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Jatropha Curcas Oil: A Future Source of Biodiesel

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Jatropha Curcas Oil: A Future Source of Biodiesel …

Jatropha Curcas Oil: A Future Source of Biodiesel

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  • 1. Presentation onJatropha curcas oil: A future source of biodiesel By Siddharth Jain INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE ROORKEE-247 667 INDIA
  • 2. ContentsIntroductionVegetable Oil Resources for Biodiesel ProductionMethods for modification of straight vegetable oilPerformance Evaluation of Diesel Engine Using BiodieselStability of biodieselConclusion
  • 3. Total crude oil consumption of the country is 184.68 MT in 2007-08. Out of which 80% of the total demad is imported. Import value is 6,06,800 crore. Crude oil is also creating environmental problems. Therefore there is need to go for substitute of petroleum diesel. Substitute of petroleum diesel: Straight vegetable oil Edible oils Non edible oils72.5 % of the total edible oil demand is importing in the country.
  • 4. OBJECTIVE OF STUDYTo study the fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleumdiesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resuorces for biodieselproduction, process for its production, etc.Study the effect of biodiesel on the performance of IC engineTo study the oxidation stability of biodiesel.
  • 5. WHY JATROPHAJatropha can be grown in arid zones (20 cm rainfall) as well as in higher rainfallzones & even on land with their soil cover.Under the national biodiesel program Jatropha is selected to fulfill the national needof biodiesel.Upto 2012 government is planning to substitute biodiesel from jatropha incommercial use (20% of the total petroleum diesel ).Jatropha specie is scientifically developed to give maximum yield.It is a quick yielding species even in adverse land situations viz degraded & barrenlands under forest & non forest use, dry and drought prone area, marginal landseven an alkaline soils & also as agro forestry crops.Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere stores it in the woody tissues &assists in the build up of soil carbon.Various parts of the plant are of medicinal value.
  • 6. Biodiesel and land requirement in IndiaYear Diesel Biodiesel Seed requirement Area requirement demand requirement (MT) (MMT) (Mha) (MT) BD5 BD10 BD20 BD5 BD10 BD20 BD5 BD10 BD202007-08 60.18 3.01 6.02 12.0 10.0 20.0 40.1 5.01 10.0 21.02008-09 90.27 4.51 9.03 18.0 15.0 30.1 60.1 7.52 15.0 30.02009-10 95.23 4.76 9.52 19.0 15.8 31.7 63.5 7.94 15.8 31.72010-11 100.47 5.02 10.0 20.1 16.7 33.5 66.9 8.37 16.7 33.52011-12 106.00 5.30 10.6 21.2 17.6 35.3 70.6 8.83 17.6 35.32012-13 111.83 5.59 11.1 22.3 18.6 37.2 74.5 9.32 18.6 37.22013-14 117.98 5.90 11.8 23.6 19.6 39.3 78.6 9.93 19.6 39.32014-15 124.47 6.22 12.4 24.9 20.7 41.5 82.9 10.3 20.7 41.52015-16 131.31 6.57 13.3 26.2 21.9 43.7 87.5 10.9 21.9 43.72016-17 138.54 6.93 13.8 27.7 23.1 46.1 92.6 11.5 23.1 46.12017-18 146.16 7.31 14.6 29.2 24.3 48.7 97.4 12.1 24.3 48.72018-19 154.19 7.71 15.4 30.8 25.7 51.4 102 12.8 25.7 51.42019-20 162.67 8.13 16.2 32.5 27.1 54.2 108 13.5 21.1 54.2
  • 7. Land area under cultivation of jatropha in various states State Area (ha) % of total land Andhra Pradesh 260 2.63 Bihar 110 1.11 Chattisgarh 650 6.58 Delhi 665 6.63 Gujarat 1140 11.54 Goa 10 0.10 Haryana 520 5.26 Jharkhand 200 2.02 Karnataka 120 1.21 Kerala 50 0.5 Madhya Pradesh 84 0.85 Maharashtra 1310 13.26 Manipur 200 2.03 Meghalaya 200 2.03 Mizoram 300 0.30 Nagaland 240 2.43 Rajasthan 715 7.24 Tamilnadu 960 9.72 Uttar Pradesh 633 6.41 Uttarakhand 650 6.58 West Bengal 100 1.01 Total 9878 100
  • 8. JATROPHA PLANTATION
  • 9. Productivity of Jatropha plantation Oil / Biodiesel/ hectare Seeds/ hactare Cost of plantation/S.No hectare (MT) (MT) hectare (Rs) (MT) 1 4-6 1.5-2 1.35- 1.8 20000
  • 10. Methods of using straight vegetable oil as fuel: As oil As modified oilProblems of using oil directly in engine High viscosity Low calorific value
