Orienteering Requirements <ul><li>Show that you know first aid for the types of injuries that could occur while orienteering, including cuts, scratches, blisters, snakebite, insect stings, tick bites, heat and cold reactions (sunburn, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, hypothermia), and dehydration. Explain to your counselor why you should be able to identify poisonous plants and poisonous animals that are found in your area. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Explain what orienteering is. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do the following: a. Explain how a compass works. Describe the features of an orienteering compass. b. In the field, show how to take a compass bearing and follow it. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do the following: a. Explain how a topographic map shows terrain features. Point out and name five terrain features on a map and in the field. b. Point out and name 10 symbols on a topographic map. c. Explain the meaning of declination. Tell why you must consider declination when using map and compass together. d. Show a topographic map with magnetic north-south lines. e. Show how to measure distances using an orienteering compass. f. Show how to orient a map using a compass. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Set up a 100-meter pace course. Determine your walking and running pace for 100 meters. Tell why it is important to pace-count. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Do the following: a. Identify 20 international control description symbols. Tell the meaning of each symbol. b. Show a control description sheet and explain the information provided. c. Explain the following terms and tell when you would use them: attack point, collecting feature, aiming off, contouring, reading ahead, handrail, relocation, rough versus fine orienteering. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Do the following: a. Take part in three orienteering events. One of these must be a cross-country course.* b. After each event, write a report with (1) a copy of the master map and control description sheet, (2) a copy of the route you took on the course, (3) a discussion of how you could improve your time between control points, and (4) a list of your major weaknesses on this course . Describe what you could do to improve. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Do ONE of the following: a. Set up a cross-country course of at least 2,000 meters long with at least five control markers. Prepare the master map and control description sheet. b. Set up a score-orienteering course with 12 control points and a time limit of at least 60 minutes. Prepare the master map and control description sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Act as an official during an orienteering event. This may be during the running of the course you set up for requirement 8. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Teach orienteering techniques to your patrol, troop or crew. </li></ul>
First Aid <ul><li>Cuts: ALWAYS WEAR LATEX GLOVES WHEN APPLYING FIRST AID TO A BLEEDING VICTIM. Treatment: Clean the wound with an antibacterial and apply a bandage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In almost all cases, applying "Direct Pressure" to the wound may stop bleeding. That is by pressing down upon the wound with your fingers or hand. If a sterile dressing is available, it may be placed on the cut before pressing down, but if the bleeding is serious, DO NOT WAIT for the sterile material. It is better to have a live victim with a few germs than a sterile wound on a dead patient. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abrasions: Abrasions are very common sports injuries that are usually caused by a fall on a hard surface. As the athlete falls or slides on the ground, friction causes layers of skin to rub off. Treatment: First, because abrasions can easily become infected, you should clean the area thoroughly and remove any dirt and debris. Cover wound with gauze. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not scrub vigorously, as this can cause more tissue damage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of abrasions is possible by wearing protective pads and covering any exposed skin with a layer of clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As healing begins, the area of the abrasion may look pink and raw, but in time the wound will form new skin that is pink and smooth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bruise: A bruise forms when a blow breaks small blood vessels near your skin's surface, allowing a small amount of blood to leak out into the tissues under your skin. Treatment: Elevate the injured area. Apply ice or a cold pack several times a day for a day or two after the injury. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Heatstroke: This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point where organ damage. Treatment: Ice packs/sheets, IV fluids, and medical evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious or has a markedly abnormal mental status (dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flushed, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to cool the person with water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have slightly elevated blood pressure at first that falls later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be hyperventilating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectal (core) temperature of 105°F or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat exhaustion: This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid place and body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat. Treatment: oral fluids & cool shading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often pale with cool, moist skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating profusely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps or pains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels faint or dizzy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May complain of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core (rectal) temperature elevated—usually more than 100°F—and the pulse rate increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunburn: Excessive or prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. The time between 11 am and 2 pm contains the most powerful solar radiation exposure period. Treatment: Sun protection or appropriate coverings should be worn at all times, but especially during this time to decrease risk of sunburn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunburned skin is red and dry in exposed areas in a first-degree burn. Often, one may not realize that the skin is burned until ours later. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If exposure to the sun continues, second-degree burns may occur and blisters with clear fluid may form. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
