Green Values in Europe


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Green Values in Europe

  1. 1. Green Values in Europe Ello Benchmarking Forssa, 15.08.2010 Francesca Skolc
  2. 2. CONTENTS1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 12 ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN FINLAND .............................................. 23 GREEN CITIES IN EUROPE ..................................................................................... 34 GREEN CITY BUILDING ......................................................................................... 45 ENVIRONMENT PARK, TURIN .............................................................................. 56 SUSTAINABLE WAREHOUSES .............................................................................. 76.1 Nike´s (Logistics) Sustainable Warehouse ................................................................ 7 6.1.1 Lighting at Nike Logistics warehouse ............................................................. 7 6.1.2 Wind Park ........................................................................................................ 8 6.1.3 Siting the building ............................................................................................ 8 6.1.4 Ground and night cooling ................................................................................ 8 6.1.5 Insulation .......................................................................................................... 9 6.1.6 Flexibility ......................................................................................................... 96.2 Blue Planet Distribution Centre in Chatterley Valley, England ................................ 9 6.2.1 The idea behind the project .............................................................................. 97 GREEN VALUES IN A WAREHOUSE .................................................................. 117.1 Factors of how to green your storage ...................................................................... 117.2 Automated warehouse ............................................................................................. 128 EUROPE´S BEST ECO AIRPORT .......................................................................... 139 WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH ENVAC VACUUM SYSTEMS ........................ 169.1 Envac systems ......................................................................................................... 169.1 Environmentally sustainable waste management .................................................... 17 9.1.1 Cleaner and safer ............................................................................................ 17 9.1.2 Sorting at source ............................................................................................ 189.2 Waste handling in flight catering kitchens .............................................................. 18 9.2.1 Advantages of the Envac Kitchen Waste System .......................................... 199.3 Safe waste handling at airports ................................................................................ 19 9.3.1 How it works .................................................................................................. 1910 FINAL WORDS ........................................................................................................ 20REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 21
  3. 3. Green Values in Europe 1 INTRODUCTIONThere is currently a worldwide concern about the health of the environment; ranging from everydayworries like noise, air, and water pollution to questions surrounding the ozone layer. Recent years haveseen a steady increase in transportation of all kinds. Transportation as we know it—whether it involvespersons or goods—contributes immensely to local air pollution, solid waste, and segmentation oflandscapes. Various solutions are needed if C02 emissions level must be sliced.Logistics services industry needs to develop more environmentally friendly solutions. This—in turn—isexpected to increase environmental awareness among consumers.Ello is a European Regional Development Fund financed project, which aims to develop the SouthernFinnish transport corridor for competitiveness. The competitiveness of the transport corridor in SouthernFinland is essential to developing models with emphasis on green values and environmental-friendliness. Transport corridor that serves enterprises and logistics centres in the future will be able tooffer competitive transport routes, ecological services, end customer awareness capable of influencingcustomers‘ purchasing decisions, and lastly- companies will have a growing need to ensure the offer ofsupply chain efficiency alongside a ―green‖ image.Ello project has a subproject called EcoHub. Subproject in this research and development attends to thequestion: In what ways can ecology be applied to enhance a logistics company‟s competitive edgewithin Southern Finland?The Ello (EcoHub) project team was assigned to gather (comparable) information on performancemetrics using benchmarking.In Ello (EcoHub) benchmarking case, benchmark activities were in the area of international logisticsconcepts. The project was based on: - Specific process, such as new technologies, maintenance, training and IT support - Specific group, such as an airport, housing districts - Functions, such as the purchasing department, warehouseTo boost the reader‘s ability to digest this report, its content is arranged by using ―headings‖. Firstly,Ello (EcoHub) investigated the logistics area of environmental concerns, using mainly geothermal, windand solar energy. As many European countries already are adapting to climate change, Ello (EcoHub)decided to get a few information on climate change in Finland in order to use such information in supplychain and logistics‘ environmentally—friendly future performance.It was also very important for Ello (EcoHub) to find out how ecological other European countries are,how much renewable energy is used in practice, and what kind of projects they are running on greenlogistics. 1
  4. 4. Green Values in Europe 2 ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN FINLAND Climate change can no longer be fully prevented. Energy production in the world still relies mainly on burning fossil fuels, causing CO2 emissions being the biggest contributor to climate change. At first, climate change may appear advantageous to Europe‘s northern most richest: the demand for heating energy will decline and crop yields and forest growth may boost. It is estimated that the temperature in Finland will rise faster than the global average. Finland‘s annual mean temperature is expected to rise by 2– 6 °C by the end of the century. Temperatures will rise more in winter compared to the summer, and more in the northern than in the southern regions. Annual rainfall will rise by some 10% and, in this respect too, the change will be more pronounced in winter. With regard to rainfall, the occurrence of both extremes, long dry spells and heavy rains, will increase. However, in terms of winds and storms the changes will be less dramatic. If emissions are high, winter temperatures may rise by up to 6–9 °C from the present day; this all is expected by year 2100. In Finland‘s inland waters, floods and their timing and the volume of water resources will change. By the end of the century, the mean temperature in Lapland will rise to the level currently measured in southern Finland. The present high share of renewable energy in