1
a) Establishing direction
• Giving the proper direction to the
followers where determining the
destination.
b) Aligning pe...
d) Change management
• Manage any type of organizational
change convincing the followers,
creating trust to the management...
h) Making quick and rational decision
• Leaders should be able to make
immediate and rational decisions.
i) Environmental ...
Leadership TRAITS
• a set of stable characteristics
• potentially lasting throughout one's
entire life
Leadership ATTRIBUT...
Leadership QUALITIES
• Leadership qualities are demonstrated
in a leader’s behaviour, not their
position.
• “Leadership is...
Personality
Traits of a
Leader
1. Physical
proficiency
and
resiliency
2. Intelligence
3. Character
Character Traits of a
L...
• It enables the leader to quickly recover
under times of exceptional stress and
immediately continue his work.
• Ability to Gather, Analyze, Interpret, create
visions, Solve Problems, and make correct
decisions.
• It enables the lead...
• It strongly determines the individuality of
the leaders and his attitudes toward his
responsibilities.
• It is the power of the mind to weigh various
intervening factors affecting a problem
and arrive at a sound decision with...
• It is the avoidance of providing for one’s
own comfort or advantage at the expense
of others.
• A leader must show some ...
• A Leader should have the ability to decide
promptly and correctly at the proper time
and to announce/express his decisio...
• A Leader must posses a higher degree of
interest and sensitivity in responding the
needs of the organization and perform...
• It is the quality of faithfulness to superiors,
subordinates and to the ideals
organization where the leaders belong.
• A Leader must demonstrate a higher
degree of initiative in the performance of
his duty even with or without supervision.
• It is uprightness of moral character and the
quality of honesty and truthfulness.
• It is the physical and mental ability which
recognizes but enables the individual to
accept or meet challenges with calm...
• A leader must have a thorough knowledge
of the capabilities and limitations of his
subordinates.
• A leader should be en...
• A Leader dignified in appearance and
behavior to earn respect.
• It is the act of creating a favorable
impression in per...
• It is the quality of seeing what needs to be
done and initiating a course of action.
• A Leader should have the ability ...
• It is the ability to deal with others without
giving offense. This is a keen feeling and a
sense of what is appropriate,...
• A Leader must have a physical and mental
endurance to continue relentlessly in
pursuing the goals and objectives of the
...
• It is the ability to be impartial and
consistent in dealing with subordinates.
• A Leader must be able to render judgeme...
• A Leader must possess the virtue of
humility – the state of being reasonably
modest and not proud, assuming,
arrogant, a...
• A Leader must be able to understand and
to share the feelings of another, especially
in time of sorrow or adversity.
• A Leader must show some intellectual and
emotional identification with feelings,
thoughts, and attitudes to the employee...
• A Leader must be able to demonstrate
efficacious power within the bounds of law
to compel obedience among his
subordinat...
• A Leader must posses a good sense of
humor which is a mental disposition to
appreciate and narrate amusing incidents
of ...
• A Leader must posses a keen percepcion
and appropriate expression of amusing
words and ideas which awaken
amusement and ...
• Leadership style is a manner and
approach of providing direction,
implementing plans and motivating
people.
• Leadership...
 … also known as Authoritarian, Directive,
Monothetic, Centric, or “boss-centered” style.
 The Leader exerts high levels...
 The Leader has no confidence and trust in his or her
subordinates. No suggestions – No considerations
 The threat of pu...
3 Categories of Autocratic
Leadership
1. STRICT AUTOCRAT
 The Leader follows in a very strict
sense. His method of influe...
3 Categories of Autocratic
Leadership
2. BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT
 The Leader centralizes decision-making
power in him, but hi...
3 Categories of Autocratic
Leadership
3. INCOMPETENT AUTOCRAT
 Sometimes superiors may adopt
autocratic leadership style ...
ADVANTAGES
 Quick decision-making due to
centralized authority.
 Less competent and less skilled
employees can also be h...
DISADVANTAGES
 Leadership may be negative because
followers are uninformed, insecure, and
afraid of the leader’s authorit...
DISADVANTAGES
 Usually leads to high levels of absenteeism
and staff turnover.
 Inhibits the innovative power of the
mem...
When it is Effective?
1) Short term projects with a highly technical,
complex or risky element.
2) Work environments where...
 A participation is defined as mental and emotional
involvement of a person in a group situation which
encourages him to ...
 Though the ultimate responsibility continues to vest with
the leaders, they take all decisions in consultation with
thei...
