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Lesson plan cooking
 

Lesson plan cooking

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cooking merit badge

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    Lesson plan cooking Lesson plan cooking Presentation Transcript

    • Merit Badge Requirements
      • Do the following:
        • a. Review with your counselor the injuries that might arise from cooking, including burns and scalds, and the proper treatment.
        • b. Describe how should be meat, fish, chicken, eggs, dairy products, and fresh vegetables stored, transported, and properly prepared for cooking.
        • c. Describe the following food-related illnesses and tell what you can do to help prevent each from happening:
          • 1. Salmonella enteritis
          • 2. Staphylococcal enteritis
          • 3. E. coli (Escherichia coli) enteritis
          • 4. Botulism
          • 5. Trichinosis
          • 6. Hepatitis
      • Do the following:
        • a. Illustrate for your counselor the food pyramid that fits you. Label the following food groups in the pyramid and how much of each you should eat each day:
          • 1. Grains
          • 2. Vegetables
          • 3. Fruits
          • 4. Milk, yogurt, cheese
          • 5. Meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, nuts
          • 6. Oils (fats) and sugars
        • b. Explain why you should limit your intake of oils and sugars.
        • c. Explain the number of servings recommended per day from each group.
        • d. Give your counselor examples from each food group.
        • e. Describe for your counselor the measurements of servings for each food group.
        • f. Describe to your counselor food preparation techniques that result in more healthful and nutritious meals.
      • Plan a menu for two straight days (six meals) of camping. Include the following:
        • a. A camp dinner with soup; meat, fish, poultry, or an appropriate substitute; two fresh vegetables; drink; and dessert. All are to be properly prepared. When preparing your menu, follow the nutritional guidelines set by the food pyramid.
        • b. A one-pot dinner. Use foods other than canned.
        • c. Using the menu planned for requirement 3, make a food list showing cost and amount needed to feed three or more boys.
        • d. List the utensils needed to cook and serve these meals.
      • Using the menu planned for requirement 3, do the following and discuss the process with your merit badge counselor:
        • a. Prepare and serve for yourself and two others, the two dinners, one lunch, and one breakfast. Time your cooking so that each course will be ready to serve at the proper time.*
        • b. For meals prepared in requirement 4a for which a fire is needed, use a lightweight stove or build a low-impact fire. Include support for your cooking utensils from rocks, logs, or like material. The same fireplace may be used for more than one meal. Use a backpacking stove to cook at least one meal. (Where local regulations do not allow you to do this, the counselor may change the requirement to meet the law.)
        • c. For each meal prepared in requirement 4a, use safe food-handling practices. Dispose of garbage, cans, foil, paper, and other rubbish by packing them out and depositing them in a proper container. After each meal, clean up the site thoroughly.
      • Plan a menu for one day (three meals) or for four meals over a two-day period of trail hiking or backpacking. Include the following:
        • a. A breakfast, lunch, and dinner for a trail or backpacking trip where light weight is important. You should be able to store all foods used for several days without refrigeration. When preparing your menu, follow the nutritional guidelines set by the food pyramid*
        • b. Using the menu planned for requirement 5, make a food list showing cost and amount needed to feed three or more boys.
        • c. List the utensils needed to cook and serve these meals.
        • d. Figure the weight of the foods in requirement 5a.
      • Using the menu planned for requirement 5, do the following:
        • a. Prepare and serve for yourself and two others, the trail breakfast and dinner. Time your cooking so that each course will be ready to serve at the proper time.
        • b. Use an approved trail stove (with proper supervision) or charcoal to prepare your meals.
        • c. For each meal prepared in requirement 6a, use safe food-handling practices. Dispose of garbage, cans, foil, paper, and other rubbish by packing them out and depositing them in a proper container. After each meal, clean up the site thoroughly.
      • Plan a menu for three full days of meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) to be cooked at home.
        • a. When preparing your menu, follow the nutritional guidelines set by the food pyramid. All meals are to be cooked or properly prepared.
        • b. Using the menu planned for requirement 7, make a food list showing cost and amount needed to feed yourself and at least one adult (parent, family member, guardian, or other responsible adult).
        • c. Tell what utensils were needed to cook and serve these meals.
        • d. Prepare and serve a breakfast, lunch, and dinner from the menu you planned for requirement 7. Time your cooking to have each course ready to serve at the proper time. Have an adult verify the preparation of the meal to your counselor.
