1. Requirements<br />Discuss the prevention of and treatment for the health concerns that could occur while backpacking, including hypothermia, heat reactions, frostbite, dehydration, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, and blisters.<br />Do the following:<br />List 10 items that are essential to be carried on any backpacking trek and explain why each item is necessary.<br />Describe 10 ways you can limit the weight and bulk to be carried in your pack without jeopardizing your health or safety.<br />Do the following:<br />Define limits on the number of backpackers appropriate for a trek crew.<br />Describe how a trek crew should be organized.<br />Tell how you would minimize risk on a backpacking trek.<br />Do the following:<br />Describe the importance of using Leave No Trace principles while backpacking, and at least five ways you can lessen the crew's impact on the environment.<br />Describe proper methods of handling human and other wastes while on a backpacking trek. Describe the importance of and means to assure personal cleanliness while on a backpacking trek.<br />Tell what factors are important in choosing a campsite.<br />Do the following:<br />Demonstrate two ways to treat water and tell why water treatment is essential.<br />Explain to your counselor the importance of staying well-hydrated during a trek.<br />Do the following:<br />Demonstrate that you can read topographic maps.<br />While on a trek, use a map and compass to establish your position on the ground at least three times at three different places, OR use a GPS receiver to establish your position on a topographic map and on the ground at least three times at three different places.<br />Explain how to stay found, and what to do if you get lost.<br />Tell how to prepare properly for and deal with inclement weather.<br />Do the following:<br />Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of backpacking stoves using at least three different types of fuel.<br />Demonstrate that you know how to operate a backpacking stove safely and to handle liquid fuel safely.<br />Prepare at least three meals using a stove and fuel you can carry in a backpack.<br />Demonstrate that you know how to keep cooking and eating gear clean and sanitary, and that you practice proper methods for food storage while on a backpacking trek.<br />Do the following:<br />Write a plan for a patrol backpacking hike that includes a schedule.<br />Show that you know how to properly pack your personal gear and your share of the crew's gear and food.<br />Show you can properly shoulder your pack and adjust it for proper wear.<br />Conduct a prehike inspection of the patrol and its equipment.<br />While carrying your pack, complete a hike of at least 2 miles.<br />Using Leave No Trace principles, participate in at least three backpacking treks of at least three days each and at least 15 miles each, and using at least two different campsites. Carry everything you will need throughout the trek.<br />Do the following:<br />Write a plan for a backpacking trek of at least five days using at least three different campsites and covering at least 30 miles. Your plan must include a description of and route to the trek area, a schedule (including a daily schedule), a list of food and equipment needs, a safety and emergency plan, and a budget.<br />Using Leave No Trace principles, take the trek planned and, while on the trek, complete at least one service project approved by your merit badge counselor.<br />Keep a daily journal during the trek that includes a day-by-day description of your activities, including notes about what worked well and thoughts about improvements that could be made for the next trek.<br />
2. First Aid<br /><ul><li>Hypothermia: Over-exposure to colder temperatures over time that result in a drop in body core temperature. Treatment: Removing them from the elements that caused the condition. Seek a dry, warm place away from the wind.
3. Initial mental status changes in response to cold may be subtle and include hunger and nausea.
4. This will progress to apathy, confusion, slurred speech, and loss of coordination.
5. Many times a person will just lie down, fall asleep, and die.
6. Frostbite: Occurs when tissues freeze. This condition happens when you are exposed to temperatures below the freezing point of skin. Treatment: Keep the affected part elevated in order to reduce swelling, move to a warm area to prevent further heat loss, remove all constrictive jewelry and clothes because they may further block blood flow, give the person warm non-caffeinated fluids to drink, apply a dry, sterile bandage, place cotton between any involved fingers or toes (to prevent rubbing), and take the person to a medical facility as soon as possible
7. In superficial frostbite, you may experience burning, numbness, tingling, itching, or cold sensations in the affected areas. The regions appear white and frozen.