ADVANTAGES
 Highly motivating technique to
employees.
 Employees productivity is high.
 It provides organizational stab...
DISADVANTAGES
 Mismatch between the desired and
actual participation
 Lengthy and ‘boring’ decision making.
 Like the o...
 It is a step further than the participative leadership.
 Democratic leadership is people oriented. it focuses on
human ...
 The decisions are made in groups through group
discussions, by the formation of various committees. It
is also called as...
ADVANTAGES
 Positive work environment
 Successful initiatives
 Creative thinking
 Reduction of office politics
 Reduc...
DISADVANTAGES
 Lengthy and ‘boring’ Decision making
 Suggestions given by subordinates may
sometimes be better than what...
When it is Effective?
1) It is most successful when used with highly
skilled or experienced employees or when
implementing...
When it is Effective?
4) Non profit organizations also tremendously
benefit from drawing upon the creative
energies of all...
This French phrase means "leave it be," and it
describes leaders who allow their people to
work on their own.
This style...
 The leader is ultra liberal: It means giving complete
freedom to subordinates. In this style, the leader once
determines...
ADVANTAGES
 Increases morale of employees and they
strive for higher job satisfaction as they
hold the responsibility for...
DISADVANTAGES
 It makes employees feel insecure
at the unavailability of a leader.
 The leader cannot provide regular
fe...
When it is Effective?
1) This style of leadership is effective in
highly motivated professionals (outside
experts, such as...
When it is Effective?
4) Employees are highly skilled,
experienced, and educated.
5) Employees have pride in their work
an...
omardimarucot@yahoo.com
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership
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Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership

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Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership... A Report for (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations, College of Public Administration - Tarlac State University

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Functions, Traits, and Styles of Leadership

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. a) Establishing direction • Giving the proper direction to the followers where determining the destination. b) Aligning people • Keeping the followers within the control of leader. c) Motivating and inspiring • Motivate them and try to be inspired by the leader.
  3. 3. d) Change management • Manage any type of organizational change convincing the followers, creating trust to the management. e) Coordination • Coordinate where necessary f) Determining goal • Determine both long and short-term goals and objectives to be achieved g) Representing organization • Manager represents on behalf of the organization.
  4. 4. h) Making quick and rational decision • Leaders should be able to make immediate and rational decisions. i) Environmental adaptation • Make the change according to the environmental change to to it. j) Communication • Effective communication to its stakeholders.
  5. 5. Leadership TRAITS • a set of stable characteristics • potentially lasting throughout one's entire life Leadership ATTRIBUTES • are inner or personal qualities that constitute effective leadership; • a large array of characteristics such as values, character, motives, habits, traits, competencies, motives, style, behaviors, and skills.
  6. 6. Leadership QUALITIES • Leadership qualities are demonstrated in a leader’s behaviour, not their position. • “Leadership is not just one quality but rather a blend of qualities”.
  7. 7. Personality Traits of a Leader 1. Physical proficiency and resiliency 2. Intelligence 3. Character Character Traits of a Leader 1. Judgment 2. Unselfishness 3. Decisiveness 4. Enthusiasm 5. Loyalty 6. Dependability 7. Integrity 8. Courage 9. Knowledge 10. Bearing 11. Initiative 12. Tact 13. Endurance 14. Justice 15. Humility 16. Sympathy 17. Empathy 18. Force 19. Humor 20. Wit
  8. 8. • It enables the leader to quickly recover under times of exceptional stress and immediately continue his work.
  9. 9. • Ability to Gather, Analyze, Interpret, create visions, Solve Problems, and make correct decisions. • It enables the leader to thoroughly understand his job and his people, as well as anticipate critical problems.
  10. 10. • It strongly determines the individuality of the leaders and his attitudes toward his responsibilities.
  11. 11. • It is the power of the mind to weigh various intervening factors affecting a problem and arrive at a sound decision with due care and prudence.
  12. 12. • It is the avoidance of providing for one’s own comfort or advantage at the expense of others. • A leader must show some degree of magnanimous considerations to subordinates without prejudicing the interest of others who are in need of help.
  13. 13. • A Leader should have the ability to decide promptly and correctly at the proper time and to announce/express his decision clearly and briefly with authority.
  14. 14. • A Leader must posses a higher degree of interest and sensitivity in responding the needs of the organization and performance of all duties .
  15. 15. • It is the quality of faithfulness to superiors, subordinates and to the ideals organization where the leaders belong.