      • Find out about three career opportunities in cooking. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.
        • * The meals for requirements 4a and 5a may be prepared for different trips. They need not be prepared consecutively. Scouts working on this badge at summer camp should plan around food they can get at the camp commissary.
    • First Aid
      • Cuts: ALWAYS WEAR LATEX GLOVES WHEN APPLYING FIRST AID TO A BLEEDING  VICTIM. Treatment: Clean the wound with an antibacterial and apply a bandage
        • In almost all cases, applying "Direct Pressure" to the wound may stop bleeding. That is by pressing down upon the wound with your fingers or hand. If a sterile dressing is available, it may be placed on the cut before pressing down, but if the bleeding is serious, DO NOT WAIT for the sterile material. It is better to have a live victim with a few germs than a sterile wound on a dead patient.
      • Abrasions: Abrasions are very common sports injuries that are usually caused by a fall on a hard surface. As a person falls or slides on the ground, friction causes layers of skin to rub off. Treatment: First, because abrasions can easily become infected, you should clean the area thoroughly and remove any dirt and debris. Cover wound with gauze.
        • Do not scrub vigorously, as this can cause more tissue damage.
        • Prevention of abrasions is possible by wearing protective pads and covering any exposed skin with a layer of clothing.
        • As healing begins, the area of the abrasion may look pink and raw, but in time the wound will form new skin that is pink and smooth.
      • Bruise: A bruise forms when a blow breaks small blood vessels near your skin's surface, allowing a small amount of blood to leak out into the tissues under your skin. Treatment: Elevate the injured area. Apply ice or a cold pack several times a day for a day or two after the injury.
      • Burn: Excessive or prolonged exposure to heat. Treatment : Cool water and aloe Procautions should be taken or appropriate coverings should be worn at all times to decrease risk of burn.
        • Burned skin is red and dry in exposed areas in a first-degree burn. Often, one may not realize that the skin is burned until hours later.
        • If exposure to the heat source continues, second-degree burns may occur and blisters with clear fluid may form.
      First Aid
    • Food Storage and Preparation
      • Separate raw foods from cooked foods .
        • Store meat, poultry, fish or seafood in leak-proof containers in the fridge, so that juices don’t spill onto other foods.  
        • Keep raw meats, poultry, fish and seafood away from cooked food, fresh fruits and vegetables. Wash hands, utensils, chopping boards and work surfaces carefully after handling raw meats, and before using the same items to prepare raw vegetables, salads, sandwiches or other food.
        • When barbecuing, do not place cooked meats back on the plate that held raw meats.
    • food-related illnesses
      • A bacterium, Salmonella enteritidis , can be inside perfectly normal-appearing eggs, and if the eggs are eaten raw or undercooked, the bacterium can cause illness.
      • Reducing the risk of Salmonella enteritidis infection
      • Keep eggs refrigerated.   Discard cracked or dirty eggs.   Wash hands and cooking utensils with soap and water after contact with raw eggs.   Eat eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs warm for more than 2hours.   Refrigerate unused or leftover egg- containing foods.   Avoid eating raw eggs (as in homemade ice cream or eggnog). Commercially manufactured ice cream and eggnog are made with pasteurized eggs and have not been linked with Salmonella enteritidis infections.   Avoid restaurant dishes made with raw or undercooked, unpasteurized eggs. Restaurants should use pasteurized eggs in any recipe (such as Hollandaise sauce or caesar salad dressing) that calls for pooling of raw eggs.
      • Staphylococcal enteritis is a form of enteritis due to food poisoning caused by one of a variety of Staphylococcus bacteria. The illness is not necessarily the result of active infection, but can be the result of toxins that may have been left in the food due to improper handling prior to its consumption. Symptoms of infection include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, fever, chills, weakness, and dizziness.
