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CLIMATE CHANGE      PERSPECTIVES     ÓÓÐ ÀÌÜÑÃÀËÛÍ   ªªÐ×˪ËÒÈÉÍ ÒªËªÂ  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE / BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL...
All copyrights obtained through the Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP), U.S.Department of State.ªã¿¿ëýã¿¿ä...
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE/SEPTEMBER                                  2009 VOLUME 14 / NUMBER 9                        http:...
The Bureau of International Information              States unless they carry explicit copyrightPrograms of the U.S. Depar...
About This Issue  Even as a new study, published by the journal Science, indicates that human activity-generated emissions...
is taking to ameliorate the serious effects of climate change there.                               Rainforest conservation...
U.S. Department of State / September 2009 / Volume 14 / Number 9                     http://www.america.gov/publications/e...
international policies be adopted to      32   The View from an     meet the urgent challenges it presents.        Island:...
change as many countries, it                   poor, as extreme weather upsets     has actively pursued renewable         ...
effects domestically and in cooperation        how it needs to adapt to become     with international partners.           ...
Overview                     A Pivotal Opportunity                                          Todd Stern                    ...
These are the facts. They send a simple                Clinton, the United States is working with                         ...
confident that the United States can and will   But action by the United States and othertake the lead in building the 21s...
the potential of new, clean energy sources.          including mitigation, adaptation, technology,This is the future.     ...
consult and deepen our dialogue with twoimportant partners and explore opportunitiesfor our countries to make progress tow...
Overview              The 21st-Century Challenge                                    Michael SpecterAward-winning writer Mi...
cubic kilometers of ice; since the Arctic is             For the first time in memory, mosquitoes,                        ...
Is that possible? Absolutely. But it will  same amount of greenhouse gas emissionsrequire equal measures of sacrifice and ...
will be, and in many cases are already, far          form of diesel. Amyris says that by 2011higher than the costs of pret...
difference. Many people are beginningto understand that — which is why, forexample, conservationists are beginningto pay p...
Critical Issues: An International Tour Brazil         Overview on a Range of Threats                                     L...
been found to contribute to climate change                                                          It is estimated that B...
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  1. 1. CLIMATE CHANGE PERSPECTIVES ÓÓÐ ÀÌÜÑÃÀËÛÍ ªªÐ×˪ËÒÈÉÍ ÒªËªÂ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE / BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION PROGRAMS 1 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓÀÍÓ-ÛÍ ÒªÐÈÉÍ ÄÅÏÀÐÒÀÌÅÍÒ Journal USAÓËÑÛÍ ÌÝÄÝÝËËÈÉÍ ÕªÒªËÁªÐÈÉÍ ÒÎÂ×ÎÎ e / ÎËÎÍ
  2. 2. All copyrights obtained through the Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP), U.S.Department of State.ªã¿¿ëýã¿¿äèéí çîõèîã÷èéí ýðõèéã ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí Äåïàðòìåíòèéí Îëîí ÓëñûíÌýäýýëëèéí Õºòºëáºðèéí Òîâ÷îîãîîð (ÎÓÌÒ) äàìæóóëàí àâñàí áîëíî.
  3. 3. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE/SEPTEMBER 2009 VOLUME 14 / NUMBER 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.htmlInternational Information Programs:Coordinator Jeremy F. Curtin Copy Editor Rosalie TargonskiExecutive Editor Jonathan Margolis Photo Editor Ann Monroe Jacobs Maggie Johnson Sliker Cover Design Min YaoEditor-in-Chief Richard W. Huckaby Reference Specialist Anita N. GreenManaging Editor Lea TerhuneAssociate Editor Joshua K. HandellProduction Manager/Web Producer Janine PerryAssistant Production Manager Chloe D. Ellis Cover: Images from PhotoSpin, Inc. ÀÍÓ-ÛÍ ÒªÐÈÉÍ ÄÅÏÀÐÒÀÌÅÍÒ 2009 ÎÍÛ ÅÑįÃÝÝÐ ÑÀÐ/14 ÄÝÕ ÄÝÂÒÝÐ/ÄÓÃÀÀÐ 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.htmlÎëîí óëñûí ìýäýýëëèéí õºòºëáºðèéí:Çîõèöóóëàã÷ Æåðåìè Ô. Êýðòèí Äóãààðûí ýðõëýã÷ Ðîñàëè Òîðãàíñêèÿéöýòãýõ ýðõëýã÷ Æîíàòàí Ìàðãîëèñ Çóðãèéí ýðõëýã÷ Àíí Ìîíðîå Æàêîáñ Õàâòàñíû çàãâàðûã Ìèí ßîÅðºíõèé ýðõëýã÷ Ðè÷àðä Ì. Õàêàáè Ëàâëàãààíû ìýðãýæèëòýí Àíèòà Í. ÃðèíÕýâëýëèéí ìåíåæåð Ëåà ÒåðõóíåÒóñëàõ ìåíåæåð Æîøóà Ê. Õàíäåë¯éëäâýðëýëèéíìåíåæåð/Âåá çîõèîã÷ Æàíèí Ïåððè¯éëäâýðëýëèéí Õàâòàñ: PhotoSpin, Inc.-ýýñ àâñàí çóðàãòóñëàõ ìåíåæåð ×ëîå Ä. Ýëëèñ
  4. 4. The Bureau of International Information States unless they carry explicit copyrightPrograms of the U.S. Department of State restrictions, in which case permission must bepublishes a monthly electronic journal under sought from the copyright holders noted in thethe eJournal USA logo. These journals examine journal.major issues facing the United States and theinternational community, as well as U.S. society, The Bureau of International Informationvalues, thought, and institutions. Programs maintains current and back issues in several electronic formats, as well as a listOne new journal is published monthly in of upcoming journals, at http://www.america.English and is followed by versions in French, gov/publications/ejournals.html. Comments arePortuguese, Russian, and Spanish. Selected welcome at your local U.S. Embassy or at theeditions also appear in Arabic, Chinese, and editorial offices:Persian. Each journal is catalogued by volumeand number. Editor, eJournal USA IIP/PUBJThe opinions expressed in the journals do not U.S. Department of State 2200 C Street, NWnecessarily reflect the views or policies of the Washington, DC 20522-0501U.S. government. The U.S. Department of State USAassumes no responsibility for the content andcontinued accessibility of Internet sites to which E-mail: eJournalUSA@state.govthe journals link; such responsibility residessolely with the publishers of those sites. Journalarticles, photographs, and illustrations may bereproduced and translated outside the UnitedÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíòèéí Îëîí Îëîí óëñûí ìýäýýëëèéí õºòºëáºðèéí òîâ÷îîóëñûí ìýäýýëëèéí òîâ÷îîíîîñ ejournal USA íü ñýòã¿¿ëèéí õàìãèéí ñ¿¿ëèéí áîëîí ò¿¿íèéëîãîòîéãîîð ñàð òóòàì öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë íèéòëýí ºìíºõ äóãààðûã http:llwww.america.gov.ãàðãàäàã. Ýäãýýð ñýòã¿¿ëä Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí publicationslejournals.html. õóóäñàí äýýð õýäÓëñ áîëîí îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí íèéãýìëýãò, õýäýí öàõèì õýìæýýãýýð õàäãàëíà. Òà ñàíàëò¿¿í÷ëýí Àìåðèêèéí íèéãýì, ýðõýìëýäýã ç¿éëñ, áîäëîî òàíàé óëñ äàõü ÀÍÓ-ûí Ýë÷èí ñàéäûíñýòãýëãýý, èíñòèòóöèä í¿¿ðëýæ áóé òîìîîõîí ÿàì áóþó ñýòã¿¿ëèéí çºâëºëä äîîðõ õàÿãààðàñóóäëóóäûã àâ÷ ¿çäýã þì. èð¿¿ëæ áîëíî:Ñàð òóòàì àíãëè õýëýýð øèíý ñýòã¿¿ë íèéòýëäýã Editor, eJournal USAáºãººä àðààñ íü ôðàíö, ïîðòóãàëè, îðîñ, èñïàíè IIP/PUBJõýëýýðõ õóâèëáàðûã ãàðãàäàã. Çàðèì ñîíãîñîí U.S. Department of State 2200 C Street, NWäóãààðûã àðàá, õÿòàä, ïåðñ õýëýýð áàñ ãàðãàíà. Washington, DC 20522-0501Ñýòã¿¿ë á¿ðèéã äýâòýð, äóãààðààð íü êàòîëîãèä USAîðóóëíà. E-mail: eJournalUSA@state.govÑýòã¿¿ëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûíçàñãèéí ãàçðûí áîäëîãî áóþó áàéð ñóóðèéíòóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéíäåïàðòàìåíò íü ñýòã¿¿ë äýõ õîëáîîñ á¿õèéèíòåðíåò ñàéòóóäûí àãóóëãà, òýäãýýðò áàéíãàíýâòðýõ áîëîìæòîé ýñýõ àñóóäëààð õàðèóöëàãàõ¿ëýýõã¿é, òèéì õàðèóöëàãûã çºâõºí òóõàéíõóóäàñíû çîõèîã÷ íàð õ¿ëýýíý. Ñýòã¿¿ëèéííèéòëýë, ãýðýë áîëîí çóðìàë çóðãóóä íüçîõèîã÷èéí ýðõèéí èëýðõèé õÿçãààðëàëòòàéáàéâàë òýäãýýðèéã ÀÍÓ-ààñ ãàäíà îð÷óóëàíáóþó õóóëàí íèéòëýõ òîõèîëäîëä ñýòã¿¿ëääóðäñàí çîõèîã÷èéí ýðõ ýçýìøèã÷ýýñçºâøººðëèéã íü àâàõ øààðäëàãàòàé.