8. In deep frostbite, there is an initial decrease in sensation that is eventually completely lost. Swelling and blood-filled blisters are noted over white or yellowish skin that looks waxy
9. Dehydration: Occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. Treatment: Sip small amounts of water or carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks. Treat for heat Increased thirst with dry mouth and swollen tongue
10. Weakness and/or dizziness
11. Confusion and/or sluggishness, even fainting
12. Inability to sweat
13. Decreased urine output. If urine is concentrated and deeply yellow or amber, you may be dehydrated. </li></li></ul><li>First Aid<br /><ul><li>Heatstroke: This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point where organ damage. Treatment: Ice packs/sheets, IV fluids, and medical evacuation
14. Unconscious or has a markedly abnormal mental status (dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma)
15. Flushed, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to cool the person with water)
16. May have slightly elevated blood pressure at first that falls later
17. May be hyperventilating
18. Rectal (core) temperature of 105°F or more
19. Heat exhaustion: This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid place and body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat. Treatment: oral fluids & cool shading
20. Often pale with cool, moist skin
21. Sweating profusely
22. Muscle cramps or pains
23. Feels faint or dizzy
24. May complain of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea
25. Core (rectal) temperature elevated—usually more than 100°F—and the pulse rate increased
26. Sunburn: Excessive or prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. The time between 11 am and 2 pm contains the most powerful solar radiation exposure period. Treatment: Sun protection or appropriate coverings should be worn at all times, but especially during this time to decrease risk of sunburn.
27. Sunburned skin is red and dry in exposed areas in a first-degree burn. Often, one may not realize that the skin is burned until ours later.
28. If exposure to the sun continues, second-degree burns may occur and blisters with clear fluid may form. </li></li></ul><li>First Aid<br /><ul><li> Snakebite: Usually occur because of accidental or deliberate contact. However, not all snakebites result in poisonings. Treatment: Wash the snakebite with soap and water, apply suction using an extractor device without incising the wound if less than 15 minutes have elapsed from the initial bite and the person who has been bitten is more than 1 hour from medical attention. Apply a constricting band above the bite if less than 30 minutes have passed from the initial bite. Wrap the band tight enough to slow circulation but not to stop pulses. Seek help.
29. Swelling, burning, and pain at the site of the bite may be severe, with tissue breakdown occurring around the bite.
30. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, thick tongue, difficulty speaking and swallowing, numbness, and tingling around the mouth.
31. Blisters: Vary from thermal to show rubs. Treatment: Cool the injured area with water (not ice) within 30 seconds. Apply clean bandage or mole skin. Do not pop blisters!
32. Painful red area turns white when touched</li></li></ul><li>First Aid<br /><ul><li>Stings: A sting or bite injects venom composed of proteins and other substances that may trigger an allergic reaction in the victim. Treatment: If there is only redness and pain at the site of the bite, application of ice is adequate treatment. Clean the area with soap and water to remove contaminated particles left behind by some insects (such as mosquitoes). Refrain from scratching because this may cause the skin to break down and an infection to form.
33. Most bites and stings result in pain, swelling, redness, and itching to the affected area.
34. Severe reaction include hives, wheezing, shortness of breath, unconsciousness, and even death within 30 minutes.
35. Tick bites: Second only to mosquitoes as vectors (carriers) of human disease. Treatment: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants cinched at the ankle or tucked into the boots or socks. If attached, using rounded tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to the skin surface, and then pull with slow steady pressure in a direction away from the skin.
36. Redness, itching, and swelling
37. Lyme’s Disease: The hallmark target lesion, a red circular rash with a pale center, occurs at the site of the bite within 2-20 days after the bite in 60-80% of cases. The rash may be accompanied by fatigue, headache, joint aches, and other flulike symptoms.</li></li></ul><li>First Aid<br /><ul><li> Altitude sickness : Altitude sickness is brought on by the combination of reduced air pressure and lower oxygen concentration that occur at high altitudes. The chance of getting altitude sickness increases the faster a person climbs to a high altitude. How severe the symptoms are also depends on this factor, as well as how hard the person pushes (exerts) himself or herself. People who normally live at or near sea level are more prone to altitude sickness. Treatment: The main form of treatment for all forms of mountain sickness is to climb down (descend) to a lower altitude as rapidly and safely as possible. Extra oxygen should be given, if available.