Finland (27.4% in 2008) is mainly due to the wood based energy production in the context of pulp and paper industry. In order to increase the share of renewable energy to 38% by 2020 (the Finnish target within the EU burden sharing) wood plays the most important role in Finland. Improvements of energy technologies and use of renewable energy sources are the most important actions in order to reduce GHGs (Greenhouse Gas) in energy production. Improvements of energy technologies and use of renewable energy sources are the most important actions in order to reduce GHGs (Greenhouse Gas) in energy production. This is why adaptation to the expected consequences of the permanent climate change has become a crucial element of climate policy, alongside climate change improvement. Germany and other European countries have motivated construction plans for more off-shore wind farms and therefore the international coordination of the national grids is of strategic importance. The new grid, spread across half the continent and under the sea, will connect the European off shore wind farms and solar thermal power plants and manage the oscillations of electricity supply from renewable sources which is highly dependent on weather conditions. Also linked to the grid, that is capable of storing electricity generated during peak periods, will be hydroelectric power stations, mostly in the Scandinavian countries.The key issue is to prepare for extreme weather events, especially floods, storms and heavy rainfall. Tra-ditionally, flood protection has mainly been carried out for the sake of agriculture, but the built environ-ment is now more frequently at risk of flooding.Climate change will have a large effect on the hydrology and water resources of FinlandIn principle, flood risk avoidance is quite simple: buildings must be placed high enough in relation to theshoreline so that water does not pose a threat to them. On the other hand, shoreline construction istempting because lake and river views are valued, and this may cause conflicts. New buildings and otherurban development, in particular, should be redirected to safer areas through land use planning andbuilding regulations. These include compliance with the recommended lowest base floor of new houses. 2
  5. 5. Green Values in Europe 3 GREEN CITIES IN EUROPEMore of Green cities in Europe: The European Green Capital Award (EGCA) is the result of an initiative taken by 15 European cities and the Association of Estonian cities in MayReykjavik, Iceland - has been 2006 in Tallinn. The proposal was turned into a joint Memorandum sub-putting hydrogen buses on its mitted to the European Commission in which they proposed the estab-streets, and like the rest of thecountry, its heat and electricity lishment of an award rewarding cities that are leading the way in envi-come entirely from renewable ronmentally friendly urban living.geothermal and hydropower sources and its determined to Stockholm – European Green Capital 2010become fossil-fuel-free by 2050.Malmö, Sweden is an "ekostaden" Stockholm proved best in clear and effective measures towards reducing(eco-city), several neighbourhoods noise pollution and protection plan setting new standards for cleaner waterhave already been transformed with reduction of fossil fuels.using innovative design and areplanning to become more socially,environmentally, and economically Green facts:approachable.  -1 000 parks -Seven nature reserves within city boundariesCopenhagen, Denmark has a big (and more than 200 in the surrounding area), 1offshore wind farm. cultural reserve and1 city national parkLondon, England will switch 25 -95 kg of recycled refuse annually per citizenpercent of its power to more- -12 000 trees in the city centreefficient sources. The city has also -24 official beachesset stiff taxes on personaltransportation to limit overcrowd- -World‘s largest district cooling network,ing in the central city, hitting “100% of household waste isSUVs heavily and letting electric -Set to become fossil-fuel free by 2050 converted into heating and elec-vehicles and hybrids off scot-free. - -The city hosts 2 700 clean-tech companies tricity”Barcelona, Spain is promoting -Transport emissions are relatively low, all trains and inner city buses runsolar energy and modern parking on renewable fuels.strategies.Sweden, Gothenburg - leads the Hamburg – European Green Capital 2011way in renewable fuels intransport. The 13 municipalities in Excellent public transport; the city has achieved high environmental stan-and around the city joined forceswith private companies such as dards and good perform-Volvo and Hertz, plus farmers and ance levels in terms ofgovernment agencies, to create cycling and public trans-Biogas West – a consortium toinvest in and promote biogas. It port indicators. Almost allproduced biogas at the region‘s citizens have access toexisting dirt and waste treatment optimal public transportplants. within 300 meters of their given location.There is also a systematic structure for green areaswhich allow citizens easy accessibility.The City of Hamburg plans to launch a ―train of ideas‖ New Eco City plan for Hamburg, Germanywhereby interested cities within the European Green CapitalAward network ‗own‘ a wagon and promote their respective green ideas, achievements and future plans.The train will then travel around Europe spreading experience and best practice in an innovative way. 3
  6. 6. Green Values in Europe 4 GREEN CITY BUILDING Green city project planning principles:  Sustainable urban planningGreen City Building carries out progressing work, preparation and  Sustainable and healthycapability to build and prepare inner-city management systems that building design  Energy and environmentalwill guarantee more sustainable urban building process. About 40% assessmentof final energy consumption in Europe is present in buildings.  Optimized energy and water supply systemsThe municipality of Radstadt near Salzburg in Austria wanted to  Building integrated solar energy designraise the living standard of a newly developed urban area byintroducing a new traffic idea and renewal of the common greenareas. The SIR (Salzburger Institut für Raumordnung und Wohnen)developed a total concept for the area, which included thissustainable housing demonstration project.Several innovative technologies are implemented in the buildings.The domestic hot water is solar heated, rainwater is collected andreused and the air ventilation works with heat recovery.To achieve low-energy building standards, the walls to the north, Radstadt district house just underwest and east are of brick cavity construction with 160mm constructioninsulation. At the south is lightweight timber construction. Thedesign U-values of 0.2 W/m2K for walls and 0.7 W/m2K forwindows respectively indicate the high thermal standards applied.The project is served by 108 m2 of solar collectors for hot water,while a woodchip fuelled district heating system and a heat recoveryventilation system combined ensure the low energy consumption.The total energy consumption for heating and DHW (Domestic HotWater) for an average multi-family house is 76kWh/m2a;14kWh/m2a provided by solar energy and 62kWh/m2a by biomass.The completion of the 36 solar low-energy dwellings provides the Apartment building is ready for movingresidential area with a new identity, which can contribute to an inimproved quality of life for the local inhabitants. The attraction isenvironmentally sound dwellings based on ecological materials andminimized energy consumption for the buildings total life cycle.The Austrian Radstadt project is based on economic and ecologicallife cycle analysis, which has resulted in an optimal combination ofconstruction, materials, and heating system. This combinationenables housing with low environmental impact and promotes theuse of renewable resources without compromising the comfort ofliving or rentals. The energy decrease system is based onminimizing transmission losses and the implementing of a central Cavity wall construction, Radstadtheating system supplemented by solar energy. Transmission losses In general, construction materials shouldwere reduced through comprehensive insulation of walls, roofs, and be:windows, as well as energy optimized design of the building. Appropriate to the climate Preferably indigenous Of low embodied energyIn a quiet location on the outskirts of Salzburg Radstadt a total of 26 Recycled, recyclable, non –residential houses were built. Of these, ten apartments have been toxicfully accessible, so that "assisted living" is possible. These units Dependant on local skills 4