  5. 5. About This Issue Even as a new study, published by the journal Science, indicates that human activity-generated emissions have reversed an Arctic cooling trend, leading to global warmingunmatched for 2,000 years, world leaders are negotiating an action framework to succeedthe Kyoto Protocol. This international agreement, aimed at stabilizing the greenhouse gasemissions that accelerate global warming, will expire in 2012. “We have reached a pivotal moment in the climate challenge, and what we decide to do nowwill have a profound and lasting impact on our nation and our planet,” writes U.S. SpecialEnvoy for Climate Change Todd Stern in his introductory article. In this eJournalUSA, experts from key nations around the world ponder the conditionsthat climate change and global warming present in their regions. They discuss what is beingdone within their countries to address climate change mitigation and adaptation and howthey envision mutually beneficial international partnerships. These issues will be consideredin-depth at the December 2009 meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark, of the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 15th Conference of Parties (COP15).The goal is a viable agreement that satisfies the nearly 200 countries concerned. All of the countries profiled in this publication — Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India,Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Russia, and the United States — already feel the impact ofglobal warming. India is vulnerable to rising sea levels and extreme weather events, writesIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Chairman R. K. Pachauri, who discussesIndia’s national action plan. IPCC adviser Jiahua Pan describes the ambitious measures China Óà ÀÑÓÓÄËÛÍ ÒÓÕÀÉÄ Õ¿íèé ¿éë àæèëëàãààíààñ ¿¿äñýí ýëäýâ óðøèã Àðêòèêèéí ñýð¿¿ö¿¿ëýõ íºëººãñóëðóóëæ, 2000 æèëä áàéãààã¿é äýëõèéí äóëààðëû㠺人æ áàéãààã Science ñýòã¿¿ëäíèéòëýãäñýí øèíý ñóäàëãàà õàðóóëæ áàéãàà áºãººä äýëõèéí òýðã¿¿ëýõ óäèðäàã÷ íàðÊèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëûã îðëîõ ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû õ¿ðýýíèé òóõàé õýëýëöýæ áàéíà. Äýëõèéíäóëààðëûã ò¿ðãýòãýæ áàéãàà õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûã ñààðìàãæóóëàõ çîðèëãî á¿õèéîëîí óëñûí ýíýõ¿¿ õýëýëöýýðèéí õóãàöàà 2012 îíä äóóñàõ ó÷èðòàé. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí ÀÍÓ-ûí Òóñãàé ýë÷ Òîää Ñòåðí óäèðòãàëºã¿¿ëýëäýý: “Áèä óóð àìüñãàëûí ñîðèëòûí íýãýí ìàø ÷óõàë ìº÷èä òóëæ èðýýä áàéãààó÷ðààñ îäîî áèäíèé ýíý òóõàéä þó õèéõ òàëààð ãàðãàõ øèéäâýð íü ìàíàé ¿íäýñòýí õèéãýýäìàíàé ãàðèãèéí õóâüä óðò óäààí õóãàöààíä ¿éë÷ëýõ ã¿í ã¿íçãèé íºëººòýé áàéõ áîëíî”ãýæ áè÷ñýí áàéíà. Ýíý öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ëä äýëõèéí ãîë ãîë îðíû ìýðãýæèëòí¿¿ä òýäíèé á¿ñ íóòàãò óóðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò, äýëõèé äàõèíû äóëààðëààñ ¿¿äýæ áóé íºõöºë áàéäëûã öýãíýí ¿çýæáàéãàà áîëíî. Òýä íàð óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ñààðìàãæóóëàõ, ò¿¿íä äàñàí çîõèöîõòàëààð óëñ îðîíä íü þó õèéæ áàéãàà, ýíý ÷èãëýëèéí õàðèëöàí àøèãòàé îëîí óëñûíõàìòûí àæèëëàãààã òýä õýðõýí òºñººëæ áàéãàà òàëààðàà ÿðüæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð àñóóäëûãÄàíè óëñûí Êîïåíãàãåí õîòíîî 2009 îíû àðâàí õî¸ðäóãààð ñàðä áîëîõ Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóäûí 15 äóãààð Áàãà õóðëûí Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèéÁàéãóóëëàãûí Õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ×óóëãàí íàðèéí òîäîðõîé àâ÷ ¿çíý. Òóñ ×óóëãàí õîëáîãäîõáàðàã 200-ààä îðíû ñàíààíä íèéöýõ õýðýãæèõ¿éö õýëýëöýýð áîëîâñðóóëàõ çîðèëãîòîé. Ýíý äóãààðò Áðàçèëü, Êàíàä, Õÿòàä, Ãåðìàí, Ýíýòõýã, Èíäîíåç, ßìàéê, Êåíè,Îðîñ, Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñûí òóõàé ºã¿¿ëæ áàéãàà áºãººä ýäãýýð íü á¿ãäýýðýýäýëõèéí äóëààðëûí íºëººã íýãýíò ìýäýð÷ áàéãàà îðíóóä þì. Ýíýòõýãèéí ¿íäýñíèé¿éë àæèëëàãààíû òºëºâëºãººíèé òàëààð ÿðüæ áàéãàà Ð. Ê. Ïà÷àóðè (Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Ǻâëºëèéí äàðãà) Ýíýòõýãò äàëàéí
  6. 6. is taking to ameliorate the serious effects of climate change there. Rainforest conservation is critical to the health of the planet, since forest degradation is a major source of damaging “greenhouse gas” emissions, as biologist Liana Anderson explains in her assessment of climate change impact in Brazil. IPCC Vice Chair Richard Odingo examines the situation in Kenya. Harry Surjadi is concerned with the plight of the Indonesian poor. Scientist A. Anthony Chen addresses problems specific to Caribbean island nations. Alexey Kokorin writes that the imminent danger of climate change has yet to be fully understood in Russia, yet the government has taken important steps to meet the challenge. Young people will inherit a world that climate change increasingly compromises. Some of them have organized to demand more aggressive action. “Climate change is among the issues that galvanize young© AP Images/Charlie Reidel people simply because our government’s actions don’t make sense to us,” writes Canadian environmental activist Zoë Caron. American Richard Graves says, “Young people in the United States have made clear that they want bold environmental leadership.” Will the United Nations be able to cope with climate change pressures? That is the question considered by Swedish diplomat Bo Kjellén. One thing our contributors agree upon is summed up by Todd Stern: “The status quo is unsustainable.” — The Editors ò¿âøèí äýýøëýõ áîëîí öàã àãààðûí òóéëûí íîöòîé ¿çýãäë¿¿ä ýìçýã òóñ÷ áàéãàà òóõàé áè÷èæ áàéíà. Óã Ǻâëºëèéí çºâëºõ Æèàõóà Ïàí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íîöòîé ¿ð äàãàâàðûã çàñàõûí òóëä Õÿòàä óëñûí õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áóé òîìîîõîí àðãà õýìæýýã òîäîðõîéëîí ÿðüæ áàéíà. Îé ìîäíû ñ¿éðýë “õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí” óðøèãò ¿ð äàãàâàðûí íýã áàéäàã ó÷ðààñ õàëóóí îðíû øèðýíãèéã õàäãàëàí õàìãààëàõ ÿâäàë ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäýä àìèí ÷óõàë à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîéã Áðàçèëüä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò õýðõýí íºëººëæ áàéãààä ¿íýëãýý õèéñýí Ëèàíà Àíäåðñîí áèîëîã÷èéíõîî õóâüä òàéëáàðëàæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Ǻâëºëèéí äýä äàðãà Ðè÷àðä Îäèíãî Êåíèéí íºõöºë áàéäëûã àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Õàððè Ñóðæàäè Èíäîíåçèéí ÿäóó ç¿ä¿¿ãèéí çîâëîí ñàíàà çîâîîæ áàéãàà òóõàé áè÷èæ áàéíà. Ýðäýìòýí À. Àíòîíè ×õåí Êàðèáèéí òýíãèñèéí àðëûí îðíóóäàä òîõèîæ áóé ºâºðìºö àñóóäëóóäûã øèéäýõýä àíõààðàë õàíäóóëæ áàéíà. Îðîñûí Õîëáîîíû Óëñàä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºìðºí áóé àþóëûã á¿ðýí îéëãîîã¿é, çàñãèéí ãàçàð ýíýõ¿¿ ñîðèëòûã òóóëàõ ÷óõàë àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äèéã õàðààõàí àâààã¿é áàéãàà òóõàé áè÷èæ áàéíà. Çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò óëàì á¿ð äîðîéòóóëæ áàéãàà äýëõèé åðòºíöèéã ºâëºí àâíà. Òýäãýýðèéí çàðèì íü èë¿¿ äàâøèíãóé àðãà õýìæýý àâàõûã øààðäàõààð çîõèîí áàéãóóëàëòàä îðæ áàéíà. Êàíàäûí áàéãàëü îð÷íû èäýâõòýí Çî¸ Êàðîí “Ìàíàé çàñãèéí ãàçðûí ¿éëäýë áèäýíä åð人 îéëãîìæã¿é áàéãàà ó÷ðààñ ë óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñèéã öî÷èðäóóëæ áàéãàà àñóóäëûí äîòîð îðæ áàéãàà þì” ãýæ áè÷èæ áàéíà. Àìåðèêèéí Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñ “Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñàä çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñ áàéãàëü îð÷íû çîðèãòîé óäèðäëàãûã õ¿ñ÷ áàéãààãàà òîâ òîäîðõîé áîëãîñîí” ãýæ áàéíà. Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí äàðàìòûí ó÷ðûã îëæ ÷àäàõ óó? Ýíý àñóóëòûã Øâåäèéí äèïëîìàò÷ Áî Êæåëëåí àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ìàíàé áè÷èã÷äèéí ñàíàë íèéëæ áàéãàà íýã àñóóäàë áîë Òîää Ñòåðíèé “Ñòàòóñ êâî òîãòâîðã¿é áàéíà” ãýñýí ä¿ãíýëò þì. —Íèéòëýã÷èä
  7. 7. U.S. Department of State / September 2009 / Volume 14 / Number 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.html Climate Change Perspectives Overview remedies from the perspective of the Obama administration.11 A Pivotal Opportunity Todd Stern 16 The 21st-Century Challenge The U.S. State Department’s Michael Specter special envoy for climate change Climate change will define our outlines challenges and possible future, and it is critical that effective ÀÍÓ-ÛÍ ÒªÐÈÉÍ ÄÅÏÀÐÒÀÌÅÍÒ/2009, ÅCįÃÝÝÐ ÑÀÐlÄÝÂÒÝÐ 14/ÄÓÃÀÀÐ 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.html Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òºëºâ Òîéì 16 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû ñîðèëò Ìàéêë Ñïåêòåð11 Ìàø ÷óõàë áîëîìæ Òîää Ñòåðí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò áèäíèé èðýýä¿éã òîäîðõîéëîõ ó÷ðààñ ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíòèéí ýíýõ¿¿ ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áàéãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íîöòîé ñîðèëòîä ä¿éñýí ¿ð àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí òóñãàé ýë÷ íºëººòýé îëîí óëñûí áîäëîãûã ñîðèëò äóóäëàãà áîëîí øèéäýõ áàòëàæ ãàðãàõ íü íýí ÷óõàë þì. àðãûã Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû ¿¿äíýýñ òîéìëîí òîäîðõîéëæ áàéíà.