  • 11. Fuel Properties of Vegetable OilVegetable Cetan Heating Cloud Pour Kinematic Flash Specific oils number valu point point viscosit point gravi es (0C) (0C) y (cSt ty @ (MJ/ @ 150C kg) 380C)Corn 37.6 39.5 -1.1 -40.0 34.9 277 0.9095Cottonseed 41.8 39.5 1.7 -15.0 33.5 234 0.9148rapeseed 37.6 39.7 -3.9 -31.7 37.0 246 0.9115Safflower 41.3 39.5 18.3 -6.7 31.3 260 0.9144Sesame 40.2 39.3 -3.9 9.4 35.5 260 0.9133Soybean 37.9 39.6 -3.9 -12.2 32.6 254 0.9138Sunflower 37.1 39.6 7.2 -15.0 33.9 274 0.9161Palm 42.0 39.5 31.0 - 39.6 267 0.9180Jatropha 40-45 39-40 - - 55@ 300C 240 0.912Diesel 40-55 42 -15 to -5 -33 to -15 1.3-4.1 60-80 0.82- 0.86
  • 12. Factors affecting the transesterification reactionsReaction temperature.Ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil.Catalyst.Mixing intensity.Purity of reactants.
  • 13. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
  • 14. Parameters measured for Biodiesel Preparation Parameters Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Acid BaseTime (min) 180 180Temp (0C) 65 55RPM 400 400Methyl Ester Amount 30 30 (%)Yield (%) 21.5039 90.21Catalyst H2SO4 KOHMethanol to oil Ratio 30:70 30:70 (v/v)
  • 15. Properties of Jatropha oilS.No. Properties Jatropha oil1 Net calorific value (MJ/kg) 36.012 Flash point (0C) 2423 Viscosity (cSt, @ 300C) 514 FFA (%) 17.845 Density (kg/m3 @ 150C) 932
  • 16. BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR A FUEL FOR IC ENGINEHigh energy density.Good combustion qualities.High thermal stability.Low deposit forming tendencies.Compatibility with the engine hardware.Good fire safety.Low toxicity.Low pollution.Easy transferability and onboard vehicle storage.
  • 17. Variation in BSFC with Load for Different Blends of Jatropha Biodiesel with Diesel
  • 18. Variation in BTE with Load for Different Blends of Jatropha Biodiesel with Diesel
  • 19. COMPARISION OF EMISSIONS FROM BIODIESEL AND DIESELS.No. Emission type B100 B201 Hydrocarbon (HC) -67% -20%2 CO -48% -12%3 Particulate matter (PM) -47% -2%4 NOX +10% +2%5 SO2 -100% -20%6 PAH -80% -13%
  • 20. The Specification of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Jatropha Oil Jatropha Diesel BIS Standards Properties Biodiesel for BiodieselNet calorific 36.01 37.1 42 37.12value (MJ/kg)Flash point (0C) 242 192 60-80 130 (minimum)Viscosity (cSt, 51 5.3 2.6 1.9-6.0@ 300C)Acid value 17.84 0.42 0.09 0.8(mgKOH /g)Density (kg/m3 932 887 - 880@ 150C)
  • 21. xidation stabilityOPerameters required to measure the oxidation stability Peroxide value Iodine value FFA contents Induction period Viscosity Flash point Cloud point Pour point Saponoficatiuon value
  • 22. Antioxidants used for stabilizing the biodieselS.No. Name of antioxidant Abbreviation 1 Pyrogallol PY 2 Gallic Acid GA 3 Propyl Gallate PG 4 Catechol C 5 Nordihydroguaiaretic acid NDGA 6 2-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol BHA 7 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol BHT 8 t-butyl hydroquinone TBHQ
  • 23. CONCLUSIONSBiodiesel is an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute of diesel.Research has indicated that upto B20, there is no need of modification inengine.The engine performance evaluation has found that brake specific fuelconsumption for B100 was 14.8% higher than diesel for biodiesel from Jatrophaoil at full load, thereby indicating the use of 100% biodiesel can produce sameoutput of energy using higher amount of biodiesel and therefore deserve tobecome the “On Farmer Fuel” where farmer can grow his own resource,convert to biodiesel and use in agricultural sets itself without the need of anydiesel for blending.The brake thermal efficiency is found higher upto B30 in comparison to dieselwhile BTE of B100 (24%) was almost equals to diesel (24.5%) for JOME.The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resultingin the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leadsto piston sticking, gum formation and fuel automization problems.
  • 24. Thanks