THE ROLE OF TEACHER IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM Imagine a school where teaching is considered to be a professionrather than a trade. The role of teachers in a childs education -- and inAmerican culture -- has fundamentally changed. Teaching differs fromthe old "show-and-tell" practices as much as modern medical techniquesdiffer from practices such as applying leeches and bloodletting. Instruction doesnt consist primarily of lecturing to students whosit in rows at desks, dutifully listening and recording what they hear, but,rather, offers every child a rich, rewarding, and unique learningexperience. The educational environment isnt confined to the classroombut, instead, extends into the home and the community and around theworld. Information isnt bound primarily in books; its availableeverywhere in bits and bytes. Students arent consumers of facts. They are active creators ofknowledge. Schools arent just brick-and-mortar structures -- theyrecenters of lifelong learning. And, most important, teaching is recognizedas one of the most challenging and respected career choices, absolutelyvital to the social, cultural, and economic health of our nation. Today, the seeds of such a dramatic transformation in educationare being planted. Prompted by massive revolutions in knowledge,information technology, and public demand for better learning, schoolsnationwide are slowly but surely restructuring themselves. Leading the way are thousands of teachers who are rethinkingevery part of their jobs -- their relationship with students, colleagues, andthe community; the tools and techniques they employ; their rights andresponsibilities; the form and content of curriculum; what standards toset and how to assess whether they are being met; their preparation asteachers and their ongoing professional development; and the verystructure of the schools in which they work. In short, teachers arereinventing themselves and their occupation to better serve schools andstudents. 1
New Relationships and Practices Traditionally, teaching was a combination of information-dispensing, custodial child care and sorting out academically inclinedstudents from others. The underlying model for schools was an education Factory in which adults, paid hourly or daily wages, kept like-aged youngsters sitting still for standardized lessons and tests. Teachers were told what, when, and how to teach. They wererequired to educate every student in exactly the same way and were notheld responsible when many failed to learn. They were expected to teachusing the same methods as past generations, and any deviation fromtraditional practices was discouraged by supervisors or prohibited bymyriad education laws and regulations. Thus, many teachers simplystood in front of the class and delivered the same lessons year after year,growing gray and weary of not being allowed to change what they weredoing. Many teachers today, however, are encouraged to adapt andadopt new practices that acknowledge both the art and science oflearning. They understand that the essence of education is a closerelationship between a knowledgeable, caring adult and a secure,motivated child. They grasp that their most important role is to get toknow each student as an individual in order to comprehend his or herunique needs, learning style, social and cultural background, interests,and abilities. This attention to personal qualities is all the more important asAmerica continues to become the most pluralistic nation on Earth.Teachers have to be committed to relating to youngsters of manycultures, including those young people who, with traditional teaching,might have dropped out -- or have been forced out -- of the educationsystem. 2
Their job is to counsel students as they grow and mature -- helping them integrate their social, emotional, and intellectual growth -- so the union of these sometimes separate dimensions yields the abilitiesto seek, understand, and use knowledge; to make better decisions in their personal lives; and to value contributing to society. They must be prepared and permitted to intervene at any time andin any way to make sure learning occurs. Rather than see themselvessolely as masters of subject matter such as history, math, or science,teachers increasingly understand that they must also inspire a love oflearning. The most respected teachers have discovered how to makestudents passionate participants in the instructional process by providingproject-based, participatory, educational adventures. They know that inorder to get students to truly take responsibility for their own education,the curriculum must relate to their lives, learning activities must engagetheir natural curiosity, and assessments must measure realaccomplishments and be an integral part of learning. The day-to-day job of a teacher, rather than broadcasting content,is becoming one of designing and guiding students through engaginglearning opportunities. An educators most important responsibility is tosearch out and construct meaningful educational experiences that allowstudents to solve real-world problems and show they have learned thebig ideas, powerful skills, and habits of mind and heart that meet agreed-on educational standards. The result is that the abstract, inert knowledgethat students used to memorize from dusty textbooks comes alive as theyparticipate in the creation and extension of new knowledge.New Tools and EnvironmentsOne of the most powerful forces changing teachers and students roles ineducation is new technology. The old model of instruction waspredicated on information scarcity. 3
Teachers and their books were information oracles, spreading knowledgeto a population with few other ways to get it.Extended instructionalperiods and school days, as well as reorganized yearly schedules, are allbeing tried as ways to avoid chopping learning into often arbitrarychunks based on limited time. Also, rather than inflexibly group studentsin grades by age, many schools feature mixed-aged classes in whichstudents spend two or more years with the same teachers. One of the most important innovations in instructionalorganization is team teaching, in which two or more educators shareresponsibility for a group of students. This means that an individualteacher no longer has to be all things to all students. This approachallows teachers to apply their strengths, interests, skills, and abilities tothe greatest effect, knowing that children wont suffer from theirweaknesses, because theres someone with a different set of abilities toback them up. To truly professionalize teaching, in fact, we need to furtherdifferentiate the roles a teacher might fill. Just as a good law firm has amix of associates, junior partners, and senior partners, schools shouldhave a greater mix of teachers who have appropriate levels ofresponsibility based on their abilities and experience levels. Also, just asmuch of a lawyers work occurs outside the courtroom, so, too, shouldwe recognize that much of a teachers work is done outside theclassroom.New Professional Responsibilities Aside from rethinking their primary responsibility as directors ofstudent learning, teachers are also taking on other roles in schools and intheir profession. They are working with colleagues, family members,politicians, academics, community members, employers, and others toset clear and obtainable standards for the knowledge, skills, and valueswe should expect Americas children to acquire. They are participating inday-to-day decision making in schools, working side-by-side to setpriorities, and dealing with organizational problems that affect theirstudents learning. 4