<ul><li>Hypothermia: Over-exposure to colder temperatures over time that result in a drop in body core temperature. Treatment: Removing them from the elements that caused the condition. Seek a dry, warm place away from the wind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial mental status changes in response to cold may be subtle and include hunger and nausea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will progress to apathy, confusion, slurred speech, and loss of coordination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many times a person will just lie down, fall asleep, and die. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frostbite: Occurs when tissues freeze. This condition happens when you are exposed to temperatures below the freezing point of skin. Treatment: Keep the affected part elevated in order to reduce swelling, move to a warm area to prevent further heat loss, remove all constrictive jewelry and clothes because they may further block blood flow, give the person warm non-caffeinated fluids to drink, apply a dry, sterile bandage, place cotton between any involved fingers or toes (to prevent rubbing), and take the person to a medical facility as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In superficial frostbite, you may experience burning, numbness, tingling, itching, or cold sensations in the affected areas. The regions appear white and frozen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In deep frostbite, there is an initial decrease in sensation that is eventually completely lost. Swelling and blood-filled blisters are noted over white or yellowish skin that looks waxy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dehydration: Occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. Treatment: Sip small amounts of water or carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks. Treat for heat Increased thirst with dry mouth and swollen tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness and/or dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion and/or sluggishness, even fainting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased urine output. If urine is concentrated and deeply yellow or amber, you may be dehydrated. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
<ul><li>Stings: A sting or bite injects venom composed of proteins and other substances that may trigger an allergic reaction in the victim. Treatment: If there is only redness and pain at the site of the bite, application of ice is adequate treatment. Clean the area with soap and water to remove contaminated particles left behind by some insects (such as mosquitoes). Refrain from scratching because this may cause the skin to break down and an infection to form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most bites and stings result in pain, swelling, redness, and itching to the affected area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe reaction include hives, wheezing, shortness of breath, unconsciousness, and even death within 30 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tick bites: Second only to mosquitoes as vectors (carriers) of human disease. Treatment: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants cinched at the ankle or tucked into the boots or socks. If attached, using rounded tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to the skin surface, and then pull with slow steady pressure in a direction away from the skin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redness, itching, and swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme’s Disease: The hallmark target lesion, a red circular rash with a pale center, occurs at the site of the bite within 2-20 days after the bite in 60-80% of cases. The rash may be accompanied by fatigue, headache, joint aches, and other flulike symptoms. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
<ul><li>Snakebite: Usually occur because of accidental or deliberate contact. However, not all snakebites result in poisonings. Treatment: Wash the snakebite with soap and water, seek medical facilities for a tetanus shot if one hasn’t been received in the past five years antivenin should also be sought if applicable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling, burning, and pain at the site of the bite may be severe, with tissue breakdown occurring around the bite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure to remember the snake’s characteristics so you can receive the appropriate antivenin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, thick tongue, difficulty speaking and swallowing, numbness, and tingling around the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blisters: Vary from thermal to show rubs. Treatment: Cool the injured area with water (not ice) within 30 seconds. Apply clean bandage or mole skin. Do not pop blisters! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painful red area turns white when touched </li></ul></ul>First Aid
Orienteering is… <ul><li>Orienteering is a family of sports that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain. Participants are given a map, usually a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points. Originally a training exercise in land navigation for military officers, orienteering has developed many variations. </li></ul><ul><li>The competition, or race, is intended to test 'the navigational skill, concentration, and running ability of the competitors‘. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure fairness between competitors the map is not usually provided until the start, and starts are normally staggered with competitors starting at not less than one-minute intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic equipment required for orienteering is usually listed as a compass and appropriate outdoor clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>The history of orienteering begins in the late 19th century in Sweden, the actual term "orienteering" was first used in 1886 and meant the crossing of unknown land with the aid of a map and a compass. The first orienteering competition open to the public was held in Norway in 1897. </li></ul><ul><li>At international level, the International Orienteering Federation (IOF) defines rules and guidelines which govern four orienteering sports: foot orienteering, mountain bike orienteering, ski orienteering, and trail orienteering. It is based in Finland and it claims on its website to aim to "spread the sport of orienteering, to promote its development and to create and maintain an attractive world event program." Since 1977 the IOF has been recognized by the International Olympic Committee. Efforts begun in 1996 to promote the inclusion of orienteering in the Olympic Games have so far been unsuccessful, although orienteering became a sport in the World Games in 2001, and is a sport in the Summer Deaflympics. </li></ul>
Compass The compass functions as an indicator to "Magnetic North" because the magnetic bar at the heart of the compass aligns itself to one of the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. Depending on where the compass is situated on the surface of the Earth the variance between geographic North or "True North" will increase the farther one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field. It should be noted that the geographic North Pole and the Magnetic North pole are not coincident on the surface of the Earth. The Magnetic North Pole drifts in a circle with a radius of approximately 1600 km South of geographic North. It takes roughly 960 years for the magnetic pole to complete one cycle of drift across the Arctic Ocean. It is thought that the cause of this Magnetic Pole drift is the circulation of the magma inside the Earth. If one is using "true" or map bearings, and the compass does not have preset, pre-adjusted declination, one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing .
