From analog to digital psychology:     Results from surveys on information behavior      among German psychologists betwee...
Outline      • Background & purpose of present work      • Methods & methodological issues      • Results      • Discussio...
Digitalization in scholarship      • Electronic communication media by now virtually        universal in modern societies ...
Psychology as a special case      • Encompasses both mechanistic and subject oriented        theorizing      • As of today...
Information behavior in psychologists      • Information behavior (IB) impacts and is impacted by        digitalization   ...
Purpose of present work      • In the preceding years, several surveys carried out by        ZPID among German-speaking ps...
Outline      • Background & purpose of present work      • Methods & methodological issues      • Results      • Discussio...
Identical itemsSurvey sample features                      Survey #1.1          Survey #1.2       Survey #1          Surve...
Publications referring to samples      • #1.1: Montada, Krampen & Burkard (1999); Krampen        & Montada (2000)      • #...
Comparable survey items      • Surveys #1, #2, and #3: set of items on frequency of        use of different information so...
Overview of comparison categories      • Use of information sources           • Libraries, Literature databases, Publicati...
Outline      • Background & purpose of present work      • Methods & methodological issues      • Results      • Discussio...
Use of information sources – Libraries      • #1: for unspecified „libraries“, mean of 71 % on        percentile scale, 2n...
Use of information sources – Lit. Databases      • #1: 63 % (7th) for PSYNDEX, 67 % (4th) for PsycINFO,        38 % (15th)...
Use of information sources – Publications      • #1: 75 % and 1st rank for „browsing of top journals in        field“, 58 ...
Use of information sources – WWW      • #1: 48 % (10th) for unspecified „search on the WWW“      • #3: Host of items      ...
Importance of database properties - Similarities      • Up-to-dateness: 92 % in #2 (2nd rank among 12 inquired        prop...
Importance of database properties - Differences      • Cost: 79 % (5th) for „low user fees“ in #2 vs. 88 % (7th) for „open...
Open questions on information search problems      • #1.2: „Desired improvements in PSYNDEX“           • Online access (mo...
Outline      • Background & purpose of present work      • Methods & methodological issues      • Results      • Discussio...
IB changes in psychology researchers?      • No fundamental change in IB in psychology        researchers in the course of...
40                                                                      +6,9                                              ...
Possible trends      • Open access publishing so far not commonplace in        German psychology (lower use of open access...
Practitioners‘ perspective      • More use of general-purpose search engines and        books, less use of libraries and l...
Thanks for your             attention!#cosci12     Information behavior in German psychologists   25
References      Becher, T., & Trowler, P. R. (2001). Academic tribes and territories (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open        Un...
References      Krampen, G., Fell, C. B., & Schui, G. (2012b). Professionelle Publikationspräferenzen von Mitgliedern     ...
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Bauer, H., Schui, G. & Krampen, G. (2012, August).From analogue to digital psychology:Results from surveys on information behavior among German psychologists between 1997 and 2010.(PDF) International Conference on Science and the Internet 2012,Düsseldorf

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Bauer, H., Schui, G. & Krampen, G. (2012, August).From analogue to digital psychology:Results from surveys on information behavior among German psychologists between 1997 and 2010.(PDF) International Conference on Science and the Internet 2012,Düsseldorf

  1. 1. From analog to digital psychology: Results from surveys on information behavior among German psychologists between 1997 and 2010 Hans Bauer, Gabriel Schui & Günter Krampen Leibniz Instititute for Psychology Information (ZPID), Trier#cosci12 Aug 1, 2012
  2. 2. Outline • Background & purpose of present work • Methods & methodological issues • Results • Discussion & outlook#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 2