  7. 7. Green Values in Europe were built with two rooms per dwelling and the remaining units are divided into three-or four-room apartments. The beautiful integration into the hillside, and the possibility to apply for increased housing subsidies, made the project more attractive. After completion in May 2009 was the key to the new residents to be transferred 5 ENVIRONMENT PARK, TURIN Environment Park was built on the initiative of Regione Piemonte, City of Turin, Italy. It represents today an original experience among the European Technology and Science Parks thanks to the ability to combine technological innovation and eco-efficiency, hosting several companies and Research Institutes operating both in the Environmental Protection field and the ICT field. The complex of Environment Park is composed by two compact groups of buildings, built on three levels (levels 0, 1, 2): particularly the level 1 is structured as a big platform, which covers the car parks, upon which several buildings rest. In fact, several buildings are built Some of the Environment Park´s features as a compact whole and present themselves as totally covered by extensive lawns, usable as public park, and separated by the widePark’s infrastructure: split of the green valley. - Grassy roofs The entire complex, all covered by the greenness, seems to the citi- - Rainwater recovery system zenship as a real public park, completely exploitable by the people - Wood chips for thermal purposes (cool- ing and heating) who live in the neighbourhoods and by who attend the Environment - Thermal solar and heat recovery system Park. - PV generator This allows diluting, dissolving the buildings built in the nature and - Eco – efficient building technologies in the landscape particularly: the buildings for office are low, levelled - Mini hydropower plant out in the greenness of the park. The green roof: because of the good winter, summer isolation and overall the total consumption of energy, the wide use of ecological covering enables to reduce the cost of realization of buildings and that of administration of the complex. However, the other environmental advantages are evident: the improvement of microclimate, the filtration of polluting dusts of the air and of the rain water and the reduction of urban sound pollution (the lawn is a no reflecting surface). The Blue Building system: the southern fronts of office, turn on the street and therefore representative of the technological and environmental vocation of the Environment Park, are realized with the Blue Building system: the system based on the interactive front Turin – biggest urban transformation with the largest grassy roof in Italy (24,000m 2) and on the ceiling of panels heating. 5
  8. 8. Green Values in Europe The two results are apparently opposing: a wide improvement of internal comfort and a wide control of the energetic consumptions. The interactive front uses the glasses completely transparent (an external double glass and an internal window) which allows to have the maxim natural illumination in the internal rooms. When it is necessary it monitors solar rays directly, follows down automatically in the cavity between the two windows. The empty space is constantly aired by the air extracted from the rooms which absorbs the solar heat accumulated by the fins of the trend. The mechanism offers on that way notable environmental increments: (a) an improved acoustic isolation from the outside, (b) an energy saving both for the air-conditioning (the solar heat doesn‘t come in) and for the artificial illumination; (c) a better internal comfort. The glass and the walls remain near to the room temperature. The ceiling of panel‘s water heating operated in the same direction, assuring a high environmental comfort and a high energetic saving of functioning. The wood chips: about the 85% of the heating power of the Environment Park is produced by wood chips boiler (wastes product of the pruning the tree-lined roads), energetic sustainable resource for excellence and moreover wide disposable in Turin. The adoption of an absorbing machine allows using the energy of the wood chip boiler to refresh the Environment Park consuming almost only the vegetal waste of the gardens and of the tree-lined roads in Turin. The saving is evident: both economic (for the cost of the fuel) and ecological (for the consistent reduction of the waste mass that have to be disposed in the tips). The building material: in the choose of the building material the productions and manufactures that don‘t imply polluting activities and procedures in the production, in the placing, in the disposal, or that could be recyclable and reusable at the end of the life cycle of the buildings had the priority. The basin of phytodepuration: in the system of water games of the green valley two basins of immobile waters are installed for the purification by solar raids of the rain waters and of the grey waters with a low content of B.O.D.Heating and cooling through biomass boiler 6
  9. 9. Green Values in Europe 6 SUSTAINABLE WAREHOUSESDesigning the perfect warehouse is an area where even angels can fear to walk. The sources of warehouseenergy could be: national grid, wind turbine, solar, photovoltaic, geothermal, bio fuels and kinetic. As thebenefits of sustainability are being recognized across the globe, developers are building facilities that reduceenvironmental impact and increase efficiency. 6.1 Nike´s (Logistics) Sustainable WarehouseThe average warehouse today has CO2 emissions of 236 kWh per m2. Heating is responsible for169 kWh/m² of that figure. And it is divided to nearly 115 kWh/m²per good practice.Nike Logistics in Laakdal (a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp) is the textbook example that proves that it does make sense and is financially re- warding to invest in green ware- housing. Nike is already producing more energy than it uses and should be completely CO2-neutral by 2011. Solar energy and flat roofs are almost always associated with a row of panels mounted on the roof on inclined supports. Sealed roofs and solar energy in one step 6.1.1 Lighting at Nike Logistics warehouseAt the end of the 1990s, lighting accounted for 30% of Nike‘s total energy consumption. To reduce itsenergy needs, the lighting plan was completely redrawn. Energy efficiency and comfort were to go hand in hand. The existing lights were Lighting: in 1998, accounted for 30% of total energy consumption. Complete redesign replaced with energy efficient of the lighting plan paid for itself in four years. T5 lights with electronic bal- last. Self-generated power: 20 gigawatt hours annually; own consumption: 18 gigawatt hours. These are TL tubes with a tube Thickness of insulation materials: 16 cm. diameter of only 16 mm, offer- ing better illumination than E-level Nike Strategy 3: E60. traditional T8 lights. The lights were only placed where theywere needed. In addition, a study of every location was carried out to determine the light intensity that wasnecessary to increase light-comfort for the staff: a step that paid for itself in four years and had a positiveinfluence on working conditions. 7
