition that researchers need to ask general, open questions, and collect data in places where people live and work. - A recognition that research has a role in advocating for changes and bettering the lives of individuals. Watch videos
    • Videos Video 1: Differences in Quantitative and Qualitative Research >>> Click here Video 2: Animation about Qualitative VS Quantitative Research >>> Click here If you are done this section, click here
    • 1. Identifying a Research Problem 2. Reviewing the Literature 3. Specifying a Purpose 4. Collecting Data 5. Analyzing and Interpreting Data 6. Reporting and Evaluating Research What characteristics that distinguish and are similar for quantitative and qualitative research in each of the six steps of research ? If you are done this section, click here
    • Quantitative research… - The research problem can be answered best by a study in which researchers seek to establish the overall tendency of responses from individuals and to note how this tendency varies among people. - Some quantitative research problems require that researcher explain how one variable affects another. Variables are an attribute or characteristics of individuals that researchers study. Identifying a Research Problem Qualitative research… - It is best suited for research problems in which researchers do not know the variables and need to explore. Researchers need to learn more from participants through exploration. - Researchers seek to gain a deeper understanding of a central phenomenon. **Similarity: Both research designs can be similar in the topics addresses, such as conveying a problem, pointing out the lack of literature on this problem, and justifying a need to study the problems. This does not mean that the type of problem is the same, only format for reporting the problems.
    • Quantitative research… • Literature plays a major role through suggesting the research questions to be asked. It means that researchers identify in the literature key variables, relation, trends, and use these to provide a direction for their research questions and hypotheses. • Literature justifies the research problem and creates a need for the direction (purpose statement and research questions and hypotheses) of the study. It means that researchers use the literature to document the importance of the issue examined in the study. To accomplish this, researchers search the literature, locate studies that identify the problems as important to examine, and then cite this literature in the opening sections of a research report. Reviewing the Literature Qualitative research… • The literature plays a less substantial role at the beginning of the study. It does not provide major direction for the research questions. The reason for this is that qualitative research relies on the views of participants in the study and less on the direction identified in the literature by the researchers. • The literature is of secondary importance whereas the views of the participants are of primary importance. • It justifies the importance of studying the research problems.
    • Quantitative research… • The purpose statement, the research questions, and hypotheses are specific and narrow because researchers identify only few variables to study. • The purpose statement, the research questions, and hypotheses tend to seek measurable, observable data on variables. Qualitative research… • The purpose is much more than open ended than in quantitative research. • Researchers ask general, board questions so that researchers can best learn from participants. Therefore, the purpose statement and research questions tend to be general and board. • the purpose statement and research questions tend to seek to understand the participants’ experiences. Specifying a Purpose for Research
    • Quantitative research… • Researchers use an instrument to measure the variables in the study, An instrument is a tool for measuring, observing, or documenting quantitative data. Examples of instruments are survey questionnaires, standardized testes, and checklists. Therefore, the data collection tends to consists of; -Collecting data using instruments with preset questions and responses. -Gathering quantifiable (numeric) data. -Collecting information from a large number of individuals. The larger the number of individuals studied, the stronger the case for applying the results to a large number of people. Qualitative research… • Researchers do not begin data collection with a preestablished instrument to measure distinct variables. Instead, researchers seek to learn from the participants in the study, and develop forms, called protocol, for recording data as the study proceeds. • Researchers do not use instruments constructed by other researchers. Instead, they develop their own forms for recording information or a interview protocol during the project. Therefore, the data collection tends to consists of; -Collecting data using forms with general, emerging questions to permit the participant to generate responses. -Gathering word (text) or image (picture) data -Collecting information from a small number of individuals or sites. Collecting Data Similarity: Both research designs, researchers collect data using interviews, observations, and documents.