38. Difficulty sleeping, Dizziness or light-headedness, Fatigue, Headache ,Loss of appetite ,Nausea or vomiting, rapid pulse(heart rate), and shortness of breath with exertion are symptoms generally associated with mild to moderate altitude sickness
39. Symptoms generally associated with more severe altitude sickness include Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis), Chest tightness or congestion ,Confusion, Harsh Cough, Coughing up blood, Decreased consciousness or withdrawal from social interaction, Gray or pale complexion, Inability to walk in a straight line/ at all, and Shortness of breath when at rest
40. Hyperventilation : Feeling very anxious or having a panic attack are the usual reasons that you may hyperventilate. Treatment: relax
41. When you breathe, you inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Excessive breathing leads to low levels of carbon dioxide in your blood. This causes many of the symptoms you may feel if you hyperventilate (light headedness, panic, ect..). </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A pocket knife can come in handy in a wide variety of situations. It is useful for tasks as large as building an emergency shelter or lighting a campfire with poor fuel, or as small as repairing a damaged backpack.
42. A first aid kit can be a lifesaver. A basic kit for first aid might include adhesive bandages, medical tape, sterile gauze, moleskin, soap, antiseptic, a mouth-barrier device for CPR, and scissors.
43. Extra clothing to match the weather. Multiple layers are superior to a single massive jacket, because layered clothing is adaptable to a wide range of temperatures.
44. Rain gear is very important. Being wet from rain may result in hypothermia, a potentially fatal condition.
45. A flashlight is, of course, important for finding one's way at night.
46. Trail food is good for maintaining your energy. However, the human body can reportedly survive for weeks without food, so starving to death should be the least of your worries if you become lost in the wilderness.
47. Water is probably the most important of the Essentials. Dehydration may develop into heat exhaustion and heatstroke. The human body may only survive for a few days without water. Portable water purifiers and water stills may be used to obtain potable water from virtually any source.
48. Matches may be used to light fires for heat, or for signalling purposes. (Publicly owned forests in the United States often have lookout stations for forest fires and signal fires.)
49. Sun protection may include sunblock, sunglasses, lip balm and a wide-brimmed hat. Used properly, it will prevent sunburn and possibly heat exhaustion.
50. Map and compass are probably the most important tools one can carry in case of getting lost, but they won't be of any use to someone who does not know how to use them. In knowledgeable hands, they can be used to determine one's location and the best route to reach another location. </li></li></ul><li>Leave No Trace and the Outdoor Code<br />Leave No Trace is an outdoor code of ethics. The principles of Leave No Trace are as follows: <br /><ul><li>Plan ahead and prepare
51. Travel and camp on durable surfaces
52. Dispose of waste properly
53. Leave what you find
54. Minimize campfire impact
55. Respect wildlife
56. Be considerate of other visitors </li></ul>The Outdoor Code: As an American, I will do my best to—<br />Be clean in my outdoor manners <br />I will treat the outdoors as a heritage. I will take care of it for myself and others. I will keep my trash and garbage out of lakes, streams, fields, woods, and roadways. <br />Be careful with fire <br />I will prevent wildfire. I will build my fires only when and where they are appropriate. When I have finished using a fire, I will make sure it is cold out. I will leave a clean fire ring, or remove all evidence of my fire. <br />Be considerate in the outdoors <br />I will treat public and private property with respect. I will follow the principles of Leave No Trace for all outdoor activities. <br />Be conservation-minded <br />I will learn about and practice good conservation of soil, waters, forests, minerals, grasslands, wildlife, and energy. I will urge others to do the same. <br />
57. Water<br /><ul><li> Water is one of your most urgent</li></ul>needs in a survival situation. You need a minimum of 2 liters of water each day.<br /><ul><li> More than three-fourths of your body is composed of fluids. Your body loses fluid as a result of heat, cold, stress, and exertion.