  3. 3. Digitalization in scholarship • Electronic communication media by now virtually universal in modern societies • In scholarship, promise of increased quantity and quality of research output • However, scholarly disciplines differ in extent, timeframe, and forms of digitalization (Kling & McKim, 2000) • Social, epistemic, and material foundations (e.g., Becher & Trowler, 2001)  Discipline-specific developments must be considered!#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 3
  4. 4. Psychology as a special case • Encompasses both mechanistic and subject oriented theorizing • As of today, strongly oriented towards natural sciences paradigm, but no unifying framework • Research-practice-gap#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 4
  5. 5. Information behavior in psychologists • Information behavior (IB) impacts and is impacted by digitalization • IB in psychologists not investigated systematically • To adapt ZPID services, IB (including information needs) in psychology community needs to be considered • Plans to conduct regular, prospective surveys • What do we have so far?#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 5
  6. 6. Purpose of present work • In the preceding years, several surveys carried out by ZPID among German-speaking psychology community, including IB-related items • Compiled results of four surveys conducted between 1997 and 2010 in order to… • Draw preliminary inferences about changes and continuities in IB during digital transition • Raise attention to methodological issues#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 6
  7. 7. Outline • Background & purpose of present work • Methods & methodological issues • Results • Discussion & outlook#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 7
  8. 8. Identical itemsSurvey sample features Survey #1.1 Survey #1.2 Survey #1 Survey #2 Survey #3Sampling date 1997 1999 – 2003-2004 2010Target population Senior members in Junior members in – Members of Members of German university German, Austrian German German psychology depts. and Swiss psychology psychology university practitioners researchers psychology depts. association (BDP) association (DGPs)Valid responses 265 (48 %) 221 (36 %) 486 (41 %) 324 (22 %) 298 (17 %)(response rate)Academic titles / 18 % PD, 82 % FP 45 % Postgrad, 48 21 % Postgrad, 22 Not inquired 12 % Postgrad, 26 apositions % Postdoc, 7 % PD % Postdoc, 13 % % Postdoc, 17 % PD, 44 % FP PD, 38 % FP, 7 % missing b% female 16 32 23 67 38Mean age missing 36 missing 44,0 42,9 aNotes. Abbreviations used: PD – Privatdozent (roughly comparable to assistant professor); FP – Full Professor;b Gender missing < 3 % in all samples.#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 8
  9. 9. Publications referring to samples • #1.1: Montada, Krampen & Burkard (1999); Krampen & Montada (2000) • #1.2: Neppl, Wiesenhütter, Krampen & Montada (2001) • #2: Becker (2004); Krampen, Becker, Labouvie & Montada (2004) • #3: Krampen, Fell & Schui (2011, 2012a, 2012b)#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 9
  10. 10. Comparable survey items • Surveys #1, #2, and #3: set of items on frequency of use of different information sources • Only partially overlapping! Mainly „analog“ sources in #1, mainly „digital“ sources in #3, #2 in between • Surveys #2 and #3: set of items on subjective importance of „information service“ (i.e., literature database) properties • Surveys #1.2 and #3: open-ended question about problems / desired improvements in information search#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 10
  11. 11. Overview of comparison categories • Use of information sources • Libraries, Literature databases, Publication contents, WWW • Importance of database properties • Up-to-dateness, Quality assurance, Internationality, Cost, Ease of use, Search speed, Workflow integration, Full text access#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 11
  12. 12. Outline • Background & purpose of present work • Methods & methodological issues • Results • Discussion & outlook#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 12
  13. 13. Use of information sources – Libraries • #1: for unspecified „libraries“, mean of 71 % on percentile scale, 2nd rank among all 25 sources inquired • #3: 61 % for library OPAC use, ranking 3rd among 32 sources • Also, score of 84 % on item „importance of direct access to libraries“ #1: Composite researcher • #2: 40 % each for OPAC and local library survey, end-nineties #2: Practitioner survey, use (14th / 15th rank among 31 sources) 2003-2004 #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 13