  10. 10. Green Values in Europe 6.1.2 Wind Park The changes to the lighting, optimization of the air-conditioning plant and other energy-efficient investments resulted in significant reductions in energy consumption by the end of the 1990s, but were not enough to achieve the objectives the company had set itself. In 2001, therefore, Nike de- cided to build its own wind park. Because such massive turbines have a signifi- The large wind turbines, cant impact on the surroundings, Nike consulted with its neighbours‘ right from conspicuous along the the start. Its open approach resulted in a very positive response to Nike‘s envi- motorway, are the most outstanding aspect of ronmental efforts from those in the immediate vicinity, and a high level of accep- Nike´s programme. tance of the tall turbines. Partly in response to their neighbour‘s wishes, Nike decided not to install the traditional monolithic (full) masts, but used lattice masts with a light metal skeleton. As a result, taller masts were possible and less steel was needed for the superstructure and less concrete for the foundations. The open structure also means less wind-on-mast noise, thus reducing noise nuisance for those living nearby. Safety was also a factor in the choice of mast design. Should anything happen, the mast collapses into a ‗crumple zone‘ without further harm? Al-though the neighbourhood filed no objections against Nike‘s plan, the government was less cooperative. Environmental approval was obtained reasonably quickly, but it took more than two years for Nike get a building permit for the masts, partly because it had chosen to use the lattice construction. Wind turbine 6.1.3 Siting the building The offices are located on the west side of the building, making air-conditioning unnecessary. The operational zone is located on the south side, which gets a lot of daylight, so very little artificial light is necessary during the day. To prevent overheating on the south side, a permanent passive cooling system was installed using blinds. Largest PV installation, as climax to ecological pioneeringPolypane Sunroof: 6.1.4 Ground and night coolingGross serviceable roof area: 2,592 panels, 3,346 m²Time taken for installation: 2 months The soil-heat exchanger transports fresh, cool air from theTotal power capability installed: 389 kWp1 (331 MWh is equivalent ground to the offices and the warehouses via ground-to 40% of Polypane‟s total electricity requirement, and the annual cooling pipes. In addition, cool outside air is brought intoconsumption of 90 households) Investment: €2 million the building during the night. This, in conjunction with the Aids (ecology grant): ± €90,000 + green electricity certificate extensive insulation, means that remarkably little energy isTax benefit: ± €90,000 required to create a pleasant, healthy indoor atmosphere.Expected pay-back period: less than 10 years 8
  11. 11. Green Values in Europe 6.1.5 InsulationHaving installed twice more insulation as required by regulations, Nike will continue to be in compliancewith the insulation standards that should be changed in the future. 6.1.6 FlexibilityFlexibility is an essential requirement for a good logistics building. If the user moves out within a couple ofyears, the building has to be usable by another company. Height is an important consideration. That is whyall of warehouses have a standard minimum height of 10.8 m. This means that they can quickly be put toother users. 6.2 Blue Planet Distribution Centre in Chatterley Valley, EnglandThe warehouse was built by a service provider company called McLaren who has proved that building awarehouse can participate in the ―safety‖ of the Earth. Warehouses arent usually associated withcutting-edge construction, but the Blue Planet distribution centre in Chatterley Valley is using state-of-the-art technology to achieve optimal sustainability.Design responds to the natural features ofthe site, re-creating walkways, parklandsand habitats. 6.2.1 The idea behind the projectThe stand-in on behalf of both the developerGazeley and site vendor Advantage WestMidlands, Shining Earth‘s™ advice helpedthe 35,564 m2 Park Blue Planet to save upto £300,000 per year in reduced running Eco warehouse in artist´s mindcosts. Shining Earth™ acted as sustainabilityconsultants, focusing on sustainability monitoring and reporting to Advantage West Midlands and theclient Gazeley. Specifically, the concentration was on assisting the design team on a number of sustainability initiatives including energy effi- cient technologies, such as T5 lighting, utilization of natural light, building orientation, under floor heating, solar walls and rainwater harvesting, all of which are incorporated into the design. In addition, a proposed micro power CHP (Com- bined Heat and Power) plant provides enough extra energy to supply heat and power to 650 local homes, and kinetic plates located beneath the roadways which capture and store the kinetic energy of vehicles as they travel over them, al- lowing the energy to be reused elsewhere on the 35,564 m2 of space available. The ETFE roof lights with inside built site. The £23m eco-friendly structure use energy-photovoltaic cells and manifestations minimize the night time pollu-tion. saving techniques in a warehouse such as the wall with the solar panels installed, to meet electricity 9
  12. 12. Green Values in Europeneeds in the warehouse. Warehouse also has floors that can produce heat energy (floor heating system)which operates through a generator that uses biomass (animal compost) as a fuel. ―The Blue Planet‖ which is actually painted green sits in the neighbouring hills like a lozenge-shaped spacecraft. From the site you can see a tra- ditional warehouse being erected on a neighbouring plot and the gap couldnt be more noticeable. TheCushions on the roof are puffed up to allow wider cover Blue Planet reeks of high-tech constructiontechnology while the traditional building just looks like a shack. Light enters the building using thesame Ethylene Tetra Fluor ethylene (ETFE) skill seen at the Beijing Olympics swimming hub. ETFEpillows in the roof are inflated to tolerate wider spans than traditional glazing with better fillingproperties.The roof lights complement the south side of the building which is a complete solar wall while thebuilding contains one of the largest under floor heating systems in the country. The heating system is powered by a biomass generator creating enough extra energy for local homes. The reason to Building specifications: change to biomass was the oil price of Site area: 23.9 acres bio fuel generators Floor Loading: 50kN/m2 that has shot up dur- Car Parking: 235 spaces ing the planning. A HGV Parking: 105 spaces Level access doors: 2 lot of steel was Dock levellers: 38 needed in the main Clear storage height: 15m structure as the heat- ing pipes run all the way around thebuilding underground. Because the building is tall, alot of heat is usually wasted when it radiates downfrom above, so energy – saving technique was beinginstalled as kinetic plates which converts the motionof articulated vehicle into power. The plates areinstalled in the warehouse draw near roads whichgenerate the power when trucks roll over them.Many materials used into construction work havebeen sourced within a 30 – mile radius, while all offcuts were recycled. Major components like the underfloor heating and solar wall have set the quality for the Construction materials were sourced within 30 miles radiuswhole approach to the job. 10