  8. 8. international policies be adopted to 32 The View from an meet the urgent challenges it presents. Island: Jamaica Critical Issues: An A. Anthony Chen International Tour Islands are threatened by increasingly severe storms, rising sea levels,21 Overview on a Range of Threats and drought, according to this Liana Anderson Jamaica-based climate scientist. Deforestation and the impact of Addressing Climate Change global warming and climate extremes 39 on public health and agriculture are Through Sustainable explored by this Brazilian biologist. Development Jiahua Pan27 O Canada: How Good Chinese economist Jiahua Pan It Could Be stresses the urgency of implementing Zoë Caron sustainable development A young Canadian environmental programs in China and discusses activist surveys the climate measures taken to date. change challenges in her country and how Canadian provincial 46 Security Through Energy Policy: governments are acting to reduce Germany at the Crossroads greenhouse gas emissions. R. Andreas Kraemer Although Germany is not as vulnerable to the impact of climate Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: ò¿âøèí, ãàí ãà÷èã çýðýã íü àðëóóäàä Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë àþóë çàíàë ó÷ðóóëæ áàéíà.21 Àþóëûí öàð õ¿ðýýã òîéìëîõ íü 39 Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéã Îéã¿éæèëò, äýëõèéí äóëààðàë áîëîí ñºðã¿¿ëýí òàâèõ íü öàã óóðûí íîöòîé ¿çýãäë¿¿äèéí Æèàõóà Ïàí õ¿í àìûí ýð¿¿ë ìýíä, õºäºº Õÿòàäûí ýäèéí çàñàã÷ Æèàõóà àæ àõóéä ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé íºëººã Ïàí Õÿòàäàä òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéí Áðàçèëèéí ýíý áèîëîã÷ ñóäàëæýý. õºòºëáºðèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ òóëãàìäñàí øààðäëàãûã îíöëîí27 Êàíàä ìèíü äýý: Èíãýâýë öîõîæ, ºíºº õ¿ðòýë àâ÷ áàéãàà àðãà õè÷íýýí ñàéõàí áàéõ ñàí áèëýý õýìæýýíèé òàëààð ºã¿¿ëæ áàéíà. Çî¸ Êàðîí Êàíàäûí áàéãàëü îð÷íû çàëóó 46 Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé áîäëîãîîð èäýâõòýí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã õàíãàõ íü: òóñ îðîíä í¿¿ðëýæ áóé ñîðèëò áîëîí ÕÁÍÃÓ ñàëàà çàìûí áèë÷èðò Êàíàäûí ìóæèéí çàñãèéí ãàçàð Ð. Àíäðåàñ Êðàèìåð õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí ¿ð äàãàâàðûã Ãåðìàí õýäèéãýýð áóñàä îëîí îðîí áàãàñãàõ òàëààð õýðõýí àæèëëàæ øèã óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä áàéãààã àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. àìàðõàí ºðòºìõèé áèø ÷ ãýñýí ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷èéã ñóäëàõ,32 Íýãýí àðëààñ õàðàãäàõ õºãæ¿¿ëýõ áîëîí í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí áàéäàë: ßìàéê äýãäýõ õàÿãäëûã áàãàñãàõ À. Àíòîíè ×õåí áîäëîãûã èäýâõòýé ÿâóóëäàã ãýæ ßìàéêò ñóóðüøñàí ýíý óóð Áåðëèíèé Ýêîëîãèéí õ¿ðýýëýíãèéí àìüñãàëûí ýðäýìòíèé ¿çëýýð áîë çàõèðàë áè÷èæ áàéíà. óëàì á¿ð äîãøèð÷ áóé äàëàéí øóóðãà, äýýøèëæ áóé äàëàéí
  9. 9. change as many countries, it poor, as extreme weather upsets has actively pursued renewable agriculture and drives up food prices. energy research and development and carbon emissions reduction, 63 Strategies to Counter writes the director of the Climate-Related Threats Ecologic Institute, Berlin. to Kenya’s Economy Richard Odingo53 India’s Global Position Kenyan climate science expert and on Climate Change IPCC Vice Chair Odingo examines R. K. Pachauri climate-linked environmental IPCC Chairman R. K. Pachauri conditions in Africa, which range focuses on his home country, India, from severe drought to flooding. and the impacts of climate change He says political will is an essential that are already being felt there step toward effective remedies. because of rising sea levels and severe storms, and suggests what may be 68 Good Domestic Efforts, done to address the situation. Underestimated Threat Alexey Kokorin58 Reducing Poverty While Russian climate expert Kokorin Cutting Carbon Emissions evaluates the climate change impact Harry Surjadi sustained by Russia, the likely This Indonesian environmental future, and the steps the government journalist’s chief concern is the is taking to adapt and mitigate the impact of climate change on the53 Óóð àìüñãàëûí 63 Êåíèéí ýäèéí çàñàãò ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé óóð àìüñãàëûí Ýíýòõýãèéí áàéð ñóóðü õîëáîãäîë á¿õèé àþóë Ð. Ê. Ïà÷óðè çàíàëûã áàãàñãàõ ñòðàòåãè Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí Ðè÷àðä Îäèíãî àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Êåíèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí øèíæëýõ Ǻâëºëèéí äàðãà Ð. Ê. Ïà÷óðè óõààíû øèíæýý÷ áºãººä Óó𠺺ðèéí ýõ îðîí Ýíýòõýãèéã àâ÷ àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ¿çýõäýý äàëàéí ò¿âøèí äýýøèëæ ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Ǻâëºëèéí äýä áóé ¿çýãäýë, äîãøèí øèð¿¿í äàëàéí äàðãà Îäèíãî Àôðèêèéí óóð øóóðãà çýðãýýð íýãýíò ìýäðýãäýýä àìüñãàëòàé õîëáîãäîë á¿õèé, óëààí áàéãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ãàíãààñ èõ ¿åð õ¿ðòýë õýëáýëçäýã íºëººíä àíõààðëàà òºâëºð¿¿ëýõèéí ýêîëîãèéí íºõöºë áàéäëûã àâ÷ õàìò íºõöºë áàéäëûã ãýòëýí ¿çýæ áàéíà. Òýðýýð ¿ð íºëººòýé äàâàõûí òóëä þó õèéæ áîëîõ àðãà õýìæýý àâàõ çàìä óëñ òºðèéí òàëààð ñàíàë äýâø¿¿ëæ áàéíà. õ¿ñýë çîðèã íýí ÷óõàë àëõàì áàéõ ¸ñòîé ãýæ õýëæ áàéíà.58 Í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéã áàãàñãàõûí õàìò ÿäóóðëûã 68 Äîòîîäûí ñàéí õ¿÷èí áóóðóóëàõ íü ÷àðìàéëò, äóòóó Õàððè Ñóðæàäè ¿íýëýãäñýí àþóë çàíàë Áàéãàëü îð÷íû àñóóäëààð áè÷äýã Àëåêñåé Êîêîðèí Èíäîíåçèéí ýíý ñýòã¿¿ë÷èéí Îðîñûí óóð àìüñãàëûí ñàíààã çîâîîæ áàéãàà ãîë þì íü ìýðãýæèëòýí Êîêîðèí óóð äîãøèí øèð¿¿í öàã óóð õºäºº àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ Îðîñò àæ àõóéã áóñíèóëæ, õ¿íñíèé òóñ÷ áóé íºëºº, ò¿¿íèé èðýýä¿éí ¿íý ºñºõºä õ¿ðãýäýã ó÷ðààñ óóð ìàãàä òºëºâ, ò¿¿í÷ëýí óã íºëººíä àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò íü ÿäóó ç¿ä¿¿ äàñàí çîõèöîõ, ñààðìàãæóóëàõ áàéäàëä ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé íºëºº àæýý. òàëààð çàñãèéí ãàçðààñ äîòîîääîî
  10. 10. effects domestically and in cooperation how it needs to adapt to become with international partners. an effective instrument for global climate policy collaboration.74 International Youth: Fired Up About Climate Change 84 Additional Resources Richard Graves An American entrepreneur and activist writes that the generations that will inherit the impacts of climate change want environmental leadership, responsible climate policies, and green jobs. Multilateral Cooperation79 Is the United Nations Up to the Challenge? Bo Kjellén An international environmental policy expert and diplomat considers the role of the United Nations and áîëîí îëîí óëñûí ò¿íø¿¿äòýé áîëîõûí òóëä ÿàæ çîõèöîõ õýðýãòýé õàìòðàí õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áóé àðãà áàéãàà òàëààð àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. õýìæýýã ¿íýëýæ ä¿ãíýæ áàéíà. 84 Íýìýëò ýõ ñóðâàëæóóä74 Äýëõèéí çàëóó ¿åèéíõýí: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñ Àìåðèêèéí áèçíåñìåí áºãººä èäýâõòýí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã ºâëºæ àâàõ õîé÷ ¿åèéíõýí áàéãàëü îð÷íû óäèðäëàãà, óóð àìüñãàëûí õàðèóöëàãàòàé áîäëîãî, íîãîîíòíû ¿¿ðýãò àæëûã õ¿ñ÷ áàéíà. Îëîí òàëò õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà79 Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãà ñîðèëòîä õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäàõ óó? Áî Êæåëëåí Îëîí óëñûí ýêîëîãèéí áîäëîãûí øèíæýý÷ áºãººä äèïëîìàò÷ ͯÁ-ûí ýíý ÷èãëýëèéí ¿¿ðýã áîëîí äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí áîäëîãîîð õàìòðàí àæèëëàõ ¿ð íºëººòýé õºø¿¿ðýã