  14. 14. Use of information sources – Lit. Databases • #1: 63 % (7th) for PSYNDEX, 67 % (4th) for PsycINFO, 38 % (15th) for unspecified „other“ DBs • Refers to CD-ROM format; means are only 33 % each for online versions of PSYNDEX and PsycINFO • #3: 57 % (6th) for PSYNDEX, 73 % (2nd) for PsycINFO, 45 % (12th) for „other“ DBs • #2: 25 % (17th) for PSYNDEX, 11 % (21st) #1: Composite researcher survey, end-nineties for PsycINFO #2: Practitioner survey, 2003-2004 #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 14
  15. 15. Use of information sources – Publications • #1: 75 % and 1st rank for „browsing of top journals in field“, 58 % (9th) for „browsing of many books“ • #3: 88 % (1st) for unspecified use of „online journals“ as information source, 49 % (10th) for „print journals“, 56 % (7th) for „open access online journals“ • #2: 79 % (6th) for unspecified journal use, 88 % (1st) for unspecified book use #1: Composite researcher survey, end-nineties #2: Practitioner survey, 2003-2004 #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 15
  16. 16. Use of information sources – WWW • #1: 48 % (10th) for unspecified „search on the WWW“ • #3: Host of items • „Conventional search engine“: 59 % (5th) • Google Scholar: 56 % (7th); Google Books: 41 % (15th) • Author homepages: 44 % (13th) • Discipline-specialized websites: 38 % (16th) • Document- / Preprint-Servers: 25 % (24th) • Researcher social networking sites: 8 % (30th) #1: Composite researcher • #2: 73 % (7th) for unspecified „search survey, end-nineties engines“, 82 % (4th) for Google, 56 % (8th) #2: Practitioner survey, 2003-2004 for profession-specific websites #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 16
  17. 17. Importance of database properties - Similarities • Up-to-dateness: 92 % in #2 (2nd rank among 12 inquired properties) vs. 97 % in #3 (2nd among 31) • Quality assurance: 95 % (1st) for „service professionalism“ and 87 % (4th) for „certified information“ in #2 vs. 94 % (6th) for „correctness“ and 85 % (10th) for „professional quality assurance“ in #3 • Interdisciplinarity: 70 % (9th) in #2 vs. 67 % (18th) in #3 • Search speed: 78 % (6th) in #2 vs. 80 % (12th) in #3 • Workflow integration: 67 % (10th) for possibility of „subsequent processing“ in #2 vs. 72 % (15th) #2: Practitioner survey, for „seamless connections of resources“ and 2003-2004 68 % (17th) for „dataset exporting“ in #3 #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 17
  18. 18. Importance of database properties - Differences • Cost: 79 % (5th) for „low user fees“ in #2 vs. 88 % (7th) for „open access (no charge)“ in #3 • Internationality: 71 % (8th) in #2 vs. 96 % (4th) in #3 • Ease of use: 91 % (3rd) for „straightforward, uncomplicated search technology“ in #2 vs. 52 % (20th) for „‘intelligent‘ search engines“, 38 % (26th) for „recommender systems“, 71 % (15th) for „powerful search syntax“, and 75 % (13th) for „many searchable database fields“ in #3 • Full text access: ranked 1st (98 %) in #3; in #2, mean of 68 % regarding „how important“ full text services #2: Practitioner survey, would be in the future, and 25 % regarding current 2003-2004 frequency of use of online full text services #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 18
  19. 19. Open questions on information search problems • #1.2: „Desired improvements in PSYNDEX“ • Online access (most often); integration into literature management workflow; linking to full texts; integration with other literature databases; improved up-to-dateness and search features • #3: „Typical difficulties encountered while searching for information“ • Access to full texts (most often, by far); search strategy (choosing keywords, identifying all pertinent literature); literature coverage in DBs #1.2: Junior research survey, (discipline, language, publication type re- 1999 strictions); usability flaws in DBs #3: Researcher survey, 2010#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 19
  20. 20. Outline • Background & purpose of present work • Methods & methodological issues • Results • Discussion & outlook#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 20
  21. 21. IB changes in psychology researchers? • No fundamental change in IB in psychology researchers in the course of digitalization • Main concern in information search: efficiently identifying and accessing all pertinent literature • Now and then, journals and literature databases most important sources • Google-style searching increasing, but databases still used more often • Library search somewhat declining, but still frequently used and considered important#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 21
