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Brain drain

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Brain-drain is also termed as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight.

Brain-drain is also termed as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight.

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Brain drain Brain drain Presentation Transcript

  • BRAIN DRAIN FROM PAKISTAN
    HIRA NOOR
    ZOHA NAEEM
    SAMEER AHAD HAQ
  • CONTENTS
    What is Brain Drain
    History of brain drain
    Reasons for brain drain
    Brain drain in Pakistan
    Reasons of brain drain from Pakistan
    Effects of brain drain
    Positive effects
    Negative effects
    Measures to stop brain drain
    Conclusion
  • WHAT IS BRAIN DRAIN?
    The loss of skilled, intellectual and technical labor through their movement to more favorable geographic, economic, or professional environments.
    It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country.
    Brain-drain is also termed as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight.
  • HISTORY OF BRAIN DRAIN
    The term originated about 1960.
    In 1960, many British scientists and intellectuals emigrated to the United States for a better working climate.
    Its meaning has broadened into: the departure of educated or professional people from one country.
    Neil Bohr
    Albert Einstein
  • WHY BRAIN DRAINS?
    Lack of better opportunity
    Political instability
    Health risks
    Personal conflicts
    Poor Conditions of Service
    Disregard for Local Talent
    Economic under development.
  • WHY BRAIN DRAINS?
    Lack of research and other facilities
    Lack of freedom
    Poor working facilities
    Unsuitable institution.
    Desire for a better urban life
    Desire for higher qualification and recognition
    Lack of satisfactory working conditions.
  • REASONS FOR BRAIN DRAIN
    Europe as “GREEN PASTURES” for doctors
    Lack of variety in specializations
    Disregard for local degrees
    Lack of job opportunities
    Merit systems
    Lack of infrastructure
    High corporate tax rate
  • REASONS FOR BRAIN DRAIN
    Lack of scientific tradition and culture
    Over production and under utilization of HQM.
    Discrimination in appointment and promotion.
    Lack of research and other facilities
    Income inequalities
    Ten times more earning than home country.
  • POSITIVE EFFECTS
    Receiving of millions of dollars in shape of remittance sent back to Pakistan every year.
    Creating space for freshmen here.
    Population decrease.
    People bring technology, skills and new ideas from abroad.
    Higher rate of people starting capital intensive enterprises.
  • POSITIVE EFFECTS
    Money remittance has reduced the severity of poverty to some extent.
    Money sent are invested in education, housing and health.
    Improved quality of education by insuring international standards and training.
    Improved competitiveness in home country as international degrees are held in higher esteem.
  • NEGATIVE EFFECTS
    The loss of high quality manpower.
    Huge loss of foreign exchange due to hiring of foreign experts.
    Government spends billions of rupees for education of experts.
    Rampant corruption, poor administrations, lack of motivation and fast diminishing nationalism.
    Loss of Health Services.
  • MEASURES TAKEN
    National Research Program for Universities (NRPU)
    TTU performance based pay system by HEC
    Foreign faculty members of Pakistani origin are encouraged to come and transfer their expertise
    Transfer of knowledge through expatriate nationals (TOKTEN) (UNDP)
    Initiative for 11 foreign universities
  • MEASURES TO STOP BRAIN DRAIN
    Delaying emigration
    For example :
    Doctors may be asked to stay on for two years.
    Tax proposals
    For example :
    Native professionals pay a percent of income earning abroad.
    Fix govt. policies
  • MEASURES TO STOP BRAIN DRAIN
    Revive HEC
    Build new universities
    Conduct evening classes in campuses.
    PIA should allow a 50% discount for all students of Pakistani origin on international routes.
    Entering into international agreements
    For not to recruit skilled people from
    less-developed countries.
  • CONCLUSION
    Our leaders often deliver lengthy speeches but no worthy positive steps have been taken.
    Our government has not even asked Pakistani professionals to return back and serve their country.
    “Reversing the brain drain is a key priority for us.”