      • Take these precautions to prevent stephylococcal enteritis :
      • Wash hands and utensils before serving food. Thoroughly cook all meats. Refrigerate leftovers promptly in shallow, covered containers
      • E. coli enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine from Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. Caused by unclean food/ water. Careful hand washing may be helpful. Do not drink untreated or possibly contaminated food or water. Always cook meats well, especially ground meats. Cook meats at high enough temperatures to kill bacteria
      • Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by botulinum toxin. The toxin enters the body in one of four ways: by colonization of the digestive tract by the bacterium in children ( infant botulism ) or adults ( adult intestinal toxemia ), by ingestion of toxin from foodstuffs ( foodborne botulism ) or by contamination of a wound by the bacterium ( wound botulism ).All forms lead to paralysis that typically starts with the muscles of the face and then spreads towards the limbs The only known prevention measure for infant botulism is to avoid feeding honey to infants less than 12 months of age. Because the botulism toxin is destroyed by high temperatures, home-canned foods are best boiled for 20 minutes before eating. Wound botulism can be prevented by promptly seeking medical care for infected wounds, and by avoiding punctures by unsterile things such as needles used for street drug injections
    • food-related illnesses
      • Trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis , commonly called the trichina worm. Prevention: Larvae may be inactivated by the heating, freezing (caution), or irradiation of raw meat. Freezing may only work for T. spiralis, since some other species, such as T. nativa, are freeze resistant and can survive long-term freezing. Cooking meat products to an internal temperature of 165 °F (74 °C) for a minimum of 15 seconds.It is prudent to use a margin of error to allow for variation in internal temperature and error in the thermometer. Freezing pork less than 6 inches thick for 20 days at 5 °F (−15 °C) or three days at −4 °F (−20 °C) kills larval worms. Cooking wild game meat thoroughly. Freezing wild game meats, unlike freezing pork products, even for long periods of time, may not effectively kill all worms. This is because the species of trichinella that typically infects wild game is more resistant to freezing than the species that infects pigs.
      • Hepatitis A is a highly contagious disease that attacks the liver. It is the most common type of hepatitis reported in the United States.  Hepatitis A virus may also be spread by consuming food or drink that has been handled by an infected person. Waterborne outbreaks are infrequent and are usually associated with sewage-contaminated or inadequately treated water. The symptoms of hepatitis A may include an abrupt onset of fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach pain, dark-colored urine and jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes). To prevent person-to-person spread, careful hand washing after using the bathroom, changing diapers and before preparing or eating food, is the single most important means of prevention.Foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks are relatively uncommon in the United States; however, when they occur, intensive public health efforts are required for their control. To prevent the spread of hepatitis A from an infected food worker to co-workers and/or restaurant patrons, food workers should never touch ready-to-eat foods with bare hands, and should carefully wash their hands after using the bathroom, even if the food worker does not feel sick. Food workers should never work while they are sick with stomach (gastrointestinal) illnesses
    •  
    • What foods are in the grain group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product. Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products. Grains are divided into 2 subgroups, whole grains and refined grains . Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel -- the bran, germ, and endosperm. Examples include: whole-wheat flour bulgur (cracked wheat) oatmeal whole cornmeal brown rice Refined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ. This is done to give grains a finer texture and improve their shelf life, but it also removes dietary fiber, iron, and many B vitamins. Some examples of refined grain products are: white flour degermed cornmeal white bread white rice Most refined grains are enriched . This means certain B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added back after processing. Fiber is not added back to enriched grains. Check the ingredient list on refined grain products to make sure that the word “enriched” is included in the grain name. Some food products are made from mixtures of whole grains and refined grains.
    • What foods are in the vegetable group? Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the vegetable group. Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or dried/dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed. Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups, based on their nutrient content. Some commonly eaten vegetables in each subgroup are: Dark green vegetables bok choy broccoli collard greens dark green leafy lettuce kale mesclun mustard greens romaine lettuce spinach turnip greens watercress Orange vegetables acorn squash butternut squash carrots hubbard squash pumpkin sweetpotatoes Starchy vegetables corn green peas lima beans (green) potatoes Dry beans and peas black beans black-eyed peas garbanzo beans (chickpeas) kidney beans lentils lima beans (mature) navy beans pinto beans soy beans split peas tofu (bean curd made from soybeans) white beans Other vegetables artichokes asparagus bean sprouts beets Brussels sprouts cabbage cauliflower celery cucumbers eggplant green beans green or red peppers iceberg (head) lettuce mushrooms okra onions parsnips tomatoes tomato juice vegetable juice turnips wax beans zucchini