  22. 22. 40 +6,9 35 % english-language Possible trends +2,4 30 +1,4 +0,6 +2,8 25 +1,3 +1,3 +0,5 -0,2 -0,9 +0,8 +1,2 20 15 • Ongoing „internationalization“ 10 5 of German psychology research 0 • Increased use of PsycINFO Year of publication • Increasing quota of English-language publications (Krampen, Schui & Bauer, 2012) • Need for integration of national-level databases like PSYNDEX • PubPsych (www.pubpsych.eu)#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 22
  23. 23. Possible trends • Open access publishing so far not commonplace in German psychology (lower use of open access journals, low use of preprint servers) • But: In 2010, 4,4 % of English-language articles published in open access journals, vs. only 2,4 % in 2009 (Krampen, Schui & Bauer, 2011, 2012) • More high quality open access journals need to be established • PsychOpen (www.psychopen.eu)#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 23
  24. 24. Practitioners‘ perspective • More use of general-purpose search engines and books, less use of libraries and literature databases • More emphasis on ease of use, less emphasis on international contents in databases • Differences most likely due to differences in available resources and work context (more localized) • If psychological practice is to be grounded in empirical foundations, information providers should not only take researchers‘ perspective into account!#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 24
  25. 25. Thanks for your attention!#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 25
  26. 26. References Becher, T., & Trowler, P. R. (2001). Academic tribes and territories (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press. Becker, R. (2004). Informationsbedarf und Informationsverhalten in der psychologischen Praxis. Retrieved July 5, 2012 from http://www.zpid.de/index.php?wahl=IuD&uwahl=publications Kling, R., & McKim, G. (2000). Not just a matter of time: Field differences and the shaping of electronic media in supporting scientific communication. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51, 1306–1320. doi:10.1002/1097-4571(2000)9999:9999<::AID- ASI1047>3.0.CO;2-T Krampen, G., Becker, R., Labouvie, Y., & Montada, L. (2004). Internet-Ressourcen für die Psychologie sowie Informationsbedarf und Informationsverhalten von BDP-Mitgliedern. Report Psychologie, 29, 588–600. Krampen, G., Fell, C., & Schui, G. (2011). Psychologists research activities and professional information-seeking behaviour. Journal of Information Science, 37, 439–450. doi:10.1177/0165551511412148 Krampen, G., Fell, C., & Schui, G. (2012a). Professionelles Informationsverhalten von Psychologen im Arbeitsfeld "Forschung und Lehre". B.I.T.online, 15, 117–126.#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 26
  27. 27. References Krampen, G., Fell, C. B., & Schui, G. (2012b). Professionelle Publikationspräferenzen von Mitgliedern der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Psychologische Rundschau, 63, 175–178. doi:10.1026/0033-3042/a000129 Krampen, G., & Montada, L. (2000). Nutzung alter und neuer Medien bei Literaturrecherchen von Experten. In G. Krampen & H. Zayer (Eds.), Psychologiedidaktik und Evaluation II (pp. 89–99). Bonn: Dt. Psychologen-Verlag. Krampen, G., Schui, G., & Bauer, H. (2011). ZPID-Monitor 2009 zur Internationalität der Psychologie aus dem deutschsprachigen Bereich: Der ausführliche Bericht. ZPID Science Information Online, 11(2). Retrieved July 5, 2012 from http://www.zpid.de/index.php?wahl=IuD&uwahl=publications Krampen, G., Schui, G., & Bauer, H. (2012). ZPID-Monitor 2010 zur Internationalität der Psychologie aus dem deutschsprachigen Bereich: Der ausführliche Bericht. ZPID Science Information Online, 12(1). Retrieved July 5, 2012 from http://www.zpid.de/index.php?wahl=IuD&uwahl=publications Montada, L., Krampen, G., & Burkard, P. (1999). Persönliche und soziale Orientierungslagen von Hochschullehrern/innen der Psychologie zu Evaluationskriterien über eigene berufliche Leistungen. Psychologische Rundschau, 50, 69–89. doi:10.1026//0033-3042.50.2.69 Neppl, R., Wiesenhütter, J., Krampen, G., & Montada, L. (2001). Literaturrecherche-Strategien wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter/innen in psychologischen Instituten. In G. Krampen & H. Zayer (Eds.), Psychologiedidaktik und Evaluation III (pp. 125–134). Bonn: Dt. Psychologen-Verlag.#cosci12 Information behavior in German psychologists 27
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