Session 2-3-jake-snaddon-securing-sustainable-ecosystem-services-within-oil-palm-landscapes-1466

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Jake Snaddon Discusses the importance of ecosystem services in oil palm landscapes

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Session 2-3-jake-snaddon-securing-sustainable-ecosystem-services-within-oil-palm-landscapes-1466

  1. 1. Securing sustainable ecosystemservices within oil palm landscapesJake L Snaddon*William Foster, Edgar Turner,Tim Cockerill, Tom Fayle jlsnaddon@gmail.com *Biodiversity Institute, University of Oxford Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge
  2. 2. Global oil palm landscape Fitzherbert et al. 20078
  3. 3. Local oil palm landscape
  4. 4. Tim Cockerill
  5. 5. What’s the problem? WWF Germany 2005
  6. 6. Critical questions:• To what extent do the losses in animal biodiversity matter in relation to ecosystem services?• How can we sustain them?
  7. 7. Talk outline1. What are the components of biodiversity2. How does biodiversity relate to ecosystem services3. Examples from the field4. Sustaining ecosystem services - mitigating changes and adaptive management
  8. 8. Talk outline1. What are the components of biodiversity2. How does biodiversity relate to ecosystem services3. Examples from the field4. Sustaining ecosystem services - mitigating changes and adaptive management
  9. 9. Components of biodiversity FOREST OIL PALMNumberRelative abundanceCompositionRange of functional traitsSpatial distributionVertical diversity Diaz et al. 2006
  10. 10. Changes in biodiversityEffects on diversity and abundance Forest Oil Palm Foster, Snaddon et al. in press Phil. Trans.
  11. 11. What do communities in oil palm plantations look like? There are losers and winners among species – which make a biotic communitiesGeneralist species Oil palm community Forest species Example based on proportions of beetle species Snaddon et al. in prep
  12. 12. Functional aspects of diversity Guild structure of communities 100% 100% xylo-mycetophagous 90% 90% Proportion of individuals (%) xylophagousProportion of species (%) 80% 80% 70% 70% saprophagous 60% 60% predacious 50% 50% herbivorous 40% 40% fungivorous 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Forest Oil palm Forest Oil palm Forest Oil palm Chung et al. 2000 Chung et al. 2000 Snaddon et al. in prep Chung et al. 2000 Snaddon et al. in prep
  13. 13. Spatial example Ant mosaicsFOREST OIL PALM Oecophylla sp. Dejean et al. 1997
  14. 14. Host–parasitoid food websHabitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food webs example Forest Degraded habitatHosts (herbivores) Parasitoids Tylianakis et al. 2010
  15. 15. Talk outline1. What are the components of biodiversity2. How does biodiversity relate to ecosystem services3. Examples from the field4. Sustaining ecosystem services - Mitigating changes and adaptive management
  16. 16. Links between biodiversity and ecosystem services Ecosystem Biodiversity ServiceComplementarity effect• Species complement each other• Through resource partitioning and facilitation• More efficient acquisition of resourcesSelection effect• Species with particular traits being selected in “species pool”• Dominate traits affect the mixture
  17. 17. Talk outline1. What are the components of biodiversity2. How does biodiversity relate to ecosystem services3. Examples from the field4. Sustaining ecosystem services - mitigating changes and adaptive management
  18. 18. Biological controlAnt composition Value of generalist species.Herbivory rates• Positively correlated + + + - with Tetramorium = + + + +• Negatively correlated + - - + with Crematogaster = - + + - + + + + Anoplolepis gracilipes Dejean et al. 1997
  19. 19. Biological controlOil palm pest - parasitiod links Bagworm Pest• Over lap of pest Metisa plana generations – maintains parasitoid population• Natural enemies and Goryphus bunoh Brachymeria carinata Callimerus arcufer Dolichogenidea metesae Tetrastichus sp. Paraphylax varius Pediobius imbreus Eurytoma sp. Aphanogmus hakonensis Pediobius anomalus Aulosaphes psychidivorus Elasmus sp. pest desynchronized• Alternative host could support parasitoid 1 populations Basri et al. 1995 c m