    • Quantitative research… • Researchers analyze the data using mathematical procedures called statistics. These analyses consist of breaking down the data into parts to answer the research questions. After that, researchers will interpret results of this analysis in light of initial predictions or prior studies. • Interpretation is an explanation as to why the results turned out the way they did, and often you will explain how the results either support or refute the expected predictions in the study. Therefore, in quantitative research, the… • Data analysis tends to consist of statistical analysis. • Data analysis tends to involve describing trends, comparing group differences, or relating variables. • Interpretation tends to consist of comparing results with prior predictions and pas research. Qualitative research… • Researchers gather a text database, so the analysis of text consists of dividing it into groups of sentences, called text segments, and determining the meaning of each group of sentences. • Researchers analyze words or pictures to describe the central phenomenon under study.The results maybe a description of individual people or places. • Researchers make an interpretation of the meaning of the data by reflecting on how the findings relate to existing research, by stating a personal reflection about the significance of the lessons learned during the study; or by drawing out larger, more abstract meaning. • Researchers bring themselves directly into the written report in some way, such as writing an epilogue, writing about their experiences when they discuss the procedures, or weaving their personal experiences into the conclusion. Analyzing and Interpreting Data Therefore, in qualitative research, the… • Data analysis tends to consist of text analysis. • Data analysis tends to involve developing a description and themes. • Interpretation tends to consist of stating the larger meaning of the findings.
    • Quantitative research… • Researchers use procedures to ensure that their own personal biases and values do not influence the results. They report research without referring to themselves or their personal reaction. • Research reports tend to use standard, fixed structures and evaluative criteria. • Researchers tend to take an objective and unbiased approaches. Qualitative research… • Good qualitative reports need to be realistic and persuasive to convince the reader that the study is accurate and credible account. It typically contains extensive data collection to convey the complexity of the phenomenon or process. • Research reports tends to use flexible emerging structure and evaluative criteria. • Researchers tend to take a subjective (reflexive) and biased approach. It means that researchers will discuss their role or position in the study. This may involve discussing personal experiences and identifying how researchers collaborated with participants during the phrases of the project and how their experiences and culture background affect the interpretations and conclusions draw in the study. Reporting and Evaluating Research
    • Types of Research Designs Ground Theory Design Correlational Design Mixed Methods Design Ethnographic Design Experimental Design Survey Design Narrative Research Design Action Research Design If you are done this section, click here
    • • Some quantitative researchers seek to test whether an educational practice or idea makes a difference for individual. Experimental research procedures are ideally suited for this study. • Experimental designs (also called intervention studies or group comparison studies) are procedures in quantitative research in which the investigator determines whether an activity or materials make a difference in results for participants. Researchers access this impact by giving one group one set of activities (called an intervention) and withholding the set from another group. Experimental Design
    • • Correllational designs are procedures in quantitative research in which investigators measure the degree of association (or relation) between two or more variable using the statistical procedure of correlational analysis. • This degree of association, expressed as a number, indicates whether the two variables are related or whether one can predict another. To accomplish this, researchers study a single group of individuals rather than two or more groups as in an experiments. Correlaltional Design
    • • Another form of quantitative research. Researchers seek to describe trends in a large population of individuals. In this case, a survey is a good procedure to use. • Survey designs are procedures in quantitative research in which you administer a survey or questionnaire to a small group of people (called the sample) to identify trends in attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a large group of people (called the population). Survey Design
    • • Ground theory designs are systematic, qualitative procedures that researchers use to generate a general explanation (called a ground theory) that explains a process, action, or interaction among people. • The procedure for developing this theory include collecting primarily interview data, developing and relating categories (or themes) of information, and composing a figure or visual model that portrays the general explanation. • In this way, the explanation is “grounded” in the data from participants. From this explanation, researchers construct predictive statements about the experiences of individuals. Ground Theory Design
    • • Ethnographic designs are qualitative procedures for describing, analyzing, and interpreting a culture groups’ shared patterns of behaviors, beliefs, and languages that develop overtime. • Researchers provide a detailed picture of the culture-sharing group, drawing on various sources of information. They also describe the group within its setting, explores themes or issues that develop over time as the group interacts, and details a portrait of the group. Ethnographic Design
    • • Narrative research design are qualitative procedures in which researchers describe the lives of individuals, collect and tell stories about these individuals’ lives, and write narratives about their experiences. • In education, these stories often relate to school classroom experiences or activities in schools. Narrative Research Design
    • • Mix methods designs are procedures for collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or in a multiphase series of studies. • In this process, researchers need to decide on the emphasis they will give to each form of data (priority), which form of data they will collect first (concurrent or sequential) , how they will “mix” the data (integrating or connecting), and whether they will use an advocacy lens to guide their study. Mixed Methods Design
    • • Action research designs are systematic procedures used by teachers (or other individuals in an educational setting) to gather quantitative and qualitative data to address improvements in their educational settings, their teaching and the learning of their students. • The objectives of the study might be to empower, transform, and emancipate individuals in educational settings. Action Research Design