    • What foods are in the fruit group? Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried, and may be whole, cut-up, or pureed. Some commonly eaten fruits are: Apples Apricots Avocado Bananas Berries: strawberries blueberries raspberries Cherries Grapefruit Grapes Kiwi fruit Lemons Limes Mangoes Melons: cantaloupe honeydew watermelon Mixed fruits: fruit cocktail Nectarines Oranges Peaches Pears Papaya Pineapple Plums Prunes Raisins Tangerines 100% Fruit juice: orange apple grape grapefruit
    • What foods are included in the milk, yogurt, and cheese (milk) group? All fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of this food group. Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group, while foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Most milk group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. Some commonly eaten choices in the milk, yogurt, and cheese group are: Milk All fluid milk: fat-free (skim) low fat (1%) reduced fat (2%) whole milk flavored milks: chocolate strawberry lactose reduced milks lactose free milks Milk-based desserts Puddings made with milk ice milk frozen yogurt ice cream Cheese Hard natural cheeses: cheddar mozzarella Swiss parmesan soft cheeses ricotta cottage cheese processed cheeses American Yogurt* All yogurt Fat-free low fat reduced fat whole milk yogurt
    • What foods are included in the meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts (meat & beans) group? All foods made from meat, poultry, fish, dry beans or peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds are considered part of this group. Dry beans and peas are part of this group as well as the vegetable group. Most meat and poultry choices should be lean or low-fat. Fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose these foods frequently instead of meat or poultry. Some commonly eaten choices in the Meat and Beans group, with selection tips, are: Meats* Lean cuts of : beef ham lamb pork veal Game meats: bison rabbit venison Lean ground meats: beef pork lamb Lean luncheon meats Organ meats: liver giblets Nuts & seeds* almonds cashews hazelnuts (filberts) mixed nuts peanuts peanut butter pecans pistachios pumpkin seeds sesame seeds sunflower seeds walnuts Fish* Finfish such as: catfish cod flounder haddock halibut herring mackerel pollock porgy salmon sea bass snapper swordfish trout tuna Shellfish such as: clams crab crayfish lobster mussels octopus oysters scallops squid (calamari) shrimp Canned fish such as: anchovies clams tuna sardines Poultry* chicken duck goose turkey ground chicken and turkey Eggs* chicken eggs duck eggs Dry beans and peas: black beans black-eyed peas chickpeas (garbanzo beans) falafel kidney beans lentils lima beans (mature) navy beans pinto beans soy beans split peas tofu (bean curd made from soy beans) white beans bean burgers: garden burgers veggie burgers * Selection Tips Choose lean or low-fat meat and poultry. If higher fat choices are made, such as regular ground beef (75 to 80% lean) or chicken with skin, the fat in the product counts as part of the discretionary calorie allowance. . If solid fat is added in cooking, such as frying chicken in shortening or frying eggs in butter or stick margarine, this also counts as part of the discretionary calorie allowance. Select fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, trout, and herring, more often Liver and other organ meats are high in cholesterol. Egg yolks are also high in cholesterol, but egg whites are cholesterol-free. Processed meats such as ham, sausage, frankfurters, and luncheon or deli meats have added sodium. Check the ingredient and Nutrition Facts label to help limit sodium intake. Fresh chicken, turkey, and pork that have been enhanced with a salt-containing solution also have added sodium. Check the product label for statements such as “self-basting” or “contains up to __% of __”, which mean that a sodium-containing solution has been added to the product. Sunflower seeds, almonds, and hazelnuts (filberts) are the richest sources of vitamin E in this food group. To help meet vitamin E recommendations, make these your nut and seed choices more often.
      • What are “ oils ” ?
      • Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. Oils come from many different plants and from fish. Some common oils are:
      • canola oil
      • corn oil
      • cottonseed oil
      • olive oil
      • safflower oil
      • soybean oil
      • sunflower oil
      • Some oils are used mainly as flavorings, such as walnut oil and sesame oil. A number of foods are naturally high in oils, like:
      • nuts
      • olives
      • some fish
      • avocados
      • Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine with no trans fats. Check the Nutrition Facts label to find margarines with 0 grams of trans fat. Amounts of trans fat will be required on labels as of 2006. Many products already provide this information. Most oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) do not contain any cholesterol. In fact, no foods from plants sources contain cholesterol. A few plant oils, however, including coconut oil and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to be solid fats. Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter and shortening. Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation. Some common solid fats are:
      • butter
      • beef fat (tallow, suet)
      • chicken fat
      • pork fat (lard)
      • stick margarine
      • shortening
      • What are "discretionary calories"?
