“It’s a reality check. It tells you whatreally happens when people usecomputers. You can speculate on whatcustomers want, or you can find out...Research offers an understanding ofhow users behave online, and is a solidfoundation on which to build a design. " - Jakob NielsenUser Research
• It’s important to get user feedback during the critical parts of the project. 1. Research • Talk to users: Who they are, What they do and experiences with current solution. • Positive &/or negative points about current solution. • End product: Personas.1. Research Phase
• Useful information to know at this stage: 1. User Information: • Age, gender, education, skills & employment etc. will help put the users in perspective. 2. Thoughts on current solution: • Positive or negative experiences with the current solution. 3. Their wants & needs: • Get users to express about the solution from the user. This will help refine the solution so that it meets users needs.1.1 Information during Research
• At the end of the Research stage you should have a set of user profiles called Personas!• Details on a persona may vary depending on a project. Can cover: 1. Personal information 2. Personality traits : Experience, conscientiousness, extraversion etc. 3. Criteria to architect around: Internet literacy etc. 4. Motivations: Mastery, Enjoyment, Self confidence, Recognition, etc. 5. Content to implement: Videos, images, tool etc.1.2 Create Personas
2. Evaluation • Feedback from users on the proposed solution. • Let users interact with solution and give their thoughts. • From my experience, 2 reviews is ideal. Allows you to get feedback on changes.2. Evaluation Phase
• Useful information needed: 1. User Information: • Get an idea of the users‘ skill levels in internet literacy, technology as well information on age, gender, education & employment. 2. Solution Feedback: • Users explore the solution or conduct tasks. Encourage users to talk freely about their interactions and expectations.2.1 Information during Evaluation
Interviews Focus Group Card Sorting Questionnaires User Testing OtherWays to Research your users
• Interviewing is a qualitative approach. • Allows users to state their opinions and go in-depth. • It’s good to use open-ended questions to allow users to express their experiences. • Having a series of questions you want to ask beforehand.Interviews – What is it?
• Gives you rich information.• Breakdown complex subjects.• Insight into a persons reasoning• Opportunity to get user’s perspective, into their psyche & own experiences.• Form tangents. Able to respond to user’s answers and ask more Example of an one to one interview questions. Methods like Questionnaires don’t allow you to do this effectively.Interviews - Why use it?
• Mainly use close-ended questions, but open-ended questions can be useful to add depth. • Use Likert scale. It is an effective way to measure positive & negative responses. • Split questions into sections. Easier to be filled out.Example of an online survey we used forHeartMatters • Limit the number of questions. • Don’t want a lot of open-ended questions. • Close-ended questions can be answered quickly. Questionnaire – What is it?
• Allows users to be more objective.• Can be a quick response, which people can do in their own time.• Data to be collected from a large group easily.• Capturing user feedback in measurable way.• To get best results you should use it with other methods such as user testing. Example of a questionnaire/online survey we have used.Questionnaire – Why use it?
• Keywords &/or nav items on cards. • Two types: 1. Open: Users told to organise cards with site contents into groups they define. 2. Closed: Users told to organise cards into particular groups.Example of card sorting • Ideally you want to perform the exercise multiple times with small groups. This allows you to see if there are any common patterns.Card Sorting - What is it?
• Inexpensive and insightful method.• Help restructure the site’s navigation & improve findability.• Interesting exercise to get users actively engaged.• “Provide insight into users’ mental models, illuminating the way that they often tacitly group, sort and label tasks and content within their own heads.” - Information Architecture for Example of card sorting we did for BHF the World Wide WebCard Sorting - Why use it?
• Getting real-life users to interact with the site and get their feedback. • Two types of testing: 1. Online testing: Users explore a web link and fill a survey at the end. 2. Lab testing: Can have user to eitherExample of In-Lab user testing we did for IET think out loud or completeUsing Morae as the software . scenarios. • Jakob Nielsen identified that with 15 users you can pick up 100% problems. Ideally, groups of small users works better.User Testing – What is it?
• Perfect opportunity to see users in action and identify real problems.• Getting users responses.• Use of statistics: Look at completion & error rates.• Leads to quick wins such as improve users experience and completion Example of In-Lab user testing we conducted. rate.User Testing – Why test?
• Group of users discuss certain topics. It can last up to 2-3hours. • Identify a clear objective for your focus group. What are you aiming to achieve? • Have a services of questions & topics to talk around. Open-ended questions are ideal. • Have a variety of users, which represent theExample of a focus group we did for Barclays audience. • Encourage everyone to participate and talk by asking their opinions. • Try not to lead users, but follow up on what they say. • For more on focus groups . It is worth reading thisFocus Groups – What is it?
• Good approach to use at the start of the project to get an idea of what users are thinking about the current or new solution.• Create insightful debates. See what people agree or disagree with.• Users can share their own experiences. This can give further Example of a focus group we did for BHF insight into the users’ mind set.Focus Groups – Why use it?
• In-lab eye tracking study involves users interacting with a site, whilst you track eye movement. • The following two are more stats based rather than reasons from users: • CrazyEgg allows the tracking of on- page clicks and other on-page movement. • Google Analytics allows you to analyse web traffic. View onsite usage, conversion rate, bounce rate etc. Gives you a lot of interesting statistics.Example of a Heat MapOther Useful Approaches
• Research phase. The ideal • Evaluation phase. The ideal approaches to get information: approaches to get feedback: 1. Focus Groups 1. User Testing 2. Interviews 2. Questionnaires/Online Surveys 3. Questionnaires/Online Surveys 3. Eye Tracking 4. Card Sorting 4. Web Traffic 5. Web TrafficWhen to use each approach?
USERS FIRST• All in all, user involvement is very important. It’s essential for you to engage with the users as much as you can. Their thoughts are important and will help you create the perfect solution for them and the client.Last Word