  16. 16. • A Leader must demonstrate a higher degree of initiative in the performance of his duty even with or without supervision.
  17. 17. • It is uprightness of moral character and the quality of honesty and truthfulness.
  18. 18. • It is the physical and mental ability which recognizes but enables the individual to accept or meet challenges with calmness and fearlessness.
  19. 19. • A leader must have a thorough knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of his subordinates. • A leader should be endowed with superior intelligence and have the necessary professional know-how of the job.
  20. 20. • A Leader dignified in appearance and behavior to earn respect. • It is the act of creating a favorable impression in personal conduct at all times.
  21. 21. • It is the quality of seeing what needs to be done and initiating a course of action. • A Leader should have the ability to start or originate an idea or a work concept leading to action when others are absent or passive.
  22. 22. • It is the ability to deal with others without giving offense. This is a keen feeling and a sense of what is appropriate, tasteful, and aesthetically pleasing.
  23. 23. • A Leader must have a physical and mental endurance to continue relentlessly in pursuing the goals and objectives of the organization for the common good. • It is the leader’s mental and physical stamina moved by the ability to stand pain or hardships.
  24. 24. • It is the ability to be impartial and consistent in dealing with subordinates. • A Leader must be able to render judgement which conforms to principles of reason, to genarally accepted standards of right and wrong, and to the stated terms of laws, policies, and rules. • A Leader should be impartial in rendering punishment and giving credit where credit is due.
  25. 25. • A Leader must possess the virtue of humility – the state of being reasonably modest and not proud, assuming, arrogant, and boastful.
  26. 26. • A Leader must be able to understand and to share the feelings of another, especially in time of sorrow or adversity.
  27. 27. • A Leader must show some intellectual and emotional identification with feelings, thoughts, and attitudes to the employees affected by pain because of misfortune.
  28. 28. • A Leader must be able to demonstrate efficacious power within the bounds of law to compel obedience among his subordinate.
  29. 29. • A Leader must posses a good sense of humor which is a mental disposition to appreciate and narrate amusing incidents of everyday life in a comical way.
  30. 30. • A Leader must posses a keen percepcion and appropriate expression of amusing words and ideas which awaken amusement and pleasure.
  31. 31. • Leadership style is a manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people. • Leadership style in traditional leadership theory is how you relate to your subordinates.
  32. 32.  … also known as Authoritarian, Directive, Monothetic, Centric, or “boss-centered” style.  The Leader exerts high levels of power over his or her employees or team members.  The Leader structures the complete situation for his/her employees, centralizes decision making power in himself/herself and issue orders/instructions.  The Leader functions with high concern for task accomplishment but low concern for the people who perform these tasks.
  33. 33.  The Leader has no confidence and trust in his or her subordinates. No suggestions – No considerations  The threat of punishment and penalties make the workers obey their orders.  May also offer rewards(positive motivation) to their followers for their good performance. In such cases the leaders are termed as BENEVOLENT AUTOCRATIC LEADERS.
  34. 34. 3 Categories of Autocratic Leadership 1. STRICT AUTOCRAT  The Leader follows in a very strict sense. His method of influencing subordinates behavior is through negative motivation, that is, by criticizing subordinates, imposing penalty etc.
  35. 35. 3 Categories of Autocratic Leadership 2. BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT  The Leader centralizes decision-making power in him, but his motivation style is positive. He can be getting efficiency in many situations.  Some people like to work under strong authority structure and they derive satisfaction by this leadership.
  36. 36. 3 Categories of Autocratic Leadership 3. INCOMPETENT AUTOCRAT  Sometimes superiors may adopt autocratic leadership style just to hide their incompetence because in other styles, they may be exposed before their subordinates. However, this cannot be used for a long time.
  37. 37. ADVANTAGES  Quick decision-making due to centralized authority.  Less competent and less skilled employees can also be hired.  Can prove to be successful in short-run.  Reduced stress due to increased control.  A more productive group while the leader is watching.  Improved logistics of operations
  38. 38. DISADVANTAGES  Leadership may be negative because followers are uninformed, insecure, and afraid of the leader’s authority.  Negative impact on organizational productivity and efficiency due to strict leadership and lack of motivation as frustration, low morale, dissatisfaction amongst the members, and conflict develop in the organization.  There is more dependence and less individuality in the organization. As such, future leaders in the organization do not develop.