  11. 11. Overview A Pivotal Opportunity Todd Stern WT odd Stern, special envoy for climate change e have reached a pivotal momentat the U.S. State Department, is instrumental in the climate challenge, and whatin developing U.S. international policy on we decide to do now will have aclimate and is the administration’s chief profound and lasting impact on our nationclimate negotiator, representing the United and our planet.States internationally at the ministerial level The science is clear. Arctic sea ice isin all bilateral and multilateral negotiations. disappearing faster than expected. TheHe has extensive experience in the public and Greenland Ice Sheet is steadily shrinking.private sectors, in environmental and other The melting of permafrost in the tundraglobal issues. raises the risk of a huge methane release.Here Stern lays out the main challenges Sea levels now threaten to rise much higherand important remedies relating to climate than previously anticipated. And waterchange from the perspective of the Obama supplies are increasingly at risk with theadministration. melting of glaciers in Asia and the Western Hemisphere.Òîéì Ìàø ÷óõàë áîëîìæ Òîää Ñòåðí ÁÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí Äåïàðòàìåíòèéí óóð èä óóð àìüñãàëûí ñîðèëòûí ìàøàìüñãàëûí àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí òóñãàé ÷óõàë ìº÷èä òóëæ èðýýä áàéãààýë÷ Òîää Ñòåðí áîë óóð àìüñãàëûí ó÷ðààñ îäîî áèäíèé ýíý òóõàéä þóàñóóäëààð ÀÍÓ-ûí îëîí óëñûí áîäëîãûã õèéõ òàëààð ãàðãàõ øèéäâýð íü ìàíàéáîëîâñðóóëàõàä òýðã¿¿ëýõ ¿¿ðýãòýé, óã ¿íäýñòýí õèéãýýä ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí õóâüäàñóóäëààð ÿðèà õýëýëöýý õèéäýã çàñãèéí óðò óäààí õóãàöààíä ¿éë÷ëýõ ã¿í ã¿íçãèéãàçðûí ãîë õ¿í áºãººä õî¸ð áîëîí îëîí íºëººòýé áàéõ áîëíî.òàëûí ñàéäûí ò¿âøèíãèéí á¿õ ÿðèà Ìýäýæ áàéãàà ç¿éë ìààíü òîäîðõîéõýëýëöýýíä ÀÍÓ-ûã òºëººëºí îðîëöäîã õ¿í. áàéíà. Õîéä ìºñºí äàëàéí ìºñ ñàíàñíààñÒýðýýð òºðèéí áîëîí õóâèéí õýâøëèéí ò¿ðãýí àëãà áîëæ áàéíà. Ãðèéíëàíäûíñàëáàðò, ìºí áàéãàëü îð÷èí áîëîí áóñàä ìºñºí õó÷ëàãà õýëáýðýëòã¿é áàãàñ÷ áàéíà.äýëõèéí ÷àíàðòàé àñóóäëóóäààð ìàø Ò¿íäðèéí ìºíõ öýâäýã õàéëæ áàéãàà íüáàÿëàã òóðøëàãàòàé. èõýýõýí õýìæýýíèé íàìãèéí õèé ãàðàõÑòåðí ýíä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýðñäëèéã áèé áîëãîæ áàéíà. Äàëàéíõîëáîãäîëòîé ñîðèëòûí òàëààð, øèéäýõ ò¿âøèí óðüä÷èëàí òààìàãëàæ áàéñíààñãîë àðãà çàìûí òàëààð Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã õàâüã¿é èõ äýýøëýõ àþóëòàé áàéíà. Àçèçàõèðãààíû áàéð ñóóðèíààñ òàéëáàð õèéæ òèâ áîëîí áºìáºðöãèéí áàðóóí õýñýãò ìºñºíáàéíà. ãîëóóä õàéëàõûí õèðýýð óñíû õàíãàìæ óëàì á¿ð ýðñäýëòýé áîëæ áàéíà. e Journal USA 11 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  12. 12. These are the facts. They send a simple Clinton, the United States is working with and stark message: The status quo is our partners around the world to find unsustainable. common ground and stem the tide of future The health of our planet is in our hands and the irreversible damages. time for action is now. We recognize that the United States must The upcoming United Nations Framework be a leader in the global effort to combat Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate change. We have a responsibility in Copenhagen offers a chance to mobilize as the world’s largest historic emitter of international collective action to meet this greenhouse gases. We know that without global challenge. Under the leadership of U.S. emissions reductions, no solution to President Obama and Secretary of State climate change is possible. And we are© AP Images/Gerald Herbert. Vice Chair of China’s National Development and Reform Commission Xie Zhenhua (left) shakes hands with U.S. Climate Change Special Envoy Todd Stern in Washington, D.C., July 2009. Õÿòàäûí ¯íäýñíèé õºãæèë, øèíý÷ëýëèéí êîìèññûí äýä äàðãà Öè Æåíõóà (ç¿¿í ãàð òàëä) ÀÍÓ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí òóñãàé ýë÷ Òîää Ñòåðíòýé Âàøèíãòîí õîòíîî ãàð áàðüæ áàéíà. 2009 îíû äîëäóãààð ñàð. Ýíý áîë áîäèò áàðèìòóóä. Ýäãýýð íü Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã “Ñòàòóñ êâî òîãòâîðã¿é áàéíà” ãýñýí ýíãèéí òýìöýëä äýëõèé íèéòèéí ãàðãàõ õ¿÷èí áºãººä èëýðõèé ç¿éëèéã õýëýýä áàéíà. ÷àðìàéëòûã Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ Ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíä áèäíèé ãàðò òýðã¿¿ëýõ ¸ñòîé ãýäãèéã áèä îéëãîæ áàéãàà áàéãàà áºãººä àæèëëàõ öàã îäîî èð÷èõýýä þì. Áèä äýëõèéä õàìãèéí èõ õ¿ëýìæèéí áàéíà. õèé ÿëãàðóóëàã÷èéí õóâüä õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõ ¸ñòîé. ÀÍÓ-ûí ÿëãàðóóëæ áàéãàà Êîïåíãàãåíä óäàõã¿é áîëîõ ãýæ áàéãàà õèéã áàãàñãàõã¿éãýýð óóð àìüñãàëûí ͯÁ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ººð÷ëºëòèéã øèéäýõ ÿìàð ÷ áîëîìæã¿éã àñóóäëààð õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ÷óóëãàí áèä ìýäýæ áàéíà. 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû öýâýð (ͯÁÓÀªÀÕÒ×) ýíýõ¿¿ äýëõèé äàõèíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷òýé ýäèéí çàñãèéã öîãöëîîí ñîðèëòîä õàðèó áîëîõóéö îëîí óëñûí áàéãóóëàõ ¿éëñèéã Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí õàìòàðñàí ¿éë àæèëëàãààã äàé÷ëàõ áîëîìæ Óëñ õîøóó÷èëæ ÷àäàõ ¸ñòîé, ÷àäàõ ÷ áîëíî îëãîæ áàéíà. Åðºíõèéëºã÷ Îáàìà, Òºðèéí ãýäýãò áàñ èòãýæ áàéãàà áîëíî. íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Êëèíòîí íàðûí óäèðäëàãààð Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ äàÿí Íàéìõàí ñàðûí äîòîð Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã äýëõèéí ò¿íø¿¿äèéíõýý õàìò íèéòëýã çàõèðãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ç¿éë îëîõûí òóëä, èðýýä¿éí çàñ÷ áîëîõã¿é òàëààðõ áîäëîãîî ýðñ ººð÷èëæ, äîòîîääîî ñ¿éòãýëèéí ò¿ðýëòèéã çîãñîîõûí òóëä òóóøòàé òîäîðõîé àðãà õýìæýý àæèëëàæ áàéíà. õýðýãæ¿¿ëýí õîøóó÷èëæ ÿâíà. Àìåðèêèéí e Journal USA 12 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  13. 13. confident that the United States can and will But action by the United States and othertake the lead in building the 21st-century developed nations is not enough. More thanclean energy economy. 