58. To function effectively, you must replace the fluid your body loses. So, one of your first goals is to obtain an adequate supply of water.</li></ul>Collect rainfall or morning dew <br />Strain water from mud<br />Squeeze the center pulp from plants<br />Mop dew from leaves & rocks<br />Strain water from pond or stream & treat<br />Boil water for 10 minutes<br />Chemical tabs (warning: iodine caution)<br />Natural purification filter … let stand for 45 minutes<br />Commercial purification filter<br />If none of the above … go ahead & drink! Better to suffer & survive an intestinal disorder than die of dehydration.<br />9<br />
59. Dressing for Hot WeatherLightweight clothing that lets body heat out while slowing down the evaporation of moisture is the best kind for hot-weather travel. A light color is best, as it reflects heat away from the body. This is why the light cotton khaki fabric has been popular down through the years. Cotton cloth holds sweat for a while before it evaporates. This retention of body moisture for as long as possible helps prevent dehydration and heat exhaustion.Choose fairly loose-fitting clothing that fully covers you—and that means long-sleeve shirts and full trousers. You will stay cooler, and you will also avoid the danger of severe sunburn.Always wear a lightweight hat or cap when traveling in hot weather. Protecting the head from excessive heat will reduce the chances of heat stroke.Hikers in the summertime, while wearing lightweight clothing, should not forget that temperatures can drop rapidly after the sun goes down, especially in the desert. It makes sense to carry a jacket in your pack if there is a chance you will be out after sundown.<br />10<br />
60. Dressing for Cold WeatherDuring cold weather, wear clothes that hold in body heat, while allowing body moisture to escape. If you have ever worn a waterproof slicker while hiking, you know how you can quickly become soaked with sweat. Then, when you rest, the sweat becomes cold and clammy and you begin to lose body heat. Under cold weather conditions, this can become serious.Wool clothing generally has been considered the best for cold and wet conditions. It does what we need it to do; it lets our body moisture escape, while keeping our body heat in. Even when wet, wool does a better job keeping you warm than cotton.Layers of clothing usually are preferred for cold-weather activities. Several thinner garments insulate the body better than one bulky coat, trapping dead air between the layers. An advantage of layering is that you can remove a layer if the weather warms and you become too hot. A set of fishnet-type long Johns, a wool shirt, a wool sweater, and a medium-weight wool jacket is effective layering for cold weather.Even the best wool clothing alone will not protect you for long if the weather is wet, windy, and cold. A wind-resistant, water-repellent jacket has to be worn over the other clothing. On the market today are several kinds of rain gear that actually breathe, allowing perspiration to evapo¬rate while still keeping the rain out. Jackets, pants, gloves, and head¬gear are made from this material. While fairly expensive, it is much better than old-fashioned slickers and plastic raincoats.You can wear the best clothing money can buy, but if you don't have good head covering you could be in trouble. In cold weather, a great deal of body heat can be lost through the head, so always wear a hat, cap, or other head covering appropriate to the weather and the activity.<br />11<br />
61. Advantages-Comfort. Pack fits more comfortably to the back.-Balance. Because the pack hugs your body, the pack does not bounce around, throwing you off balance.-Maneuverability. The pack is not as wide as an external, so tight spots (hiking through rocks or trees) easier.Disadvantages-Internals are hotter than externals because they are closer to the back.-Internals are harder to pack and organize (most internals only have two compartments).<br />
62. Compass<br /> The compass functions as an indicator to "Magnetic North" because the magnetic bar at the heart of the compass aligns itself to one of the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. Depending on where the compass is situated on the surface of the Earth the variance between geographic North or "True North" will increase the farther one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field. It should be noted that the geographic North Pole and the Magnetic North pole are not coincident on the surface of the Earth. The Magnetic North Pole drifts in a circle with a radius of approximately 1600 km South of geographic North. It takes roughly 960 years for the magnetic pole to complete one cycle of drift across the Arctic Ocean. It is thought that the cause of this Magnetic Pole drift is the circulation of the magma inside the Earth.<br /> If one is using "true" or map bearings, and the compass does not have preset, pre-adjusted declination, one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing.<br />