  13. 13. Green Values in Europe This is the UK‘s first carbon positive BREEAM Industrial ‗Outstanding‘ rated logistics building (less than 2008 design rating). The whole 100% of energy and heat is supplied from renewable energy. Building lighting and power savings of 49% from normal, building heating and energy savings of 68% and water savings of 60%. Total energy and water cost in use savings are up to £300,000 per annual (39% cost in use saving per annual).Everybody claims to be „sustainable‟ these days and the whole concept is reduced to eye-catching projects, such as wind turbines or solarpanels. Having solar panels does not, on its own, make a warehouse green. Far too often, there is no integrated approach, which meansthat many opportunities to build the most sustainable warehouse possible are not taken advantage of. There is no single solution, butdozens, for designing a sustainable warehouse. 7 GREEN VALUES IN A WAREHOUSE The supply chain as a key source of value creation becomes the litmus test for the ´promise´ and supply management is the enabler. Today many lack a comprehensive and robust way to track their own and suppliers ´sustainability performance. Being green and ethical will no longer be an option, it will be a necessity for all participants in the supply chain. Green Supply Chain should integrate environment into supply chain management, including product design, material sourcing and selection, manufacturing process, delivery of the final product to the customers and end – of – life management of the product after use of its life. A company should take into consideration the Green-SCOR model which enables organizations to more effectively integrate environmental management with SCM. 7.1 Factors of how to green your storage How could we locate inventory as close to the end buyer in order to save shipping costs and reducing products shipping carbon footprint? Keep Inventory close to the end customer Move in bulk by―ground whenever possible Using volume freight delivery to get inventory to regional warehouses will cut the total number of km traveled per package. The further you transport goods in volume — in a large container or by freight—the better optimized your long-distance inventory transport will be. Maximize the number of products you pack into each transport container Consider eliminating the use of pallets Even in the best of times, successful warehouse management is a balancing work between competing objectives like space utilization versus organizational flexibility, picking speed versus accuracy, and increased throughput versus decreased labour costs. Recent economic conditions have strengthened the challenge with increased study of capital expenditures and more demanding requirements on return on investment (ROI). Improving warehouse operations to achieve corporate goals requires a combination of strategic actions, organizational capabilities and enabling technologies. For example, companies must examine whether current warehouse systems provide the visibility and ease of integration needed to support future improvements. Additionally, companies must measure and track warehouse performance metrics to understand cost drivers and provide a solid basis for evaluating the potential benefits of efficiency-improving technologies. For example, in the latest OPM (Object Process Methodology) generation, several load handling devices are grouped together to create one transport unit on the conveyor. This significantly reduces the length of time 11
  14. 14. Green Values in Europethat the conveyor elements are switched on and lowers the plants energy consumption by up to 30%. Thanksto this measure, 40% fewer drives are needed in an OPM system.Effective software functionalities, such as in the area of volume costing, order combining or the use of pick-and-pack functionalities at the picking workstations can also be seen by the client in its CO2 balance sheet.Considerable savings potential is exploited if the plant runs in so-called economy mode. In low-throughputphases of plant areas, the stacker cranes deliberately accelerate more slowly and only to a lower speed whilethe paths are further optimized. This reduces not only energy consumption, but also wear and tear to thevehicles.Energy-optimized lifting and travel gear axles on the vehicles make it possible to raise the lifting mechanismduring the decelerating phase of the drive unit and lower it during the accelerating phase. This technologyhas been in use for 10 years and has increased vehicle efficiency by up to 30%. By combining severalcontrollers and vehicles to create one entity, this enables excess energy generated when decelerating avehicle to be used directly for the acceleration of another vehicle. The effect is particularly appealing toclients in instances where energy cannot be fed back to the grid or the energy recovery is not compensatedby the energy supplier. 7.2 Automated warehouseMost people assume that automated warehouses consume more energy than manual warehouses, but thisquestion has to be looked at case by case. There are a number of ways in which automated solutions reduceenergy consumption and save costs. Firstly, by optimizing the material flows, automation reduces the overallnumber of goods movements. Use of dynamic slotting based on ERP data – such as fast movers at the frontand heavy goods on lower levels – is much simpler in automated solutions and reduces energy consumptionconsiderably.Features of Automated Warehouses: Two rows of metal racks that are face to face; a narrow aisle are between the metal racks A raised metal rail is built down the center of the narrow aisle A tall pole travels through the narrow aisle along the rails Once the pole reaches a certain point, a carriage travels up or down the pole to the same level of the location point A load-handling mechanism is built on to the carriage, and then it reaches into the load to be put away or recover a load.Benefits of Automated Warehouses: Improving control of products Reduce and maintains accurate records inventory Improves labor productivity Reduces excessive handling of products Increase productive capacity of existing floor space Reduce product damage from multiple handling, location errors and shrinkage Visible Use less energy than most systems Requires less maintenance Helps increase response time to customer demandsCompanies implementing Green Supply Chain programs in their warehouse processes should beforeanything happens ask themselves the following questions on the warehouse´s role in carbon reduction: Should we be making strategic decisions based upon carbon or financial economics? What is the ideal balance between the number of warehouses and transport? 12