80 percent of the future growth in emissions In just eight months, the Obama will be from developing nations. There isadministration has dramatically shifted U.S. simply no way to preserve a safe and livablepolicy on climate change and is leading by planet unless developing countries play aexample through robust action at home. The key role in the climate negotiations andAmerican Recovery and Reinvestment Act join us in taking collective action to meetincluded more than $80 billion for clean this common challenge. It is not a matter ofenergy investment. President Obama set politics or morality or right or wrong, buta new policy to increase fuel economy and simply the unforgiving math of accumulatingreduce greenhouse gas emissions.pollution for all new cars Addressing climateand trucks. And thereis a bill making its way Addressing climate change is an economic opportunity, not a burden.through Congress, the change is an economic The link between clean,American Clean Energy sustainable energy andand Security Act of 2009, opportunity, not a robust economic growth isthat would cut U.S. burden. the hallmark of the 21st-carbon emissions from century global economy.2005 levels by 17 percent With the right support,in 2020 and 83 percent in developing countries can2050. Óóð àìüñãàëûí leapfrog the dirtier phases ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðèóä of development and seize àâàõ àðãà õýìæýý áîë äàðàìò áèø õàðèíñýðãýýëò, øèíý÷èëñýí ýäèéí çàñãèéí íýãýí àðãà åð人 áàéõã¿é. Ýíýõºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòûí áîëîìæ þì. áîë óëñ òºðèéí þì óó,Òºëºâëºãººíä öýâýð ýñâýë ¸ñ ñóðòàõóóíû, ýñâýëýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé áóðóó çºâèéí ÷ þì óóõºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòàä 80 òýðáóì ãàðóé òóõàé àñóóäàë áèø, åð人 ë õóðèìòàëæäîëëàð çîðèóëàõààð òóñãàñàí áàéãàà. áàéãàà õèéí õàÿãäëûí òóõàé ºðøººëã¿éÅðºíõèéëºã÷ Îáàìà á¿õ òºðëèéí øèíý òîî áàðèìò þì.ñóóäëûí áîëîí à÷ààíû ìàøèíä ò¿ëø Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðèóäõýìíýëòèéã íýìýãä¿¿ëýõ, õ¿ëýìæèéí àâàõ àðãà õýìæýý áîë äàðàìò áèø õàðèíõèéãýýð áîõèðäóóëàõûã áàãàñãàõ áîäëîãî ýäèéí çàñãèéí íýãýí áîëîìæ þì. Öýâýð,ãàðãàñàí áîëíî. Ò¿¿í÷ëýí 2009 îíû òîãòâîðòîé ýð÷èì õ¿÷, ýäèéí çàñãèéíÀìåðèêèéí Öýâýð ýð÷èì õ¿÷ áà Àþóëã¿éí òóóøòàé ºñºëò õî¸ðûí õîëáîî íü 21 ä¿ãýýðõóóëü ãýäýã òºñºë Êîíãðåññîîð óðàãøòàé çóóíû äýëõèé äàõèíû ýäèéí çàñãèéíÿâæ áàéíà. Ýíý õóóëèéí äàãóó ÀÍÓ-ûí îíöëîõ øèíæ ìºí. Ǻâ äýìæëýãòýé áîëí¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéí õàÿãäëûí 2005 îíû õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóä õºãæëèéíõººò¿âøèí 2020 îíä 17 õóâèàð, 2050 îíä 83 õàìãèéí áîõèð ¿å øàòûã äàâàí ãàð÷ ÷àäàõõóâèàð òóñ òóñ áóóðíà. áºãººä øèíý, öýâýð ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ýõ Ãýâ÷ ÀÍÓ áîëîí áóñàä ºíäºð õºãæèëòýé ¿¿ñâýðèéí ÷àäàìæààñ áàðüæ àâ÷ ÷àäíà. Ýíýîðíóóäûí àâàõ àðãà õýìæýý àñóóäëûã áîë æèíõýíý èðýýä¿é.øèéäýõýä á¿õýëäýý ÷àìëàãäàíà. Õàÿãäàë Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ îëîí óëñûíõèéí èðýýä¿éí ºñºëòèéí 80 ãàðóé õóâü íü õàìòûí íèéãýìëýãèéã òàòàí îðîëöóóëàõûíõºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóäàä îíîãäîíî. Óóð òóëä, õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóäûãàìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíä öààøäûí ¿éë àæèëëàãàà ÿâóóëàõàä íüõºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóä íýí ÷óõàë ¿¿ðýã çîðèãæóóëàõûí òóëä îëîí ÷èãëýëòýéã¿éöýòãýýã¿é öàãò, ýíý íèéòýýðýíä ìààíü ñòðàòåãèéã áàðèìòàëæ áàéãàà þì.í¿¿ðëýýä áàéãàà ñîðèëòîä õàðèó áîëîõõàìòûí àæèëëàãààíä òýä áèäýíòýé Íýãä¿ãýýðò, áèä Õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ÷óóëãàíûíýãäýýã¿é áàéãàà öàãò àþóëã¿é, ñàéõàí ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíä á¿õ òàëûí ¿¿ðýãòýéàìüäðàõ äýëõèé åðòºíöºº õàäãàëæ ¿ëäýõ îðîëöîæ áàéíà. Ìàíàé õýëýëöýýíèé e Journal USA 13 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  14. 14. the potential of new, clean energy sources. including mitigation, adaptation, technology,This is the future. and finance, which will be a central focus in The United States is pursuing a Copenhagen.multipronged strategy to engage the Third, we are focusing on key bilateralinternational community and encourage relationships. The administration hasdeveloping countries to take further action. expanded efforts to strengthen the U.S.- First, we are fully committed to the China relationship, and climate change isFramework Convention negotiating process. an essential component of that dialogue.Our negotiating team recently returned from I joined Secretary Clinton in Februaryits third trip to Bonn, and we will continue during her first trip to China, where sheto take part in the negotiating sessions elevated the climate change challenge to aleading up to Copenhagen in December 2009. top priority. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke Second, we have established an invigorated delivered similar messages during subsequentdialogue among 17 of the largest economies visits. Moreover, the State Department, in— including China, India, Brazil, Mexico, conjunction with the Treasury Department,South Korea, South Africa, and Indonesia recently hosted meetings of the Strategic— through our Major Economies Forum and Economic Dialogue with China, whereon Energy and Climate, which met in July the two countries signed a memorandum ofat the leaders level in Italy immediately understanding on clean energy and climate.following the G8 meeting. The forum Simply put, no global solution will bepresents a unique opportunity to hold possible if we don’t find a way forward withcandid discussions among the world’s major China. In addition, I traveled with Secretaryeconomies on a number of complex issues, Clinton to India and later alone to Brazil toáàã ñàÿõàí Áîííä ãóðàâäàõü óäààãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàëî÷îîä èðëýý. 2009 îíû àðâàí õî¸ðäóãààð òóñ õî¸ð îðíû õîîðîíä ÿâæ áàéãàà ÿðèàñàðä Êîïåíãàãåíä õ¿ðãýõ á¿õèé ë ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíèé íýãýýõýí ÷óõàë ñýäýâ áîëæõýëýëöýýíä áèä ¿ðãýëæëýí îðîëöîõ áîëíî. áàéãàà áîëíî. Òºðèéí íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí Õî¸ðäóãààðò, áèä ìàíàé Ýð÷èì õ¿÷, äàðãà Êëèíòîí Õÿòàäàä õî¸ðäóãààð ñàðäÓóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ Òîì ýäèéí àíõ óäàà àéë÷ëàõäàà óóð àìüñãàëûíçàñàãò îðíóóäûí ÷óóëãàíààðàà äàìæóóëàí, ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áóé ñîðèëòîä òýðã¿¿ëýõòóõàéëáàë Õÿòàä, Ýíýòõýã, Áðàçèëü, çýðãèéí à÷ õîëáîãäîë ºãñºí, ýíý àéë÷ëàëäÌåêñèê, ªìíºä Ñîëîíãîñ, ªìíºä Àôðèê, áè áàñ îðîëöñîí þì. Äàðàà íü ÕÿòàäàäÈíäîíåçè çýðýã 17 õàìãèéí òîì ýäèéí àéë÷èëñàí Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé íàðèéí áè÷ãèéíçàñàãòàé îðíóóäûí õîîðîíä óðàì òºðºõººð äàðãà Ñòåâåí ×ó, Õóäàëäààíû íàðèéíÿðèà õýëýëöýý ºðí¿¿ëýýä áàéíà. ×óóëãàíû áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Ãàðè Ëîêå íàð ìºí òèéìàíõíû óóëçàëò äîëäóãààð ñàðä G8-ûí áàéäëààð àñóóäëûã òàâüñàí. Ò¿¿ãýýð ÷óóëçàëòûí ÿã äàðàà Èòàëèä áîëñîí þì. áàðàõã¿é Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíò ÑàíãèéíÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí óðøãèéí äåïàðòàìåíòòýé õàìòðàí ñàÿõàí Õÿòàäòàéñààðìàãæóóëàëò, äàñàí çîõèöîëò, õèéõ Ñòðàòåãèéí áîëîí ýäèéí çàñãèéíòåõíîëîãè, ñàíõ¿¿ çýðýã àñóóäëûã ÿðèà ñýäâýýð óóëçàëò çîõèîí áàéãóóëñàí.îðîëöóóëàí íýëýýä òîîíû òºâºãòýé Òýð óóëçàëòûí ¿åýð õî¸ð òàë öýâýð ýð÷èìàñóóäëààð äýëõèéí õàìãèéí òîì ýäèéí õ¿÷, óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààð õàðèëöàíçàñàãòàé îðíóóäûí õîîðîíä èëýí äàëàíã¿é îéëãîõ ìåìîðàíäóìä ãàðûí ¿ñýã çóðñàí.ÿðèà õýëýëöýý ÿâóóëàõ õîñã¿é ñàéõàí Òîâ÷äîî, áèä Õÿòàäòàé õàìòðàõ àðãà çàìààáîëîìæèéã äóðäñàí ÷óóëãàí îëãîæ áàéãàà îëîõã¿é áîë äýëõèéí õýìæýýíèé ÿìàðþì. Êîïåíãàãåíä ýäãýýð àñóóäàë äýýð ãîë ÷ øèéäýëä õ¿ðýõ áîëîìæã¿é þì. Íýìæàíõààðàë òºâëºðíº. õýëýõýä, áè õî¸ð ÷óõàë îðîíòîé çºâëºëäºõ, ÿðèà õýëýëöýýãýý ã¿íçãèéð¿¿ëýõèéí Ãóðàâäóãààðò, áèä õî¸ð òàëûí ãîë ãîë òóëä, ò¿¿í÷ëýí Êîïåíãàãåíä ºðíºõ ÿðèàõàðèëöààíäàà àíõààðëàà òºâëºð¿¿ëæ õýëýëöýýã ñàéí ¿ð ä¿íòýé áîëãîõ ÷èãëýëýýðáàéíà. Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà ÀÍÓ, àõèö äýâøèë ãàðãàõ ¿¿äíýýñ ìàíàéÕÿòàäûí õàðèëöààã áýõæ¿¿ëýõýä ÷èãëýñýí îðíóóäûí áîëîìæèéã ñóäëàõûí òóëäõ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòàà íýìýãä¿¿ëæ áàéãàà áºãººä e Journal USA 14 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  15. 15. consult and deepen our dialogue with twoimportant partners and explore opportunitiesfor our countries to make progress towarda successful outcome at the UNFCCCnegotiations in Copenhagen. Rarely are we presented with as clear anopportunity to shape our future and enhanceour way of life for generations to come. TheUnited States is clear in its intent to securea strong international agreement, and I amconfident that together we can meet theglobal climate change challenge. Òºðèéí íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Êëèíòîíûõàìò Ýíýòõýãò àéë÷èëñàí, äàðàà íü ººðººÁðàçèëüä î÷ñîí áîëíî. Áèäýíä ìàíàé èðýýä¿éã ä¿ðñëýíòîìú¸îëîõ, ìàíàé àæ òºðºõ àðãà çàìûãõîé÷ ¿åèéíõýíäýý çîðèóëàí ñàéæðóóëàõàñóóäëûã àâ÷ ¿çýõ òîäîðõîé áîëîìæ îëäîõíü õîâîð áàéäàã. Îëîí óëñûí íàðèéí ÷àíäõýëýëöýýð áàòàëãààòàé áàéãóóëàõ òóõàéÀìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñûí ñàíàà çîðèëãîòîâ òîäîðõîé áàéãàà áºãººä ìèíèé õóâüäáèä õàìòäàà äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòºä õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäíà ãýäýãò èòãýëòýéáàéíà.  e Journal USA 15 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  16. 16. Overview The 21st-Century Challenge Michael SpecterAward-winning writer Michael Specter before it is too late, Specter writes in thishas been a staff writer at The New Yorker overview of the issue.magazine since 1998. His awards include theGlobal Health Council’s Annual Excellence Pin Media Award (2002 and 2004) and the eople who refuse to accept the truthAmerican Association for the Advancement — that AIDS is caused by a virus, forof Science 2002 Science Journalism Award. example, or that global warming isHis new book, Denialism: How Irrational genuine and the result of human activity —Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms will always be with us. But as the profoundlythe Planet, and Threatens Our Lives, will disturbing facts about the pace of warmingbe published in October 2009 (The Penguin become increasingly evident, the cries ofPress). climate change denialists seem finally to have been overcome by the mounting seriesThe reality of global warming must supersede of grim realities. Those realities are bothdebate about it, and urgent steps must be obvious and subtle: Between 1961 andtaken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 1997, the world’s glaciers lost nearly 4,000Òîéì 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû ñîðèëò Ìàéêë ÑïåêòåðØàãíàë õ¿ðòñýí çîõèîë÷ Ìàéêë Ñïåêòåð Ñïåêòåð ýíý àñóóäëààðõ òîéì ºã¿¿ëýëäýýáîë 1998 îíîîñ õîéø The New Yorker áè÷èæ áàéíà.ñýòã¿¿ëèéí îðîí òîîíû çîõèîë÷ õèéæáàéãàà þì. Ò¿¿íèé àâñàí øàãíàëûí Æäîòîð Äýëõèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäèéí çºâëºëèéí èøýý íü, ÄÎÕ íýãýí âèðóñýýñÌýäýýëëèéí õýðýãñëèéí æèë á¿ðèéí ãàðàëòàé, ýñâýë äýëõèéí äóëààðàëãàðàìãàé á¿òýýëèéí øàãíàë (2002, 2004 áîäèòîé áàéãàà, áàñ õ¿íèé ¿éëîíû), Øèíæëýõ óõààíû îëîëò àìæèëòûí àæèëëàãààíààñ ¿¿äñýí ç¿éë ãýõ ìýòòºëºº Àìåðèêèéí íèéãýìëýãèéí 2002 îíû ¿íýíèéã õ¿ëýýæ àâàõààñ òàòãàëçäàãØèíæëýõ óõààíû ñýòã¿¿ëç¿éí øàãíàë õ¿ì¿¿ñ áèäíèé äóíä õýçýýä áàéõ áîëíî.òóñ òóñ áèé. Ò¿¿íèé: Denialism: How Ãýâ÷ äóëààðëûí õóðäöûí òóõàé èõýýõýíIrrational Thinking Hinders Scientific ò¿ãøýýñýí áàðèìòóóä óëàì á¿ð èëýðõèéProgress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens áîëæ, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéãOur Lives ãýäýã íîì 2009 îíû àðàâäóãààð ¿ã¿éñãýã÷äèéí îðü äóó íü ºñºí íýìýãäñýýðñàðä õýâëýãäýíý. (The Penguin Press). áóé óäàà äàðààãèéí òààã¿é áîäèò ÿâäëààð ýöñèéí á¿ëýãò äàðàãäàæ áàéõ øèã áàéíà.Äýëõèéí äóëààðëûí áîäèò áàéäàë ýíý Ýäãýýð áîäèò ç¿éëä èëýðõèé ÷ þì áàéíà,òóõàéí ìýòãýëöýýíèéã çîãñîîõ ¸ñòîé íàðèéí øèðèéí þì ÷ áàéíà: 1961–1997áºãººä íýãýíò îðîéòîõîîñ íü ºìíº îíû õîîðîíä äýëõèéí ìºñºí ãîëóóä 4õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûã áàãàñãàõ 000 îð÷èì êóáìåòð ìºñºº àëäñàí áàéíà;ÿàðàëòàé àðãà õýìæýý àâàõ ¸ñòîé ãýæ Àðêòèêèéí äóëààðàë äýëõèéí äóíäæààñ e Journal USA 16 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  17. 17. cubic kilometers of ice; since the Arctic is For the first time in memory, mosquitoes, warming at nearly three times the global carrying viruses as grave as malaria, now average, Greenland’s ice sheet may already appear on Mt. Kilimanjaro and other African have passed the point of saving. highlands — places that for centuries had Greenland is hardly the only place in served as cool reservoirs of safety from some acute danger of massive forced change. One of the developing world’s most devastating projection, by no means the most alarmist, diseases. has estimated that the homes of 13 to 88 Although specific estimates vary, scientists million people around the world would be and policy officials increasingly agree that flooded by the sea each year in the 2080s. As allowing emissions to continue at the current always, poorer countries will suffer the most. rate would induce dramatic changes in the global climate system. Some scientists liken climate change to a tidal wave that can noPhoto by Alex Remnick longer be held at bay. These are not issues that can be easily solved — but it’s not too late to prevent the worst effects of warming, despite what many people say. Still, to avoid the most catastrophic effects of those changes, we will have to hold emissions steady in the next decade, then reduce them by at least 60 to 80 percent by the middle of the century. ªâºðìºö ¿íýëãýýí¿¿ä ÿíç á¿ð áàéãàà õýäèé ÷, àãààðò äýãäýæ áàéãàà ýëäýâ õîðò õèéã îäîîãèéí ò¿âøèíä íü áàéëãààä áàéõ þì áîë äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí ñèñòåìä íîöòîé ººð÷ëºëò àâ÷èðíà ãýäýãòýé ýðäýìòýä, áîäëîãûí àëáàíû õ¿ì¿¿ñ óëàì á¿ð ñàíàë íèéëýõ áîëæ áàéíà. Çàðèì Michael Specter ýðäýìòýä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã Ìàéêë Ñïåêòåð áóëàí òîõîéäîî õýçýý ÷ õ¿ð÷ ÷àäàõã¿é äàëàéí ò¿ðëýãèéí äàâàëãààòàé àäèëòãàæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð íü àìàðõàí øèéä÷èõ ãóðàâ äàõèí èõ áàéãàà ó÷ðààñ Ãðèéíëàíäûí àñóóäëóóä áèø, ãýõäýý îëîí õ¿í íýãýíò ìºñºí õó÷ëàãà õàäãàëàãäàæ ¿ëäýõ öýãýý îðîéòñîí ãýæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ äóëààðëûí íýãýíò ºíãºðººä ÿâ÷èõñàí áàéæ ìàãàäã¿é. õàìãèéí ìóó õîð óðøãèéã ñýðýìæëýí Ãðèéíëàíä í¿ñýð õ¿÷òýé ººð÷ëºëòèéí çàéëóóëàõàä òýãòëýý îðîéòîîã¿é áàéíà. íîöòîé àþóëä áàéãàà öîðûí ãàíö ãàçàð áèø Ýäãýý𠺺ð÷ëºëòèéí õàìãèéí ñ¿éðýëòýé ë áîëîâ óó. Õàìãèéí ò¿ãø¿¿ðòýé áóñ íýã ¿ð äàãàâàðààñ çàéëñõèéõèéí òóëä áèä òºñººë뺺ð 2080-ààä îíä äýëõèé äàõèíä õèéí õàÿãäëûã èðýõ àðâàí æèëä àðãà æèë á¿ð 13-ààñ 88 ñàÿ õ¿ðòýëõ õ¿íèé ãýð áóþó òîãòâîðòîé áàðüæ áàéãààä ýíý çóóíû îðîí äàëàéí ¿åðò àâòàíà ãýñýí ¿íýëãýý äóíä ¿å ãýõýä íààä çàõ íü 60 – 80 õóâèàð áàéíà. ßäóó îðíóóä ¿¿íýýñ áàõü áàéäãààðàà áàãàñãàõ ¸ñòîé. õàìãèéí èõ çîâëîí àìñàíà. Ò¿¿õýíä àíõ Èíãýõ áîëîìæòîé þó? Á¿ðýí áîëîëöîîòîé. óäàà õóìõààãèéíõ øèã àþóëòàé âèðóñûã Ãýõäýý ýíý íü çîëèîñíû áîëîí øèíæëýõ òýýäýã øóìóóë ýä¿ãýý Êèëèìàíæàðî óóë óõààíû óã óðøèãò ä¿éñýí àðãà õýìæýý áîëîí Àôðèêèéí áóñàä óóëàðõàã íóòãààð àâàõûã øààðäàíà. (Áàñ ÿëãàðäàã õèéã áèé áîëæýý. Ýäãýýð óóëàðõàã íóòàã íü ªðíºäºä áèä õóðäàí áàãàñãàõ ¸ñòîé øèã çóó çóóíû òóðøèä çàðèì õºãæèæ áàéãàà òýãæ áàãàñãàõûã àìåðèê÷óóä, åâðîï÷óóä åðòºíöèéí õàìãèéí ñ¿éòãýëòýé ºâ÷í¿¿äýýñ Õÿòàä, Ýíýòõýã õî¸ðîîñ õ¿ëýýäãýý áîëèõ àâðàõ ñýð¿¿íèé õàäãàëóóð áîëæ èðñýí áèëýý. e Journal USA 17 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  18. 