The base plate or protractor compass This type of compass was invented by the Kjellstrom brothers during the World War II era and consists of a rectangular base plate, which is marked with a red arrow pointing along the long axis, and a rotating compass housing marked in degrees (360 degrees for the full circle in most of the world, but 400 on some European compasses). Marked on the floor of the rotating compass housing are an arrow and a set of lines parallel to that arrow. Additional features may include a lanyard for attaching the compass to the wrist, scale bars for measuring map distances along one or more edges of the base plate, a magnifying glass for reading fine map detail, and templates of a circle and triangle for marking orienteering courses on the map.
Topographic Map (1) Hill . A hill is an area of high ground. From a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions. A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop ( Figure 10-17 ). Figure 10-17. Hill. (2) Saddle . A saddle is a dip or low point between two areas of higher ground. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and lower ground in the other two directions. A saddle is normally represented as an hourglass ( Figure 10-18 ). Figure 10-18. Saddle.
Topographic Map (3) Valley . A valley is a stretched-out groove in the land, usually formed by streams or rivers. A valley begins with high ground on three sides, and usually has a course of running water through it. If standing in a valley, three directions offer high ground, while the fourth direction offers low ground. Depending on its size and where a person is standing, it may not be obvious that there is high ground in the third direction, but water flows from higher to lower ground. Contour lines forming a valley are either U-shaped or V-shaped. To determine the direction water is flowing, look at the contour lines. The closed end of the contour line (U or V) always points upstream or toward high ground ( Figure 10-19 ). Figure 10-19. Valley. (4) Ridge . A ridge is a sloping line of high ground. If you are standing on the centerline of a ridge, you will normally have low ground in three directions and high ground in one direction with varying degrees of slope. If you cross a ridge at right angles, you will climb steeply to the crest and then descend steeply to the base. When you move along the path of the ridge, depending on the geographic location, there may be either an almost unnoticeable slope or a very obvious incline. Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour line points away from high ground ( Figure 10-20 ). Figure 10-20. Ridge.
Topographic Map (5) Depression . A depression is a low point in the ground or a sinkhole. It could be described as an area of low ground surrounded by higher ground in all directions, or simply a hole in the ground. Usually only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown. On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground ( Figure 10-21 ). Figure 10-21. Depression. (1) Draw . A draw is a less developed stream course than a valley. In a draw, there is essentially no level ground and, therefore, little or no maneuver room within its confines. If you are standing in a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction. A draw could be considered as the initial formation of a valley. The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground ( Figure 10-22 ). Figure 10-22. Draw.
Topographic Map (2) Spur . A spur is a short, continuous sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge. A spur is often formed by two rough parallel streams, which cut draws down the side of a ridge. The ground sloped down in three directions and up in one direction. Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U or V pointing away from high ground ( Figure 10-23 ). Figure 10-23. Spur. (3) Cliff . A cliff is a vertical or near vertical feature; it is an abrupt change of the land. When a slope is so steep that the contour lines converge into one "carrying" contour of contours, this last contour line has tick marks pointing toward low ground ( Figure 10-24A ). Cliffs are also shown by contour lines very close together and, in some instances, touching each other ( Figure 10-24B ). Figure 10-24A. Cliff. Figure 10-24B. Cliff.
Topographic Map (1) Cut . A cut is a man-made feature resulting from cutting through raised ground, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track. Cuts are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the cut line. This contour line extends the length of the cut and has tick marks that extend from the cut line to the roadbed, if the map scale permits this level of detail ( Figure 10-25 ). Figure 10-25. Cut and fill. (2) Fill . A fill is a man-made feature resulting from filling a low area, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track. Fills are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the fill line. This contour line extends the length of the filled area and has tick marks that point toward lower ground. If the map scale permits, the length of the fill tick marks are drawn to scale and extend from the base line of the fill symbol ( Figure 10-25 ).