Many teachers also spend time researching various questions ofeducational effectiveness that expand the understanding of the dynamicsof learning. And more teachers are spending time mentoring newmembers of their profession, making sure that education schoolgraduates are truly ready for the complex challenges of todaysclassrooms. 5
TESTING A test or is an assessment intended to measure a test-takers knowledge, skill,aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A testmay be administered orally, on paper, on a computer, or in a confined area that requiresa test taker to physically perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style, rigor andrequirements. For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is often required to relyupon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test takermay use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator whenresponding to an item. A test may be administered formally or informally. An exampleof an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. Anexample of a formal test would be a final examination administered by a teacher in aclassroom or an I.Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal testing oftenresults in a grade or a test score. A test score may be interpreted with regards to anorm or criterion, or occasionally both. The norm may be established independently, orby statistical analysis of a large number of participants. A standardized test is any test that is administered and scored in a consistentmanner to ensure legal defensibility. Standardized tests are often used in education,professional certification, psychology (e.g., MMPI), the military, and many other fields. A non-standardized test is usually flexible in scope and format, variable indifficulty and significance. Since these tests are usually developed by individualinstructors, the format and difficulty of these tests may not be widely adopted or usedby other instructors or institutions. A non-standardized test may be used to determinethe proficiency level of students, to motivate students to study, and to provide feedbackto students. In some instances, a teacher may develop non-standardized tests thatresemble standardized tests in scope, format, and difficulty for the purpose of preparingtheir students for an upcoming standardized test. Finally, the frequency and settingby which a non-standardized tests are administered are highly variable and are usuallyconstrained by the duration of the class period. A class instructor may for example,administer a test on a weekly basis or just twice a semester. Depending on the policy ofthe instructor or institution, the duration of each test itself may last for only fiveminutes to an entire class period. In contrasts to non-standardized tests, standardized tests are widely used, fixedin terms of scope, difficulty and format, and are usually significant in consequences.Standardized tests are usually held on fixed dates as determined by the test developer,educational institution, or governing body, which may or may not be administered bythe instructor, held within the classroom, or constrained by the classroom period.Although there is little variability between different copies of the same type ofstandardized test (e.g., SAT or GRE), there is variability between different types ofstandardized tests. Any test with important consequences for the individual test taker is referredto as a high-stakes test. A test may be developed and administered by an instructor, a clinician, agoverning body, or a test provider. In some instances, the developer of the test may not
be directly responsible for its administration. For example, Educational Testing Service(ETS), a nonprofit educational testing and assessment organization, developsstandardized tests such as the SAT but may not directly be involved in theadministration or proctoring of these tests. As with the development and administrationof educational tests, the format and level of difficulty of the tests themselves are highlyvariable and there is no general consensus or invariable standard for test formats anddifficulty. Often, the format and difficulty of the test is dependent upon the educationalphilosophy of the instructor, subject matter, class size, policy of the educationalinstitution, and requirements of accreditation or governing bodies. In general, testsdeveloped and administered by individual instructors are non-standardized whereastests developed by testing organizations are standardized. The elementary school students Using Instructional Materials To Sustain Pss2 Secretarial Students’ Interest InOffice Practice Subject At Joy Professional Academy, Kumasi CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study A teaching method may be described as the standard procedure in thepresentation of instructional materials and the content of activities. It is the way andmanner in which the teacher presents his/her lesson to enable his/her students acquireknowledge in the subject under consideration. Any teaching method a teacher uses hasadvantages, disadvantages, and requires some preliminary preparation. Often times, aparticular teaching method will naturally flow into another, all within the same lesson,and the excellent teacher can develop the skills to make the process faultless to theirstudents. The classification of a teaching method as being right for a particular lessondepends on many factors such as, the age and developmental level of the students, theirexperiences, interests and goals, what they already know, and what they need to knowto succeed with the lesson, the subject-matter content, the obof the lesson, the availablenumber of students, time, space and material resources, and the physical setting.
However, another, more difficult problem is to select an instructional methodthat best fits ones particular teaching style and the lesson-situation. There is no oneright method for teaching a particular lesson, but there are some criteria that pertain toeach lesson that can help a teacher make the best decision possible. Individuals learn indifferent ways. According to Dale (1996) from the www.dol.gov website, a personremembers 10% of what they read, 20% of what they heard, 30% of what they seen and50% of what is seen and heard. The percentage increases for those fortunate enough toread, hear, see and do things in actual or practical experiences. A teacher has many options when choosing a style to teach by. The teachermay write lesson plans of their own, borrow plans from other teachers, or search onlineor within books for lesson plans.