18. Is that possible? Absolutely. But it will same amount of greenhouse gas emissionsrequire equal measures of sacrifice and as driving a small car more than 112science. (And the willingness of Americans kilometers.and Europeans to stop expecting China and The most important way to rein in carbonIndia to cut emissions as rapidly as we must emissions is to charge for them, eitherin the West and to stop using their limited through taxes or with a cap and tradeprogress as an excuse to do nothing.) system. Obviously, when the cost of polluting Individuals can do a lot. According to one is low there are few incentives to stop it,2008 study by researchers at Carnegie Mellon and the cost of pollution remains far tooUniversity, for instance, if we all simply low. The Kyoto Protocol was never ratifiedskipped meat and dairy just one day each in the United States because the Bushweek, it would administration anddo more to lower the U.S. Congressour collectivecarbon footprint Some scientists liken climate feared it would result in large jobthan if the entire change to a tidal wave that can losses; however,population of the no longer be held at bay. These are the ObamaUnited States ate administrationlocally produced not issues that can be easily solved and an increasingfood every day ofthe year. In fact, — but it’s not too late to prevent number in Congressproducing just the worst effects of warming. understand thatone kilogram of the real costs ofbeef causes the global warming Çàðèì ýðäýìòýä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã áóëàí òîõîéäîîõ¿ñýë çîðèã, õýçýý ÷ õ¿ð÷ ÷àäàõã¿é äàëàéí Í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéíòýäíèé ò¿ðëýãèéí äàâàëãààòàé ÿëãàðàëòûã õóìèõõÿçãààðòàéõºãæèë àäèëòãàæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð õàìãèéí ÷óõàë àðãà áîë òàòâàðäýâøëèéã þó ÷ íü àìàðõàí øèéä÷èõ àñóóäëóóä îíîãäóóëàõ áóþóõèéõã¿é áàéõ òºñºâ áîëîíøàëòàã áîëãîäãîî áèø, ãýõäýý îëîí õ¿í íýãýíò õóäàëäààíûáîëèõ õ¿ñýë îðîéòñîí ãýæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ ñèñòåìèéãçîðèã ãàðãàõ õÿçãààðëàõ çàìààðøààðäëàãàòàé.) äóëààðëûí õàìãèéí ìóó õîð ò¿¿íä òºëáºð Õóâü õ¿ì¿¿ñ óðøãèéã ñýðýìæëýí çàéëóóëàõàä òàâèõ ÿâäàë þì. Áîõèðäóóëñíûèõýýõýí ç¿éëõèéæ ÷àäíà. òýãòëýý îðîéòîîã¿é áàéíà. òºëºº òºëºõÊàðíåæè ºðòºã äîîãóóðÌåëëîíû èõ áàéõàä ò¿¿íèéãñóðãóóëèéí ñóäëàà÷äûí 2008 îíä õèéñýí çîãñîîõ óðàì ñîíèðõîë òºäèéëºííýã ñóäàëãààãààð áîë, æèøýý íü, õýðýâ òºðºõã¿é, òýãýýä ë áîõèðäîëòûí ºðòºãáèä ç¿ãýýð ë äîëîî õîíîãò ãàíöõàí ºäºð ìàø äîîãóóð ÷èãýýðýý ¿ëäýõ íü èëýðõèéìàõàí áîëîí ñ¿¿í á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íýýð õèéñýí þì. Áóøèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà, ÀÍÓ-ûíõîîë èäýõã¿é ºíæèõ þì áîë ýíý íü áèäíèé Êîíãðåññ Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîë àæëûíõàìòûí áàëèàð óë ìºðíèé í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéã áàéð îëîí òîîãîîð öººðºõºä õ¿ðãýíý ãýæáóóðóóëàõàä ÀÍÓ-ûí á¿õ õ¿í àì îðîí áîëãîîìæèëñîí ó÷ðààñ óã Ïðîòîêîëûãíóòàãòàà ¿éëäâýðëýñýí õ¿íñèéã æèëä ºäºð åðººñºº ñî¸ðõîí áàòëààã¿é áèëýý. Õýäèéáîëãîí èäñýíýýñ èë¿¿ èõ ºãººæòýé áàéõ òèéì ÷ Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà äýëõèéàæýý. ¯íýíäýý ÷, çºâõºí íýã êèëîãðàìì äóëààðàëòûí æèíõýíý ¿íý óã àñóóäëûã¿õðèéí ìàõ áîëîâñðóóëàõàä ÿëãàðóóëàõ áàéõã¿é ãýæ ç¿òãýõèéí ºðò㺺ñ õàâüã¿éõ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õýìæýý íü æèæèã èõ áîëíî, îëîí òîõèîëäîëä íýãýíò òèéììàøèíààð 112 êèëîìåòð ÿâàõàä ãàðàõòàé áàéãàà ãýäãèéã îéëãîæ áàéíà. ¯¿íèéãèæèë õýìæýýòýé áàéäàã áàéíà. îéëãîæ áàéãàà Êîíãðåññèéí ãèø¿¿äèéí òîî e Journal USA 18 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  19. 19. will be, and in many cases are already, far form of diesel. Amyris says that by 2011higher than the costs of pretending the it will be producing more than 750 millionproblem does not exist. Climate-induced liters of diesel fuel a year — resoundingcrises pose the risk of destabilizing entire proof of the principle that we can createregions of the world. new forms of energy without destroying the But how do we cut fossil fuel emissions? atmosphere. The Obama administration hasOne way, of course, is to consume less. signaled, with words and with money, thatAnother is to develop new types of fuel, fuel such endeavors will be supported, which, inthat will not tax our environment. Scientists a world dominated by the political might ofthroughout the world are trying to do just entrenched interests, has not been easy.that. In the United States people like Craig Without international cooperation, noneVenter, who directed the team that won of these efforts will make enough of athe race to sequence the human genome,are now working on engineering microbesthat could help move the United States The melting Greenland Ice Sheet is seen through an icebergaway from our addiction to oil — while in Kulusuk, near the Arctic Circle. Polar melt, which maydrastically cutting greenhouse emissions. exacerbate effects of climate change, is more rapid thanThere are many similar efforts underway scientists anticipated.throughout the country. In California, for © AP Images/John McConnicoexample, Amyris Biotechnology, which hadalready manufactured a synthetic malariadrug, has now engineered three microbesthat can transform sugar into fuel, includingone that turns yeast and sugar into a viable÷ íýìýãäýæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëààñ ¿¿äñýíõÿìðàë äýëõèéí á¿õýë á¿òýí á¿ñ íóòãóóäûãòîãòâîðã¿éæ¿¿ëýõ ýðñäýë áèé áîëãîæáàéíà. Ãýòýë ÷óëóóæñàí ò¿ëøíèé ÿëãàðóóëàõõèéã áèä ÿàæ áóóðóóëàõ âý? Õýðýãëýýã Òóéëûí òîéðãèéí îéðîëöîîõ Êóëóñê ìºñºí óóëûí öààíààñ Ãðèéíëàíäûí õàéëæ áóé ìºñºí õó÷ëàãà õàðàãäàæ áàéíà. Óóðáàãàñãàõ íü íýã àðãà ãýäýã íü ìýäýýæ. ͺ㺺 àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã óëàì äîðäóóëæ ìýäýõ Òóéëûííýã àðãà íü ò¿ëøíèé øèíý õýëáýðèéã, ìºñíèé õàéëàëò ýðäýìòäèéí óðüä÷èëàí õýëæ áàéñíààñ èë¿¿ººðººð õýëáýë, ìàíàé õ¿ðýýëýí áàéãàà õóðäàí ÿâæ áàéíà.îð÷íûã áîõèðëîõã¿é ò¿ëøèéã çîõèîíá¿òýýõ ÿâäàë þì. Äýëõèé äàõèíû ýðäýìòýä÷óõàì ¿¿íèéã õèéõ ãýæ îðîëäîæ áàéíà. ìÿíãàí ëèòð äèçåëèéí ò¿ëø ¿éëäâýðëýíýÀìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñàä, õ¿íèé á¿õ ãýæ Aìyris-ûíõàí õýëæ áàéãàà íü áèäãåíèéã ýðýìáýëýõ óðàëäààíä ÿëñàí áàãèéã àãààð ìàíäëûã ñ¿éòãýõã¿é ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèéóäèðäñàí Êðàéã Âåíòåð øèã õ¿ì¿¿ñ îäîî øèíý õýëáýðèéã áèé áîëãîæ ÷àäíà ãýõìèêðîáûã èíæåíåð÷ëýõ àæèë õèéæ áàéíà. çàð÷ìûí áàòàëãàà áîëîí ñîíñîãäîæÝíý íü Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñûã áèäíèé áàéíà. Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà èéìãàçðûí òîñîíä äîíòîõ çóðøëàà îðõèõîä õ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòûã àìààð òºäèéã¿é ìºíãºòóñ áîëîõ ó÷èðòàé, òýãñíýýð õ¿ëýìæèéí ñàíõ¿¿ãýýð äýìæèõýý èëýðõèéëýýä áàéãàà.