63. The base plate or protractor compass This type of compass was invented by the Kjellstrom brothers during the World War II era and consists of a rectangular base plate, which is marked with a red arrow pointing along the long axis, and a rotating compass housing marked in degrees (360 degrees for the full circle in most of the world, but 400 on some European compasses). Marked on the floor of the rotating compass housing are an arrow and a set of lines parallel to that arrow. Additional features may include a lanyard for attaching the compass to the wrist, scale bars for measuring map distances along one or more edges of the base plate, a magnifying glass for reading fine map detail, and templates of a circle and triangle for marking orienteering courses on the map. <br />
64. Topographic Map<br />(1) Hill. A hill is an area of high ground. From a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions. A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop (Figure 10-17).<br /> Figure 10-17. Hill.<br />(2) Saddle. A saddle is a dip or low point between two areas of higher ground. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and lower ground in the other two directions. A saddle is normally represented as an hourglass (Figure 10-18).<br />Figure 10-18. Saddle.<br />
65. Topographic Map<br />(3) Valley. A valley is a stretched-out groove in the land, usually formed by streams or rivers. A valley begins with high ground on three sides, and usually has a course of running water through it. If standing in a valley, three directions offer high ground, while the fourth direction offers low ground. Depending on its size and where a person is standing, it may not be obvious that there is high ground in the third direction, but water flows from higher to lower ground. Contour lines forming a valley are either U-shaped or V-shaped. To determine the direction water is flowing, look at the contour lines. The closed end of the contour line (U or V) always points upstream or toward high ground (Figure 10-19).<br />Figure 10-19. Valley.<br />(4) Ridge. A ridge is a sloping line of high ground. If you are standing on the centerline of a ridge, you will normally have low ground in three directions and high ground in one direction with varying degrees of slope. If you cross a ridge at right angles, you will climb steeply to the crest and then descend steeply to the base. When you move along the path of the ridge, depending on the geographic location, there may be either an almost unnoticeable slope or a very obvious incline. Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour line points away from high ground (Figure 10-20).<br />Figure 10-20. Ridge.<br />
66. Topographic Map<br />(5) Depression. A depression is a low point in the ground or a sinkhole. It could be described as an area of low ground surrounded by higher ground in all directions, or simply a hole in the ground. Usually only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown. On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground (Figure 10-21).<br /> Figure 10-21. Depression.<br />(1) Draw. A draw is a less developed stream course than a valley. In a draw, there is essentially no level ground and, therefore, little or no maneuver room within its confines. If you are standing in a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction. A draw could be considered as the initial formation of a valley. The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground (Figure 10-22).<br />Figure 10-22. Draw.<br />
67. Topographic Map<br />(2) Spur. A spur is a short, continuous sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge. A spur is often formed by two rough parallel streams, which cut draws down the side of a ridge. The ground sloped down in three directions and up in one direction. Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U or V pointing away from high ground (Figure 10-23).<br />Figure 10-23. Spur.<br />(3) Cliff. A cliff is a vertical or near vertical feature; it is an abrupt change of the land. When a slope is so steep that the contour lines converge into one "carrying" contour of contours, this last contour line has tick marks pointing toward low ground (Figure 10-24A). Cliffs are also shown by contour lines very close together and, in some instances, touching each other (Figure 10-24B).<br />Figure 10-24A. Cliff.<br />Figure 10-24B. Cliff.<br />
