How well do you know your audience?• Pretty well no doubt, but more often than not, we don’t use this intelligence well – particularly when creating a website or app for them• When we try to be user-centric, we quickly turn to a traditional method of segmentation; role based groups • This is fine, but we shouldn’t stop there if we actually want to engage people • We need to humanise this segmentation again so we can talk to them, not at them• Creating a set of personas is a great way to do this – but don’t fall into the most common trap – creating meaningless personas that don’t actually help you! This results in: • Not actually using them • Feeling the persona exercise was a waste of time
Org chart / hierarchical information architecture What products/services? Home What resources? Contact us Home About us Products Services Resources Careers Contact Contact us I’m not sure what’s Department Department Department on offer Home Lots of similar About us 1 2 3 areas Contact I don’t understand I don’t know whichAbout News Events Media Blog Jobs department I need this terminology
Org chart / hierarchical information architecture• Results in too many sections to handle if the audience is wide/diverse > users not sure where to start/look > no clear journey; users have to hunt and dig for information they need• Can become dated as the organisation changes (strategy, mergers, sell-offs etc)• Prone to political squabbling > which department/manager gets prime positions in the navigation/homepage• Doesn’t reflect lateral navigation and real world browsing habits
Audience driven information architecture Home Contact us Who areAbout us Events News Media Zone Shop you? Student Academic Corporate Partner Job seeker etc
Audience driven information architecture• Often still too many groups to be managable > many organisations have (or think they have) complicated audiences > not unlike an architecture based on business structure! > different approach, but resulting in the same problems!• Not always as logical to end users as you might think > think how you’d categorise youself! > relies on self-identification; open to (mis)interpretation, confusion and cross-over > forces users to THINK (cardinal sin of usability!)• Still prone to political squabbling > certain audiences of the business deprioritised > by naming them directly, this priority becomes more obvious to the users!
Humanise your audience – remember, you know them quite well!
An iterative approach to audience segmentation • We can’t please every individual Individuals But we can stack the odds in our favour! • Logic grouping alone restricts our thinking. Groups • We end up with narrow silos! • Apply a mental modal: how do people think? Motivations • Filter our audiences > manageable personas. • Keep us user-centered at all times • Cuts across groups/categories with shared motivations Emotions • Focused personas mean we can engage • Refining doesn’t mean cutting people out • Talk to people in ways that mean something Personas • Tight enough to focus, flexible to personalise
Five simple steps to creating effective personas1. Identify the individuals in your audience2. Describe their scenarios, goals and objectives3. Discover what motivates them4. Utilise the right modes of persuasion5. Create a series of profiles and centre the design around them
1. Refine your audience to be more workableProfessional Need Personal Connection Proxy RelationshipsDoctor (GP) Heart Patient (Recent) VolunteerHeart Nurse Heart Patient (Medium/Long Term) Business Manager/ExecutiveIntermediary (Teacher) At Risk Adult Shop Customer/DonorResearcher (Funded) Concerned Relative Event Participant(Health) Journalist Grieving Relative Support Group Member Sample from our work with the BHF
1. Identifying individuals/rolesName David Hugh John Karen StewartRole CEO CEO CFO CIO CTOSector Construction Pro Services Manufacturing Association FacilitiesOrganisation Wilson Group Eden Shaw PR Raw Mat Ltd The Engineering Carillion AssociationSize 500-1000 50-100 500-1000 1000+ 200-300
2. Understanding goals and objectivesGoal ObjectiveLong term, unstructured, difficult to measure Short term, well defined, measurable“We want to stay ahead of our competitors” “We want to increase our market share by 10%” “We want to reduce our overheads by 20% over the next 2“We want to improve efficiency at our factory” years”
3. Understanding motivationsMotivations are the driving force behind all objectives and goals. By understanding what motivates our audience,we can find ways to engage with them in a more meaningful way.Two types of motivation:1. Intrinsic: Mastery, Enjoyment, Confidence 2. Extrinsic: Recognition, Competitiveness, RewardIntrinsic motivations are self-fulfilling. We can appeal to Extrinsic motivations are validated by others. We canthese needs by empowering people with the appeal to these needs by giving the competitive benefitsinformation/directions/choices they need to give them of services, explaining how they save money and they willconfidence to make their own positive decisions benefit directly as a result of a call to action
3. Applying motivations to your audience Decision Makers Influencers Look for balance & patterns David Hugh John Karen Stewart Sam Jessica Karl Gemma Sandra RatingIntrinsic MotivationsMastery / 5KnowledgeEnjoyment 5Confidence 5Extrinsic MotivationsRecognition 7Competitiveness 4Reward 7
4. Using the modes of persuasionAristotle defined these three principles as 1. Ethos: Crediblebeing central to persuasion. 2. Pathos: EmotionalWe can apply them to our audience,persona, journey and content to create the 3. Logos: Rationalright user experiences.Align what you know about your audiencesmotivations to these three principles
4. Using the motivations/emotions to define theaudience Just want to get something done… Pragmatists Not sure what to expect/find… Seekers Keen to get involved… Activists (potential) Willing to be convinced… Conformist
5. Design your personas: Using Facebook / LinkedIn
Make use of your new audience intelligence• Don’t get lost in the soft-details of the individuals• Print out your personas and surround yourself with them!• Refer to them in discussions; use them for testing• Not just limited to web site design use them in online marketing plans and projects too!
Hammad Khanhammad@zabisco.com | 07966 029298 | twitter @zabiscoThank you