õèéí ÿëãàðàëò ýðñ áàãàñàíà. Ìàíàé óëñàä Ýíý íü äàðõëàãäñàí àøèã ñîíèðõëûí óëñèéìýðõ¿¿ îëîí àæèë õèéãäýæ áàéãàà. òºðèéí ñ¿ð õ¿÷ äàâàìãàéëñàí åðòºíöºäÆèøýý íü, Êàëèôîðíèä, õóìõààíû íèéëýã àìàð ç¿éë áèø.ýì õýäèé íü ¿éëäâýðëýýä áàéãàà AmyrisBiotechnology îäîî ýëñýí ÷èõðèéã ò¿ëø Îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààã¿éãýýðáîëãîí õóâèðãàæ ÷àäàõ ãóðâàí òºðëèéí ýäãýýð õ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòûí àëü íü ÷ áîëîìæèéíìèêðîá ãàðãàæ àâààä áàéãàà áºãººä ¿ð ä¿íä õ¿ðýõã¿é. Îëîí õ¿í àëü íü ÿàãààäòýäãýýðèéí íýã íü õºðºí㺠áîëîí èñ÷, ýëñýí èíãýæ áàéíà ãýäãèéã îéëãîæ ýõýëæ áàéíà.÷èõðèéã çîõèõ íàñòàé äèçåëèéí ò¿ëø Æèøýýëáýë, ýêîëîãè÷èä Èíäîíåçè øèãáîëãîäîã áàéíà. 2011 îí ãýõýä æèëä 750 ãàçàðò õàëóóí îðíûõ íü øèðýíãèéã ìîä îãòëîã÷ íàðààð öºëì¿¿ëýõã¿éí òóëä e Journal USA 19 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  20. 20. difference. Many people are beginningto understand that — which is why, forexample, conservationists are beginningto pay poor timber farmers in places likeIndonesia not to allow their rainforests to beripped apart by loggers. I can only hope itdoesn’t take a catastrophe to make the restof us confront the serious challenges we face— or embrace the fact that we can and arecapable of facing them successfully. The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.òýíäõèéí ÿäóó ìîä áýëòãýã÷ íàðò ìºí㺺ã÷ ýõýëæ áàéíà. Ìèíèé õóâüä áîë áèäíýýñ¿ëäýõ õýñýã ìààíü áèäýíä í¿¿ðëýýä áàéãààíîöòîé ñîðèëòòîé òóëãàðàõààð ñ¿éðýëäõ¿ðýõã¿é, ýñâýë í¿¿ðëýñýí áýðõøýýëäàìæèëòòàé õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäíà, òèéì ÷àäâàð÷ áàéíà ãýäýã áàðèìòûã õ¿ëýýí çºâøººðºõõýðýãòýé ãýæ ë íàéäàõ áîëæ áàéíà. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 20 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  21. 21. Critical Issues: An International Tour Brazil Overview on a Range of Threats Liana Anderson BBrazilian biologist Liana Anderson’s razil is a vast country, taking upprimary research has been in the Amazon nearly half of South America andBasin, where she has seen the effects of claiming much of its eastern coastline.climate change close up. She is completing Although renewable energy accounts for 47her doctoral research at the Environmental percent of the energy produced in Brazil,Change Institute, Oxford University. much higher than the global average. BrazilAnderson surveys the most critical areas still emits a large share of the total globalof concern, including agriculture, public greenhouse gas emissions. The chief reasonhealth, and the importance of containing is rapid slash-and-burn deforestation in thedeforestation, which accounts for Brazil’s Amazon Basin. The Amazon, the world’slargest source of damaging greenhouse gas largest tropical forest, spreads over nineemissions. countries, but most of it lies within Brazil. Rainforests are enormous carbon storage sinks. When they are cleared and burned, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. These haveÍîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Áðàçèëü Àþóëûí öàð õ¿ðýýã òîéìëîõ íü Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí ÁÁèîëîã÷ Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí ãîë ñóäàëãààãàà ðàçèëü áîë ªìíºä Àìåðèêèéí áàðàãÀìàçîíû øèðýíãýí øóãóéí ñàâ íóòàãò õàãàñûã ýçýëñýí, òóñ òèâèéí ç¿¿íõèéæ áàéãàà áºãººä òýðýýð óóð àìüñãàëûí ýðãèéí èõýíõèéã áàãòààñàí ºðãºíººð÷ëºëòèéí õîð óðøãèéã ÷óõàì ýíä óóäàì íóòàãòàé îðîí þì. Ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èìäýðãýäýýñ íü îëæ õàðæýý. Ëèàíà Îêñôîðäûí õ¿÷ òóñ óëñàä ¿éëäâýðëýæ áàéãàà ýð÷èìèõ ñóðãóóëèéí Áàéãàëü îð÷íû ººð÷ëºëòèéí õ¿÷íèé 47 õóâèéã ýçýëäýã áºãººä ýíý íüõ¿ðýýëýíä äîêòîðûí çýðýã õàìãààëàõ äýëõèéí äóíäæààñ õàâüã¿é ºíäºð òîîñóäàëãààãàà äóóñãàæ áàéãàà þì. áèëýý. Áðàçèëü îäîî ÷ äýëõèéí õ¿ëýìæèéíÀíäåðñåí õºäºº àæ àõóé, íèéòèéí ýð¿¿ë õèéí èõýýõýí õýñãèéã ÿëãàðóóëæ áàéãààìýíä çýðýã õàìãèéí èõ ñàíàà çîâîîæ áîëíî. Ãîë øàëòãààí íü Àìàçîíû øèðýíãýíáàéãàà ñàëáàðóóä, ò¿¿í÷ëýí Áðàçèëèéí øóãóéí ñàâ íóòàãò îéã ìàø ò¿ðãýíõ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûí õàìãèéí òîì õóðäàöòàé õÿäàæ, áàñ ò¿éìýðò èä¿¿ëæýõ ñóðâàëæ ãýæ ¿çäýã îéã¿éæèëòèéã áàéãàà ÿâäàë. Àìàçîí íü åñºí îðíû íóòàãòîãòîîí áàðèõûí à÷ õîëáîãäîë çýðãèéã äàìæñàí äýëõèéí õàìãèéí òîì øèðýíãýíñóäàëæ áàéíà. øóãóé áºãººä ò¿¿íèé õàìãèéí èõ õýñýã íü Áðàçèëèéí íóòàãò áàéäàã þì. Õàëóóí îðíû øèðýíãýí îé áîë í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéã øèíãýýäýã àâàðãà òîì àãóóëàõ áèëýý. Òýð îéã õÿäàõ, ò¿éìýðò èäýãäýõýä í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí äàâõàð èñýë áîëîí áóñàä õ¿ëýìæèéí õèé àãààð ìàíäàëä äýãäýíý. Ýíý e Journal USA 21 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  22. 22. been found to contribute to climate change It is estimated that Brazil releases aboutand global warming. 1 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into According to the United Nations the atmosphere per year; about 75 percentFramework Convention on Climate Change of this is from deforestation, the Brazilian(UNFCCC), when emissions from land-use Ministry of Science and Technology reports.change and forestry estimations (LUCF) are Recent estimates suggest that the Amazonincluded, Brazil’s emissions amount to 12.3 Basin has a total biomass of 86 petagramspercent of the total of the 151 non-Annex I of carbon, equivalent to the last 11 years ofParties to the UNFCCC, primarily developing CO2 emissions. Deforestation is estimatedcountries, that have no emissions reduction to have reduced the Amazon forest by 15targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. percent in the past three decades, driven Biologist Liana Anderson surveys a forest burn in the Mato Grosso, southern Brazilian Amazon. Courtesy of Liana Anderson/Photo by Douglas Morton Áèîëîã÷ Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí ªìíºä Áðàçèëèéí Àìàçîíû Ìàòî Ãðîññîä øàòñàí îéã ñóäàëæ áàéíà.íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò áîëîí äýëõèéí ¿¿íèé 75 îð÷èì õóâü íü îéã¿éæèëòýýñäóëààðàëä íºëººëæ áàéãàà þì. ¿¿äýëòýé ãýæ Áðàçèëèéí Øèíæëýõ óõààí, ͯÁ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òåõíîëîãèéí ÿàì ìýäýýëæ áàéíà. Ñ¿¿ëèéíàñóóäëààðõ õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ÷óóëãàíû äàãóó ¿åèéí ¿íýëãýýíýýñ ¿çâýë Àìàçîíû ñàâáîë ãàçàð àøèãëàëòûí áîëîí îéí õîëáîãäîë íóòàãò í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí 86 ïåòàãðàììá¿õèé õàÿãäàë õèéã îðîëöóóëàí òîîöâîë (1015) áèîìàññ áàéñàí áºãººä ýíý íüÁðàçèëèéí õàÿãäàë ãîëäóó õºãæèæ áàéãàà ñ¿¿ëèéí 11 æèëä ÿëãàðñàí í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéíîðíóóäààñ á¿ðäñýí, ÷óóëãàíä îðîëöîõ 151 äàâõàð èñýëòýé òýíöýõ òîî þì. Ñ¿¿ëèéíîðíû íèéò ä¿íãèéí 12.3 õ¿ðòýëõ õóâèéã 30 æèëä òîõèîñîí îéã¿éæèõ ¿éë ÿâöûíýçýëæ áàéíà. ä¿íä Àìàçîíû îé 15 õóâü áàãàññàí ãýäýã òîîöîî áèé. Ýíý íü îéí á¿ñ íóòàãò äýä Áðàçèëü æèëä 1 òýðáóì òîíí á¿òýö õºãæ¿¿ëñýí, äýëõèé äàõèíä øàðí¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí äàâõàð èñëèéí õèé áóóðöàã, ¿õðèéí ìàõ, ä¿íç ãóàëèí çýðãèéíàãààð ìàíäàëä õàÿäàã ãýñýí ¿íýëãýý áèé; e Journal USA 22 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ

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