  39. 39. DISADVANTAGES  Usually leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover.  Inhibits the innovative power of the members: People within the team are given few opportunities for making suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or organization’s interest.  Team's output does not benefit from the creativity and experience of all team members, so many of the benefits of teamwork are lost
  40. 40. When it is Effective? 1) Short term projects with a highly technical, complex or risky element. 2) Work environments where spans of control are wide and hence the manager has little time to devote to each employee. 3) Industries where employees need to perform low-skilled, monotonous and repetitive tasks and generally have low levels of motivation. 4) Projects where the work performed needs to be completed to exact specifications and/or with a tight deadline. 5) Companies that suffer from a high employee turnover, i.e. where time and resources devoted to leadership development would be largely wasted.
  41. 41.  A participation is defined as mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share responsibility in them.  This style is also known as consultative, or ideographic.  These leaders (one or more) do not centralize the decision making authority with them; rather they decentralize it to their followers.
  42. 42.  Though the ultimate responsibility continues to vest with the leaders, they take all decisions in consultation with their followers and based on their followers’ suggestions & ideas.  The followers thus develop a sense of involvement and contribute positively towards the group goals.  The participation may be real.
  43. 43. ADVANTAGES  Highly motivating technique to employees.  Employees productivity is high.  It provides organizational stability by raising morale and attitudes of employees high and favorable.  Increase in followers’ job satisfaction and cooperation with management  Reduction in employees’ turnover and absenteeism.  Improved communication
  44. 44. DISADVANTAGES  Mismatch between the desired and actual participation  Lengthy and ‘boring’ decision making.  Like the other styles, the participative style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.
  45. 45.  It is a step further than the participative leadership.  Democratic leadership is people oriented. it focuses on human aspects and builds effective teamwork.  Democratic Leadership is the leadership style that promotes the sharing of responsibility, the exercise of delegation and continual consultation.  Interaction between the leader and subordinates is open, friendly and trusting.
  46. 46.  The decisions are made in groups through group discussions, by the formation of various committees. It is also called as ‘group dynamics’ approach to participation.  It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity.
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES  Positive work environment  Successful initiatives  Creative thinking  Reduction of office politics  Reduced employee turnover  Overall development of the subordinates
  48. 48. DISADVANTAGES  Lengthy and ‘boring’ Decision making  Suggestions given by subordinates may sometimes be better than what leaders could have thought of. Leaders , in such cases, may not feel happy inviting suggestions.  Danger of pseudo participation: Employees may not always be willing to participate  Suggestions which are not acceptable to the entire group may invite resistance from some of the group members.
  49. 49. When it is Effective? 1) It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. 2) It is applied to an extent in the manufacturing industry, to allow employees to give their ideas on how processes can become leaner and more efficient. 3) It is effective in professionals organizations where the emphasis is clearly on training professional & leadership development .
  50. 50. When it is Effective? 4) Non profit organizations also tremendously benefit from drawing upon the creative energies of all their staff to bring about cost cutting techniques or fund raising ideas. 5) As previously mentioned, creative industries such as advertising and television enjoy a lot of benefits from the free flow of ideas that democratic / participative leadership brings.
  51. 51. This French phrase means "leave it be," and it describes leaders who allow their people to work on their own. This style of leadership is also called “Hands- Off” , Free-Rein, Delegative or Permissive.
  52. 52.  The leader is ultra liberal: It means giving complete freedom to subordinates. In this style, the leader once determines policy, programmes and limitations for action then the entire process is left to subordinates.  Group members perform everything and the leader usually a on-looker who plays a minor role in affecting the group-goals and maintains contacts with outside persons to bring the information and materials which the group needs.
  53. 53. ADVANTAGES  Increases morale of employees and they strive for higher job satisfaction as they hold the responsibility for framing and achieving their group-goals.  The employees’ satisfaction is exploited to the fullest possible extent.  The subordinates train their own group members and motivate them to work. The results are likely to be more productive.
  54. 54. DISADVANTAGES  It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a leader.  The leader cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing.  Leaders are unable to thank employees for their good work.  The leader doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her.
  55. 55. When it is Effective? 1) This style of leadership is effective in highly motivated professionals (outside experts, such as staffs or consultants) where independent thinking is rewarded. It is not useful in organizations that are highly structured. 2) This type of style is suitable to certain where the leader can leave a choice to his group. This helps subordinates to develop independent personality.
  56. 56. When it is Effective? 4) Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated. 5) Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. 6) Employees are trustworthy.
  57. 57. omardimarucot@yahoo.com
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