68. Topographic Map<br />(1) Cut. A cut is a man-made feature resulting from cutting through raised ground, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track. Cuts are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the cut line. This contour line extends the length of the cut and has tick marks that extend from the cut line to the roadbed, if the map scale permits this level of detail (Figure 10-25).<br />Figure 10-25. Cut and fill.<br />(2) Fill. A fill is a man-made feature resulting from filling a low area, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track. Fills are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the fill line. This contour line extends the length of the filled area and has tick marks that point toward lower ground. If the map scale permits, the length of the fill tick marks are drawn to scale and extend from the base line of the fill symbol (Figure 10-25).<br />
71. Propane/Butane Stoves<br /><ul><li>With any propane stove, you should observe several safety precautions. When cooking outdoors, find an even surface on which to cook. If you’re not using a campfire pit provided at camping ground, consider placing the propane stove directly on any grill. Keep the propane stove away from brushy areas, as much as possible, to avoid fire hazards. Also, make sure the propane stove is not near tents and is in an open area so that propane gas does not accidentally vent into sleeping quarters. </li></ul>You should take some care in how you store propane tanks. They should not be kept in temperatures that will exceed 120 F (48.89 C). This means, especially in hot weather, propane canisters do not belong in your car or your trailer. If you have children, keep the propane stove out of reach of kids, and consider disconnecting the tank when the stove is not in use.<br />
72. Liquid Fuel<br /><ul><li>Use only the fuel(s) that your stove is designed to burn. For liquid fuel stoves, don't use old fuel that has been stored for a long period of time.
73. Fill the stove or fuel bottle only to the safe fill line.
74. Ensure the pump is well-lubricated and functioning.
75. Check for leaks before lighting.
76. Never cook inside a tent or in a confined space. Fire and carbon monoxide poisoning are significant hazards.
77. Clear away any flamable debris near the stove before lighting.
78. Empty your stove before you store it. </li></ul>Refueling<br /><ul><li>Always fill your stove (or change the fuel canister) outdoors, never inside a tent or cabin.
79. To avoid lighting spilled fuel, don't light the stove in the same place you filled it.
80. Don't refuel your stove while it is still lit – this is extremely dangerous. Take special care with alcohol stoves, they make no noise when burning and can burn with an almost invisible flame. Wait until your stove is stone cold before refuelling. </li></li></ul><li>Stove Comparisons<br /><ul><li>Camping stoves come in basically three different types: multi-burner family camping stoves, backpacking stoves, and expedition stoves. Each has its advantages and disadvantages for ATV camping. Each of these stoves are available with different fuel types. The different fuel types available are: Solid fuel, Gas fuel, and liquid fuel. Like the stoves the different fuels have their advantages and disadvantages. Before discussing the different stoves, the fuels will be explained first.
81. Solid fuels for camping stoves are wood, charcoal, hexamine tablets, and thick petroleum-based gel (Sterno®). These fuels are generally safe, inexpensive, easy to use and control but can produce considerable amounts of ash and soot especially wood and coal. The ash and soot builds up on the stove and cookware. Solid fuels should not be used in an enclosed area such as a tent unless a flue is provided to exhaust the fumes. Solid Fuels are usually very inexpensive or free. Wood is usually available at the campsite saving pack space and weight.</li></li></ul><li>Stove Comparisons<br /><ul><li>Gas fuels for camping stoves are propane, butane, isobutane, or a mixture (e.g. propane and butane). These fuels are actually in liquid form under sufficient pressure in canisters and they vaporized into a gas at lower pressure as they are released into the stove. These fuels are simple to use and burn cleanly. Butane has the disadvantage of not vaporizing well in cold temperatures (Below 10° F). Most canisters available are not refillable and may have to be treated as hazardous waste when empty. It is also difficult to determine how much fuel is in the canister.
82. Liquid fuels for camping stoves are mostly alcohol, gasoline, kerosene, and naphtha (white gas). Liquid fuels are a little more complex to use because they must be vaporized before burning. Liquid fuel burns hotter than gas and work better in windy, cold and low atmospheric conditions therefore it is the primary fuel for most expedition stoves. It is often lighter and cheaper to use liquid fuel than gas fuel due to the gas canister being heavier and has to be purchased each time. Liquid fuel does not burn as cleanly as gas and is more difficult to regulate the temperature.</li>