  15. 15. Green Values in Europe Should more emphasis be given to full vehicle loads and increasing stockholding? Should we be sharing warehouses more? How can warehouse operations be improved to reduce the impact of transport? How can warehouse operations be improved to reduce the impact of retail sites? 8 EUROPE´S BEST ECO AIRPORTSchiphol, (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) was voted as best European Eco Airport. The airport has beenworking to reduce its emissions for several years and has the ambition to become fully CO2-neutral by2012. Schiphol is an Airport City and like a city, it is a place where air and train passengers, visitorsand working people come together. It´s a business location for companies, a dynamic environment withshops, catering facilities and it´s a hub from where to travel onward.Schiphol has also been purchasing green energyexclusively since 2008. This means that all buildings atAmsterdam Airport Schiphol are connected to greenenergy. A portion of their gas on a green basis is boughtby purchasing certificates. Airport generates a smallportion of the energy they use themselves (1%) bysustainable means. The intention is to raise that portionsteadily in the years ahead. Electric motors has been usedfor lifts and conveyor belts, improved regulation andadjustment of cooling installations, ventilation, lightingand air – conditioning.On the Schiphol ground there are small wind turbines. Small wind turbine at SchipholFor the safety concern, the air-port is unable to installlarge wind turbines. The small turbines still allow gaining experience in generating wind energy. Muchof the lighting in departure and arrival halls 1, 2, 3/4, the lounges and gates is part of an interconnectedsystem. The corridor leading to the Gate G is illuminatedon the basis of daylight and the lighting on Gate H isoperated by means of presence detection. The lighting atthe gates will also be presence – detection operated in theyears ahead. The time lighting remains on at the passengerbridges and after use has been reduced from 15 min to 10minutes.LED lighting is also used at a number of locations on theairport grounds: for example at traffic lights, to illuminateobstacles, for emergency lighting, to illuminate works ofart and for Christmas lighting. Energy consumption at theSchiphol Group headquarters has been reduced by 50% by Energy efficient LCD monitorsswitching off half of the ceiling spotlights in the corridorsand replacing halogen lights with LED lighting. A large portion of the airport´s buildings are lit usingenergy – efficient NEON lighting. The monitors displaying flight in-formation have been replaced by anewer type that is 50% more energy – efficient. Two – hundred (200) LCD energy efficient monitors arereplacing paper – based advertising and marketing messages in the terminal. 13
  16. 16. Green Values in EuropeGrass – sedum vegetated roofs can be found on the roofs of Schiphol Plaza, a portion of the Terminalbuilding, the Schiphol Group headquarters and the TransPort office building. Vegetated roofs are anatural means of insulation and they collect precipitation, slowing the rate at which the rainfall reaches the ground and thus lowering the risk of flooding. Roof cladding is being tested on the Transview of- fice building. The effectiveness of a special roof cladding will show if there could be any breaking down of hazardous substances such as NOx. Schiphol is the first company in the Netherlands to apply this innovative method. Electricity for aircraft – six gates are fitted with battery charging stations (6.6%). Each year more gates are fitted with a fixed power point and a sup-Every biodiesel vehicle carries the label ply of fresh air so that by late 2013, 67% of thegates will have access to cold ironing. This develop-ment means that the aircraft will no longer need to usesupplementary engines. Biodiesel is used by 10% ofvehicles used in airport operations. Biodiesel is madeof coal seed which is supplied by local farmers.Noise at the Schiphol airport is a big concern. Theiraim is to improve quality of life and limit noisedisturbance. With the new design ―Ecobarrier‖ andselectivity policy the aim is becoming reality. Pilots arealso being stimulated to perform dead stick landings;landings without engine power, which cause less noise Noise monitoring system, NOMOSand use less fuel. Maintaining the current quality of the surface water and encouraging the efficient useof water remains a challenge. The quality of the surface water on and around the airport is influencedduring icy or snowy conditions in the winter by substances used to deice airplanes, taxiways, runwaysand aprons that seep into the surface water.These sub-stances remove oxygen from thewater and this can kill off fish.Pilot, Electric car has launched in 2009 andit is available for Schiphol staff to use at andaround the airport. The pilot will last oneyear. Depending on the results of the pilot,the Schiphol airport may decide to purchasea fleet of 100% electrically – driven vehicles.Staffs also use electric scooters to get toappointments in the surrounding area. Theluggage trolleys in the baggage basementsrun on electricity. The trolleys are chargedon the apron, between Gates E and F. The Eco – barrier, the winning designplan for 2010 is to test luggage trolley that runs on hydrogen. 14
  17. 17. Green Values in EuropeThe Sanitation Plan was formed in consultation with the Rijnland Polder Board and it describes themeasures for justifying the harmful effects on water life caused by substances for de – icing and dealing with snow and slipperiness. Special aprons are used for de – icing airplanes where the de – icing liquids as glycol and potassium format are collected in buffers. These aprons are called remote positions and buffers allow prevent- ing the surface water from becoming contaminated by the de – icing liquids. These remote positions, together with the changeover to po- tassium format, are drastically improving the quality of the surface water. The algae basin is a pilot based on sustainable innovation in which glycol and potassium format is broken down in water in an environ- mentally friendly way. Algae produce large quantities of oxygen which breaks down glycol. The carbon dioxide released is absorbed by the micro algae and what remains is purified oxygen – rich water and algae biomass. The algae have a further benefit in that they also combine with CO2 in the air when there is little glycol available. This allows the algae to grow further while at the same time reducing theDe – icing process airport´s total CO2 emissions. Anti – slip agents are deployed to counter slipperiness on the runways. Potassium formate is used in-stead of potassium acetate. The advantage of potassium formate is that three times less oxygen isremoved from the surface water during the natural breakdown process and it works for longer so thatless substance needs to be used.Airport also has 13 monitoring posts where they measure the water quality. The further sevenmonitoring posts will be added in 2010. These posts are connected to the electricity grid, and there isinvestigation going on if monitoring posts could be supplied from solar energy or not. A large portion ofthe snow was stored in separate locations at the airport for the first time in the 2009/2010 winter season.The snow is swept from the runways and aprons by the airport´s fleet of snow ploughs. At the speciallocations, the melt water is collected and drained away so that it cannot mix with the ground and surfacewater.Cooling water - water treatment plants have been installed on Schiphol wants its own businessthe terminal roof that condenses the water so that a saving of up activities to be CO2 neutral in 2012to 20% can be made on replacement water. Water - saving and to generate at least 20% of itsflushing methods in the terminal - an environmentally friendly energy requirements sustainability at the Schiphol location in 2020.gel is added to the water for toilet flushing in the terminal. Thisgel reduces lime scale and the need for descaling with alkalinecleaning agents and less water is required for deep cleaning. Eco – blocks are placed in the toilet waterreservoirs so that less water is used. On the fire brigade exercise ground, the fire extinguishing waterused during exercises runs off via drains back into water basin. In the basin, the water first enters asegment where sand and other heavy substances first sink down. After this the water flows over the edgeof the segment into larger segment, from where the water is pumped back to the various individualpieces of training equipment to cool them.Schiphol airport uses waste separation policy. There are separate waste bins in the terminal for paper,plastic and refuse. The 100 million tissues that are discarded each year are processed as paper wasteinstead of refuse. The plastic bottles and pots collected at the Customs entryway are collected andrecycled too. This yields a total of 6 tonnes of plastic. Waste from aircraft is separated for processing. 15