  20. 20. Biological controlOil palm pest - parasitiod links Bagworm Pest• Over lap of pest Metisa plana generations – maintains X parasitoid population• Natural enemies and X XXXXXXXXXXX Goryphus bunoh Brachymeria carinata Callimerus arcufer Dolichogenidea metesae Tetrastichus sp. Paraphylax varius Pediobius imbreus Eurytoma sp. Aphanogmus hakonensis Pediobius anomalus Aulosaphes psychidivorus Elasmus sp. pest desynchronized• Alternative host could support parasitoid populations Basri et al. 1995
  21. 21. Biological controlOil palm pest - parasitiod links Bagworm Pest Alternative hosts• Over lap of pest Metisa plana generations – maintains parasitoid population• Natural enemies and Goryphus bunoh Brachymeria carinata Callimerus arcufer Dolichogenidea metesae Tetrastichus sp. Paraphylax varius Pediobius imbreus Eurytoma sp. Aphanogmus hakonensis Pediobius anomalus Aulosaphes psychidivorus Elasmus sp. pest desynchronized• Alternative host could support parasitoid populations Basri et al. 1995
  22. 22. Biological controlOil palm pest - parasitiod links Bagworm Pest Alternative hosts• Over lap of pest Metisa plana generations – maintains X parasitoid population• Natural enemies and X X Goryphus bunoh Brachymeria carinata Callimerus arcufer Dolichogenidea metesae Tetrastichus sp. Paraphylax varius Pediobius imbreus Eurytoma sp. Aphanogmus hakonensis Pediobius anomalus Aulosaphes psychidivorus Elasmus sp. pest desynchronized• Alternative host could support parasitoid populations Basri et al. 1995
  23. 23. Pollination• Elaeidobius kamerunicus – the million dollar weevil• Reliance on few species can be risky – Introduced populations have a narrow genetic base – Parasitic nematodes (Poinar et al. 2002, Caudwell et al. 2003)• Evidence of native pollinators – Thrips – Other beetles
  24. 24. Dung beetles and dung removalFunctional trait response Species swap Large nocturnal tunnellers make up 53% of the total biomassProportion of dung removed in Catharsius dayacus & Catharsiusrelation to functional group renaudpaulianirichness. Slade et al. 2007, 2011, in prep
  25. 25. Decomposition 100Percentage mass loss a a a 80 60 b 40 20 0 Primary Logged Oil palm Oil palm without Oil palm without termitessamples termite in the samples Macrotermes gilvus – A common Litter decomposition in oil palm termite species in disturbed habitats, such as oil palm plantations is heavily dependent on ONE plantations TERMITE species Foster, Snaddon et al. in press Phil. Trans.
  26. 26. Talk outline1. What are the components of biodiversity2. How does biodiversity relate to ecosystem services3. Examples from the field4. Sustaining ecosystem services - mitigating changes and adaptive management
  27. 27. How can we enhance ecosystem services: by enhancing biodiversity• Complexity in the landscape preserves these species interactions.• Adaptive management – sustainagility building the capacity to respond to future changes (Jackson et al. 2010)
  28. 28. The scope to include biodiversity with oil palm plantationsCost of having non-crop habitat within plantation – how does this affect yield? A B C Net profit per area Non- cultivatable land 0 100 Percentage non-crop vegetation
  29. 29. Landscape and habitat complexity Pristine Forest Forest conversion ?? ?
  30. 30. Microhabitats Epiphytes & invertebrate communityAnt Species richness Forest Oil Palm Sample number 200 Oil palm species Mean number of species: Logged speciesTotal beetle species 160 n = 30, P = 0.070, nsTotal beetle species Forest species 120 76% 14% 80 Epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus Oil palm species 40 Logged species 0 Forest species Primary fern Primary forest Logged fern Logged forest Oil palm fern Oil palm Fayle, Turner, Snaddon et al. 2010 Basic & Applied Ecology Snaddon, et al. in prep.
  31. 31. MicrohabitatsUnderstory vegetation & bird community Najera and Simonetti 2010 Agroforest Syst
  32. 32. Summary• Securing sustainable ecosystem services within oil palm landscapes• What do we need to clearly evaluate ecosystem services values and requirements?
  33. 33. Co-authors and collaboratorsWilliam Foster Ed Turner Tim Cockerill Tom Fayle Paul Eggleton Gavin Broad Chey Vun Khen Arthur Chung
  34. 34. Sabah Forestry Department

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