ENGINEERING MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY

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ENGINEERING MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY, Group Report for ES4-ENGINEERING MATERIALS, College of Engineering - Tarlac State University

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ENGINEERING MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY

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  3. 3. The development of materials over time. The materials of pre-history, on the left, all occur naturally; the challenge for the engineers of that era was one of shaping them. The development of thermochemistry and (later) of polymer chemistry enabled man- made materials, shown in the colored zones. Three - stone, bronze and iron - were of such importance that the era of their dominance is named after them.
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  13. 13. 14 Price and availability Recyclability Density / Relative heaviness Modulus Yield and tensile strength Hardness Fracture toughness Fatigue strength Creep strength Damping
  14. 14. 15 Thermal conductivity Specific heat Thermal expansion coefficient Resistivity Dielectric constant Magnetic permeability Oxidation Corrosion Wear
  15. 15. 16 Ease of manufacture Joining Finishing Colour Texture Feel
  16. 16. 17 Properties Bulk Mechanical Properties Price and Availability Bulk Non- mechanical Properties Surface Properties Production Properties – Ease of manufacturing, fabrication, joining, finishing Aesthetic Properties – Appearance, Texture, Feel DESIG N INTRINSIC ATTRIBUTE How the properties of engineering materials affect the way in which products are designed
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  18. 18. 19 • Metallic materials are normally combinations of metallic elements. They have large numbers of non-localized electrons; that is, these electrons are not bound to particular atoms. Many properties of metals are directly attributable to these electrons. Metals are extremely good conductors of electricity and heat and are not transparent to visible light; a polished metal surface has a lustrous appearance. Furthermore, metals are quite strong, yet deformable, which accounts for their extensive use in structural applications.
  19. 19. 20  Metals in combination with other metals or non metal elements.  Examples: Steel (Iron & Carbon), Brass (Copper & Zinc)
  20. 20. 21 Iron and steels Aluminium and its alloys Copper and its alloys Nickel and its alloys Titanium and its alloys
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  22. 22. 23 • Polymers include the familiar plastic and rubber materials. Many of them are organic compounds that are chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements; furthermore, they have very large molecular structures. These materials typically have low densities and may be extremely flexible.
  23. 23. 24 Polyethylene (PE) Polymethylmethacrylate (Acrylic and PMMA) Nylon, alias Polyamide (PA) Polystyrene (PS) Polyurethane (PU) Polyvinylchloride (WC) Polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) Polyethylether Ketone (PEEK) Epoxies (EP) Elastomers, such as natural rubber (NR)
  24. 24. 25 • Ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements; they are most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides. The wide range of materials that falls within this classification includes ceramics that are composed of clay minerals, cement, and glass. These materials are typically insulative to the passage of electricity and heat, and are more resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers. With regard to mechanical behavior, ceramics are hard but very brittle.
  25. 25. 26  Ceramics are crystalline, inorganic, non-metals.  Glasses are non-crystalline (or amorphous) solids.  Most engineering glasses are non-metals, but a range of metallic glasses with useful properties is now available.
  26. 26. 27 Alumina (AI2O3, emery, sapphire) Magnesia (MgO) Silica (SO2) glasses and silicates Silicon carbide (SiC) Silicon nitride (Si3N4) Cement and concrete
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  28. 28. 29 Fibreglass (GFRP) Carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) Filled polymers Cermets
  29. 29. 30 Wood Leather Cotton / wool / silk Bone
  30. 30. 31 Metals and alloys Polymers Ceramics and glasses Composites Wire-reinforced cement cermetsSteel-cord Tyres Filled Polymers GFRPCFRP The classes of Engineering materials from which articles are made
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  32. 32. 33 MATERIALS CYCLE Recycling/disposing of used products and systems Extracting Raw materials Creating bulk materials, components and devices Manufacturing engineered materials Fabricating products and systems Service of products and systems
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  39. 39. Materials Science Engineering Mechanics Durability Engineering Design Manufacturing Life-cycle concerns Fundamental Laws Interactions Reliability Quality Cost
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  47. 47. The classes of process. The first row contains the primary shaping processes; below lie the secondary processes of machining and heat treatment, followed by the families of joining and finishing processes.
  48. 48. 51 Sand, Die, Investment Injection, Compression, Blow molding Rolling, Forging, Drawing Sintering, HIPing, Slip casting
  49. 49. 52 Hand lay-up, Filament winding, RTM Rapid prototype, Lay-up, Electro-form
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  54. 54. 57 Cut, turn, plane, drill, grind Quench, temper, age- harden
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  67. 67. 70 Shifts in manufacturing have resulted in a larger service work force and a smaller manufacturing work force. The complexity of products makes it harder for the average person to make repairs on his or her own products. Special diagnostic equipment is used to analyze everything from automobiles to robots to appliances. The demand for better quality in products and systems has resulted in improved, long term warranties. Manufacturers are very interested in analyzing materials that fail so that they can improve materials engineering and product design.
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  69. 69. 72 The last stage of the materials cycle can become the first stage through the resurrection of material when recyling is employed. Most materials can be recycled. However, It is very difficult for manufacturers to develop a full materials cycle that will ensure recycling.
  70. 70. 73 Laws have put mandates on recycling by restricting the amount of solid waste that can be placed on landfills. Clean air and water regulations have restricted the amount and type of waste that can be incinerated or dumped into the ocean. But much remains to be accomplished to develop the proper attitudes and habits among our citizens if we are to make the total materials cycle efficient and thus protect the environment and natural resources for future generations.
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