Brain drain

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Brain-drain is also termed as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight.

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Brain drain

  1. 1. BRAIN DRAIN FROM PAKISTAN HIRA NOOR ZOHA NAEEM SAMEER AHAD HAQ
  2. 2. CONTENTS • What is Brain Drain • History of brain drain • Reasons for brain drain • Brain drain in Pakistan • Reasons of brain drain from Pakistan • Effects of brain drain Positive effects Negative effects • Measures to stop brain drain • Conclusion
  3. 3. WHAT IS BRAIN DRAIN? • The loss of skilled, intellectual and technical labor through their movement to more favorable geographic, economic, or professional environments. • It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. • Brain-drain is also termed as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF BRAIN DRAIN • The term originated about 1960. • In 1960, many British scientists and intellectuals emigrated to the United States for a better working climate. • Its meaning has broadened into: the departure of educated or professional people from one country. Neil Bohr Albert Einstein
  5. 5. WHY BRAIN DRAINS? • Lack of better opportunity • Political instability • Health risks • Personal conflicts • Poor Conditions of Service • Disregard for Local Talent • Economic under development.
  6. 6. WHY BRAIN DRAINS? • Lack of research and other facilities • Lack of freedom • Poor working facilities • Unsuitable institution. • Desire for a better urban life • Desire for higher qualification and recognition • Lack of satisfactory working conditions.
  7. 7. • Europe as “GREEN PASTURES” for doctors • Lack of variety in specializations • Disregard for local degrees • Lack of job opportunities • Merit systems • Lack of infrastructure • High corporate tax rate REASONS FOR BRAIN DRAIN
  8. 8. • Lack of scientific tradition and culture • Over production and under utilization of HQM. • Discrimination in appointment and promotion. • Lack of research and other facilities • Income inequalities • Ten times more earning than home country. REASONS FOR BRAIN DRAIN
  9. 9. • Receiving of millions of dollars in shape of remittance sent back to Pakistan every year. • Creating space for freshmen here. • Population decrease. • People bring technology, skills and new ideas from abroad. • Higher rate of people starting capital intensive enterprises. POSITIVE EFFECTS
  10. 10. • Money remittance has reduced the severity of poverty to some extent. • Money sent are invested in education, housing and health. • Improved quality of education by insuring international standards and training. • Improved competitiveness in home country as international degrees are held in higher esteem. POSITIVE EFFECTS
  11. 11. NEGATIVE EFFECTS • The loss of high quality manpower. • Huge loss of foreign exchange due to hiring of foreign experts. • Government spends billions of rupees for education of experts. • Rampant corruption, poor administrations, lack of motivation and fast diminishing nationalism. • Loss of Health Services.
  12. 12. MEASURES TAKEN • National Research Program for Universities (NRPU) • TTU performance based pay system by HEC • Foreign faculty members of Pakistani origin are encouraged to come and transfer their expertise • Transfer of knowledge through expatriate nationals (TOKTEN) (UNDP) • Initiative for 11 foreign universities
  13. 13. • Delaying emigration For example : Doctors may be asked to stay on for two years. • Tax proposals For example : Native professionals pay a percent of income earning abroad. • Fix govt. policies MEASURES TO STOP BRAIN DRAIN
  14. 14. MEASURES TO STOP BRAIN DRAIN • Revive HEC Build new universities Conduct evening classes in campuses. • PIA should allow a 50% discount for all students of Pakistani origin on international routes. • Entering into international agreements For not to recruit skilled people from less-developed countries.
  15. 15. • Our leaders often deliver lengthy speeches but no worthy positive steps have been taken. • Our government has not even asked Pakistani professionals to return back and serve their country. “Reversing the brain drain is a key priority for us.” CONCLUSION

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