Emperialism And Colonialism (Ppt)


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this ppt talks about the first and second exploration of the europeans towards asia and other parts of the world.

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Emperialism And Colonialism (Ppt)

  1. 1. EMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/19/09
  2. 2. Imperialism in Asia  roots back to the late 15TH century  series of voyages - sea passage to India  establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices  16TH century: Portuguese established a monopoly over trade between Asia and Europe  managing to prevent rival powers from using the water routes between Europe and the Indian Ocean 3/19/09
  3. 3. DUTCH INFLUENCE  BUT, with the rise of the rival Dutch East India Company  Portuguese influence in Asia was gradually eclipsed  Dutch forces first established independent bases in the East (significantly Batavia)  between 1640 and 1660 : Malacca, Ceylon, some southern Indian ports  Later, the English and the French established settlements in India 3/19/09
  4. 4. BRITISH INFLUENCE  British eliminated French influence in India THRU Seven Years' War in 1763  established the British East India Company as the most important political force on the Indian Subcontinent.  mid-to-late 19TH century: demand for oriental goods remained the driving force behind European imperialism  European in Asia remained confined largely to trading stations and strategic outposts 3/19/09
  5. 5. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  increased European demand for Asian raw materials  the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and especially in Asia 3/19/09
  6. 6. “New Imperialism”  a new era In global colonial expansion  a shift in focus from trade and indirect rule to formal colonial control of vast overseas territories ruled as political extensions of their mother countries  Between the 1870s and the beginning of World War I in 1914: United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands — the established colonial powers in Asia  added to their empires vast expanses of territory in the Middle East, the Indian 3/19/09
  7. 7.  following the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871; Tsarist Russia; and the United States, following the Spanish-American War in 1898  quickly emerged as new imperial powers in East Asia and in the Pacific Ocean area. 3/19/09
  8. 8. ASIA IN WORLD WAR I & II  struggles among several key imperial powers— conflicts involving the European powers along with Russia and the rising American and Japanese powers.  both world wars and maintain their direct rule in Asia  nationalist movements : led to the political independence of nearly all of the Asia's remaining colonies, decolonisation was intercepted by the Cold War  South East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Asia remained embedded in a world 3/19/09
  9. 9. post-war economic development  East Asian Tigers : The term Four Asian Tigers or East Asian Tigers refers to the highly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan.  People's Republic of China : commonly known as China, is the largest country in East Asia and the most populous in the world with over 1.3 billion people, approximately a fifth of the world's population 3/19/09
  10. 10. RESULT  along with the collapse of the Soviet Union, have loosened European and North American influence in Asia  generating speculation today about the possible re-emergence of China and Japan as regional powers. 3/19/09
  11. 11. Early European exploration of Asia  started in ancient Roman times  Knowledge of lands as distant as China were held by the Romans  Trade with India through the Roman Egyptian Red Sea ports was significant in the first centuries of the Common Era. 3/19/09
  12. 12. Medieval European exploration of Asia  13th and 14th centuries: Christian missionaries - sought to penetrate China  Marco Polo  little permanent effect on East-West trade: of a series of political developments in Asia in the last decades of the fourteenth century, which put an end to further European exploration 3/19/09
  13. 13.  Yuan dynasty in China: receptive to European missionaries and merchants, was overthrown  new Ming rulers were found to be inward oriented and unreceptive to foreign religious proselytism  Turks consolidated control over the eastern Mediterranean, closing off key overland trade routes  15TH century, only minor trade and cultural exchanges between Europe and Asia continued at certain terminals controlled by Muslim traders. 3/19/09
  14. 14. Oceanic voyages to Asia 3/19/09
  15. 15.  new trade routes : oceanic routes between East and West began with the unprecedented voyages of Portuguese and Spanish sea captains  cheaper and easier access to South and East Asian goods  influenced by medieval European adventurers, who had journeyed overland to the Far East and contributed to geographical knowledge of parts of Asia upon their return.  1488 Bartholomeu Dias: southern tip of Africa under the sponsorship of Portugal's John II --- swung northeast, soon finding a sea route to India and named the tip as the 3/19/09
  16. 16.  1497, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama made the first open voyage from Europe to India  1520, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain, found a sea route into the Pacific Ocean 3/19/09
  17. 17. Portuguese and Spanish trade and colonisation in Asia  Portuguese monopoly over trade in the Indian Ocean  16th century Afonso de Albuquerque  emerged as the Portuguese colonial viceroys most instrumental in consolidating Portugal's holdings in Africa and in Asia ---understood that Portugal could wrest commercial supremacy from the Arabs only by force 3/19/09
  18. 18.  1510, he seized Goa in India, which enabled him to gradually consolidate control of most of the commercial traffic between Europe and Asia  Europeans started to carry on trade from forts, acting as foreign merchants rather than as settlers. In contrast, early European expansion in the quot;West Indies  1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus, involved heavy settlement in colonies that were treated as political extensions of the mother countries. 3/19/09