  18. 18. Green Values in EuropeSchiphol also examines the separate collection of waste fruit byrestaurants and bars in the terminal. Old work clothing fromrestaurants is recycled into dust cloths and fillings. The mown grass in the vicinity of the runways is collected as green waste. Waste processing – Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has partnered with Van Gansewinkel for the purpose of waste processing since 2009. The anticipation of this collabora- tion will in the long run lead to less Waste is separated waste, more separation at source, processing methods with a higher environmental yield and the use of waste products to replace primary raw materials. The aviation sector is constantly innovating in order to make its businessKerosene Vapour check – up processes cleaner. KLM and Virgin Atlantic already tested a flight on bio fuel. Kerosene vapours are released during aircraft refuelling. The refuel-ling tanks collect these vapours and convert them into electricity and heat. This is possible from theinnovative, clean and cost – effective refuelling method: the Kerosene Vapour Processing System ofAircraft Fuel Supply. Aircraft engines are cleaned on regular basis. Clean engines perform better andemit less CO2, and the water used is collected. 9 WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH ENVAC VACUUM SYSTEMS“Envac AB, Sweden, is the global market leader in automated vacuum waste collection and inventor ofthe vacuum system.”As waste volumes continue to grow, more and more stringent demands are being made of wastehandling with regard to hygiene and the environment. The Envac vacuum system for waste handling inresidential areas is a long-term investment offering both financial and environmental benefits, as well asother added value. 9.1 Envac systemsWhen an Envac system is installed, the need forheavy waste transportation in the area is reducedby up to 90 %. This in turn leads to fewer trafficjams, as well as less noise and a reduction incarbon dioxide emissions. The road trafficenvironment around people‘s homes is madesafer. And as the system is hermetically sealed,it will not attract pests or insects or releasenoxious odours.As the waste inlets are connected together in anunderground pipe system, it is possible to placegreat emphasis on the wellbeing of residentswhen positioning them. Positioning it centrally Stationary vacuum systems 16
  19. 19. Green Values in Europekeeps the area tidier and results in less waste being left lying around. 9.1 Environmentally sustainable waste managementWaste collected in the most hygienic manner and transported quietly by a single truck to recyclingplants, incinerators or landfills, without affecting the residents of the locality. Envac, with origins inSweden, is recognized as the undisputedglobal market leader for underground-automated waste collection systems. It hasover 40 years experience in the developmentand adaptation of its technology to localstandards in more than 30 countries. 9.1.1 Cleaner and saferThe waste collection process that Envac usesis cleaner and safer than conventionalsystems. It consists of a fully enclosedvacuum system, which means doing away Litter bin systemwith foul smelling, dirty refuse collectionrooms and containers in the streets. No one needs to come into contact with refuse sacks or containers.The waste is thrown into a normal inlet, either indoors or outdoors. Hygiene is maintained at all timesand there is no manual handling of the waste at all. The container is sealed once it is filled and thentransported to the landfill where it is emptied.Envac uses intelligent systems that allow the emptying of the waste collected only when required but atthe same time the waste does not sit for long hours. There is both time based and volume basedautomated emptying that lets the waste flow to collection points at regular intervals.In principle, the system consists of a number of collection points, linked together by piping thattransports the waste to a central collection station. When a refuse bag is deposited into an inlet, it istemporarily stored in a chute on top of a discharge valve. All the full inlets connected to the collectionstation are automatically emptied at regular intervals. The control system switches on the fans and avacuum is created in the network of pipes. An air inlet valve is opened to allow transport air to enter thesystem.One by one, the discharge valves below each of the chutesare opened and the refuse bags fall down by gravity intothe horizontal network of pipes and are sucked to thecollection station. The refuse enters the collection stationvia a cyclone that separates the refuse from the air. Therefuse falls down into a compactor which dense the refusein the sealed container. The transport air then passesthrough dust and deodorant filters and a silencer.When the containers are full, normal trucks collect them Containers are sealed letting no air infor emptying for further transportation to incinerationfacilities, composting plants or landfills. One truck goes to one location and picks up 20 to 25 cubicmeters of waste and drives off. 17
  20. 20. Green Values in EuropeWhereas open garbage systems are prone to pest infestations as well as creating disease causing germs,the Envac system is sealed and odourless. In addition the working environment is very good indeed forthe workers who deal with the garbage because they never come into direct contact with it. They do notdo any lifting or pulling heavy bins and are at no risk of infection or cuts when operating the Envacsystem. 9.1.2 Sorting at sourceIt is ideal for separating waste for recycling, in which case there is an additional inlet and container for each category of refuse. The control system directs a diverter valve to convey each category of sorted waste into the correct con- tainer. At all stages of it, the system does not lose sight of the importance of conserving the environment and the hygiene of users. Less noise, reduced exhaust and carbon emissions dueMobile vacuum system to reduced transport needs,stops, and loading/unloading ensures good care of the environment.There is no unnecessary use of energy in any of the stages of this waste collection process. It is also costeffective because the whole process requires only one operator to keep the system running. Such ahighly automated advanced system is a capital investment and costs much initially but it pays back asthe years pass, as its operating costs are significantly low. In the conventional system, costs continue togrow. 