      • You need a certain number of calories to keep your body functioning and provide energy for physical activities. Think of the calories you need for energy like money you have to spend.   Each person has a total calorie “ budget. ”  This budget can be divided into “ essentials ” and “ extras. ” With a financial budget, the essentials are items like rent and food.   The extras are things like movies and vacations.   In a calorie budget, the “ essentials ” are the minimum calories required to meet your nutrient needs.   By selecting the lowest fat and no-sugar-added forms of foods in each food group you would make the best nutrient “ buys. ”  Depending on the foods you choose, you may be able to spend more calories than the amount required to meet your nutrient needs.   These calories are the “ extras ” that can be used on luxuries like solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol, or on more food from any food group.   They are your “ discretionary calories. ” Each person has an allowance for some discretionary calories.   But, many people have used up this allowance before lunch-time!   Most discretionary calorie allowances are very small, between 100 and 300 calories, especially for those who are not physically active.   For many people, the discretionary calorie allowance is totally used by the foods they choose in each food group, such as higher fat meats, cheeses, whole milk, or sweetened bakery products.   You can use your discretionary calorie allowance to:
      • Eat more foods from any food group than the food guide recommends.
      • Eat higher calorie forms of foods — those that contain solid fats or added sugars.   Examples are whole milk, cheese, sausage, biscuits, sweetened cereal, and sweetened yogurt.
      • Add fats or sweeteners to foods.   Examples are sauces, salad dressings, sugar, syrup, and butter.
      • Eat or drink items that are mostly fats, caloric sweeteners, and/or alcohol, such as candy, soda, wine, and beer.
      • For example, assume your calorie budget is 2,000 calories per day.   Of these calories, you need to spend at least 1,735 calories for essential nutrients, if you choose foods without added fat and sugar.   Then you have 265 discretionary calories left.   You may use these on “ luxury ” versions of the foods in each group, such as higher fat meat or sweetened cereal.   Or, you can spend them on sweets, sauces, or beverages.   Many people overspend their discretionary calorie allowance, choosing more added fats, sugars, and alcohol than their budget allows.
    • Pastry Chef Career Overview The career of a pastry chef entails a lot of creativity, organization and hectic work environments. The education needed for this career path can be found at culinary institutes or even simply through experience and the right connections. Duties and Responsibilities of a Pastry Chef A pastry chef works primarily in a kitchen setting, meaning that person must be organized, clean and have a strong work ethic. The ability to work well with others is also critical, as any cooking environment is going to involve other chefs in the same sometimes hectic workspace. The pastry chef is responsible for the final product of the pastries being baked and all of the prep work, sanitizing and the overall presentation of the pastry. Here are some duties from job postings listed on CareerBuilder.com: 'Assist with supervision and maintenance of day-to-day operations of pastry kitchen, including all preparation and production of pastry, bread and dessert items.' -- Ameristar Casinos 'Responsible for production of all pastry and bakery items, including confections, wedding cakes, breads and specialty items.' -- The Hermitage Hotel Job Requirements Formal training to become a pastry chef includes four or two-year degrees or certificates from community colleges, professional culinary institutes or independent cooking schools. Along with possessing a certain artistic flair, a pastry chef must be able to stand for hours at a time and have a high level of both mental and physical stamina. The high-paced nature of the job can be exhausting, so a pastry chef must be able to maintain focus and a superior level of hard work in this kind of setting. They must also be creative and flexible enough to change plans based on lack of ingredients, equipment malfunction or other unforeseen circumstances. These skills and attributes are highlighted in these job postings on Monster.com: 'Requires three years of restaurant or hotel experience baking fresh bread and high-end desserts.' -- Palm Springs General Hospital 'Monitors and ensures proper staffing levels, actively participates in teaching and development of all pastry chefs, including side by side training. Effectively communicates to management, ensuring overall quality of service and results.' -- The Cheesecake Factory Employment Outlook The amount of competition for pastry chefs is very high at the top end, where earnings can go as high as $65,000 a year (www.bls.gov). The median yearly salary for a pastry chef is around $35,000, and while pastry chefs are not in high demand, the specialized education, and the cost of that, keep those qualified candidates close to a job if they don't have one. Several culinary academies and colleges have ties directly with the industry, and that provides a strong connection and resource for their graduates. The ceiling for pastry chefs can be high, considering the amount of posh restaurants, resorts and casinos that employ top-end culinary workers, but getting those jobs is extremely competitive and would need several years of the right experience in order to apply. Finding that first job is a more manageable situation, though, and hard work through that and probably another job could lead to the high end of the industry.