9.2 Waste handling in flight catering kitchensHuge amounts of waste are produced in kitchens, mostly in the form of bulky packaging or heavyorganic waste food. Handling this waste poses both a hygiene risk and a working environment problem.Restaurants also have to meet current environmental requirements as regards sorting waste at source, forexample.Large catering kitchens at airports are operational more or less round the clock. They have to deal withenormous amounts of waste from incoming aircraft, food preparation kitchens and staff canteens.Compared with traditional manual refuse collection methods, an automated kitchen waste system issafer, more efficient, more hygienic – and cheaper in the long run.These problems are get rid of by installation of an automated kitchen waste system. The trays beingreturned by incoming aircraft are taken off the plane on a conveyor belt, and all the waste remainingafter sorting is automatically sucked out by means of a suction hood. The inlets are located convenientlythroughout the entire kitchen and differ in appearance depending on the type of waste. Some inlets areequipped with waste disposal units in order to reduce the volume of bulky waste. 18
  21. 21. Green Values in Europe Waste handling at the airport kitchen 9.2.1 Advantages of the Envac Kitchen Waste System Valuable space can be freed up in the kitchen. Better hygiene – no odour, no leaks, no bacteria, no insects. Waste inlets can be positioned within comfortable reach of worktops, etc. The waste storage location is independent of the location of the waste inlets. It is normally located in a position where it will be easiest to pick up/empty, such as outside the building or in the basement. The storage area does not need air conditioning. Waste can be processed (by grinding or removing moisture, for example) to make it easier to handle. System capacity is optimised with regard to estimated quantity of waste and pickup frequency. There is no manual handling or transportation of food waste.ISO 14001 accreditation of your kitchen. Compliant with the very strictest HACCP hygiene requirements. 9.3 Safe waste handling at airportsLarge amounts of waste are generated at airports – onboard aircraft, in catering kitchens, at therestaurants, in the shops and in the administrative offices. Manual waste handling at airports is heavy,dirty work that causes all kinds of problems. Waste sacks have to be taken past customs and securitystaff, and waste collection trucks have to drive around on the already very busy runway. Compared withtraditional, manual handling, this system is safer, more efficient, more hygienic – and more economical. 9.3.1 How it worksAs soon as an aircraft has taxied in and is standing at its gate, cleaning staff board the plane to get itready for its next flight. But instead of carrying the sacks of waste off every aircraft to a waste collectiontruck waiting on the runway, as is the case now, or simply transporting them through customs and on toa waste room for temporary storage, staff can now throw them straight into a waste chute located in the 19
  22. 22. Green Values in Europebridge at the same level as the entry doors. If the plane has no contact with the bridge, there are otherspillways on the runway which can be used. This keeps traffic on the runway and going through customsto a minimum.An underground waste handling system provides a better working environment on the runway and forcleaning staff aboard aircraft. There are no waste collections trucks, the staff have less to lift and drag,and there is no risk of them spreading infection or cutting themselves as there is almost no physicalcontact with the waste.When manual waste handling is taken out of the equation, both passengers and staff has a cleaner, moreattractive airport to enjoy. Spillways from the aircraft will not need to be transported manually throughcustoms and other critical areas, nor will it have to be carried around in full view of passengers in thedeparture and arrivals halls, or at the gates. 10 FINAL WORDSThe need for more sustainable transport systems is becoming obvious all over the world. Therefore it ismeaningful to investigate a blend of all options in order to attain a more sustainable transport systemand to analyse how far new technologies can be introduced as complementary mechanism.Emissions from freight transport largely depend on type of fuel used. Nowadays various alternativefuels exist; however the main fuel used by goods vehicles continues to be diesel whilst petrol –enginevans are used for relatively small amounts of freight moved. In most countries, relatively small amountsof freight are moved in electrically powered road vehicles or freight trains. Diesel engines emit moreCO2 per unit of energy, but because they are more energy efficient, the overall impact of diesel engineson CO2 emissions is less than that of an equivalent sized petrol engine.Road traffic is the main cause of environmental noise at the local level. Currently, around 30 per cent ofthe EU‘s population is exposed to road traffic noise and 10 per cent to rail noise levels above 55dB.Trucks generate road noise from three sources: (1) propulsion noise, which dominates at low speeds(engine sources), (2) tyre/road – contact (noise at speeds above 50km/h) and (3) aerodynamic noise,which increases as the vehicle accelerates. To minimize or prevent such, Europe set some standard ruleson vehicle noise. Nevertheless, overall noise levels have not improved, as the growth and spread oftraffic in space and time has largely offset both technological improvements and other abatementmeasures.The main focus of a green supply chain is reducing energy consumption, emissions and waste, andincreasing recycling and reuse. To help deal with it, supply chain should be extended. This means newset of potential strategic and operational considerations: - The number and location of facilities for product/packaging and re-use - The effects of traditional supply chain on environmental performance - Environmental supply chain optimizationBut even though that the direct environmental impact can be assessed in terms of emissions, it is the rootthat causes these emissions and they need to be addressed. Exactly what action needs to be taken isdetermined by an appropriate analysis of the supply chain as a whole. Some researchers have noted thatan improved environmental impact sometimes chase a supply chain redesign exercise based ontraditional performance measures such as cost or customer service. 20
  23. 23. Green Values in EuropeREFERENCES Climate change in Finland _in_Finland_FINAL_lowres.pdf Green cities in Europe .html .html Green city building Environment Park, Turin Sustainable warehouses gi- um%20Jul08.pdf?id=c22200086p&repositoryKey=CoreRepository&itemDesc=document&cid=c190 00018p&crep=Core&cdesc=binaryPromoBoxContent&Country=900095&Language=EN Green values in a warehouse The book, Green Logistics Improving the environmental sustainability of logistics, Edited by A. McKinnon, S. Cullinane, M. Browne, A. Whiteing, 2010 Europe´s best Eco airport airport-quieter-greener.html Waste handling with Envac vacuum systems 21
  24. 24. Green Values in EuropeAPPENDICES Cavity wall construction – a double wall consisting of two vertical layers of masonry separated by an air space and joined together by metal ties GREENSCORE – a "green" practice and product scoring or rating system. You can discover your impact on the environment, while learning to identify true "green" products. BREEAM – The Environmental assessment method for buildings around the world