    • What is Institutional Food Working? The field of institutional food working deals with preparing and serving food within institutional settings, such as prisons, hospitals and schools. Institutional cafeterias require a wide variety of workers to dish up large quantities of food, including cooks, servers, managers and cleaning staff. Educational requirements vary depending on the position, but several related degree programs are available. Students interested in management positions in institutional food service have several degree program options, including an Associate of Applied Science in Restaurant and Institutional Food Management. Programs related to institutional food preparation and service are less common, but interested individuals can pursue diploma and certificate programs in culinary arts, which include courses in food safety and kitchen sanitation. Individuals interested in becoming institutional cooks may benefit from an Associate of Applied Science in Culinary Arts. However, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the majority of institutional food workers learn their trade through on-the-job training versus an educational program ( www.bls.gov ).
    • What is a Kitchen Assistant? Kitchen assistants work as part of a team under the supervision of a head chef, or head waiter, and can find themselves with a number of tasks from preparing food for chefs to unloading deliveries. Kitchen assistants can also work with equipment and prepare simple recipes. While there is no set educational pathway to becoming a kitchen assistant, some schools offer courses and certificate programs that cover the foundations of cooking and food preparation. These programs can also cover other aspects of the culinary industry including safety protocol, food safety, sanitation practices and proper food storage. Others make their way into careers as kitchen assistants through on the job training under the supervision of experienced chefs and kitchen staff. Careers in this field can be found in a number of places, such as restaurants, corporations, hospitals, universities or resorts.
    • What are Meat Cutting Professions? Meat cutters, or butchers, prepare meat for consumer purchase. The profession is learned through on-the-job training and often a 2-year apprenticeship is fulfilled. Over the first several days or weeks working, meat cutters will learn how to remove bones and trim and shape different cuts. At the more advanced level, they will learn how to carve whole carcasses, which can take several months to learn. Excellent customer service skills, basic math skills for weighing and pricing cuts, and knowledge of hygiene and proper use and care of tools and equipment are essential to this profession. Employment opportunities are available at meat processing plants, privately owned butcher shops, and grocery store meat departments. According the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov), the number of jobs in the food processing profession, which includes meat cutters, is expected to increase by 4% through 2018. There are also several programs in the U.S. that cover more specific elements of meat cutting and food safety. These range from several months to two years in length and can lead to employment with the USDA or other food processing organizations.
    • Duties and Responsibilities of a Professional Chef Professional chefs are more than just cooks. They are often thought of as artists who have chosen food as their mediums and their goal is to create nutritious, delicious and aesthetically pleasing arrangements of ingredients. Most chefs develop a personal style based upon their preferred style of cooking, regional influences and available ingredients. Many modern chefs practice what is known as 'fusion' cooking, combining ingredients and cooking styles of two or more types of cooking to create new, unique flavors. Examples of fusion cooking include California style, Pan-Asian and Mexican-Italian. Professional chefs are generally trained at culinary institutes, although some colleges and universities offer bachelor's or associate's degree programs in the culinary arts.
    • Restaurant Management and Catering Restaurants operate just like businesses in other industries. Their primary goal is to provide a service and produce a profit. This can be very difficult, however. Restaurants and catering services face the same logistical and customer service challenges of other businesses, but with the added challenges associated with food service and the culinary industry. Restaurant management and catering professionals generally have a background in culinary arts, although many professionals are opting for an associate's, bachelor's or even master's degree in business management. These professionals are responsible for ensuring that a restaurant or catering service is run professionally, safely and efficiently, as well as for resolving customer service issues. Salaries in the field can be varied and depend highly upon customer satisfaction and overall profitability.
    • Restaurant Service and Management Restaurant service is one of the most common first jobs for young people. While it can be an excellent way to earn spending money during high school or college, restaurant service careers can also act as a stepping stone to positions in restaurant management. In addition to degree programs in business management or culinary training, hands-on experience in a restaurant setting can be the best training for a prospective restaurant manager. Like most careers in the culinary industry, servers and managers must be excellent customer service representatives in addition to their many other duties. Most restaurant employees work long hours, often during evenings and weekends. This hard work can be rewarded through promotions and other advancement opportunities. Starting salaries can be low, but are often supplemented through gratuities, offering an excellent incentive to employees to always put their best foot forward.