Introduction to energy audit part 2


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This a compilation of the overall process in conducting energy audit based on my personal experiences, training that I attended in Malaysia, India and Japan and information sharing between fellow EE practitioners.Not to forget references from books and internet.
I believe this would benefit to those who wants to understand what is energy audit all about for beginners to become an energy auditor and to facilities owners to assess the need to conduct energy audit and energy audit proposals submitted by consultants

Published in: Business, Technology

Introduction to energy audit part 2

  2. 2. Outline & ContentPART 1• Introduction to energy auditPART 2• Energy Audit Approach• Steps In Energy Audit ProcessPART 3• Energy Audit Report & Presentation2
  3. 3. PART 2:Energy Audit ApproachSteps In Energy Audit Process3
  5. 5. 5Preparation Finalize and agree on the terms of reference for energyaudit team Objectives Expectations from the management Confidentiality Frequency of progress reporting and meeting Line of communication Introduction of energy audit team (consultant & in-house) Special briefing for external auditors on production, safety,health and environment requirements Briefing on energy audit activities and timeframe
  6. 6. 6INTERNALEnergy managerEngineersTechnical personnel•Process Technicians•Electrical Technicians• BoilermanEXTERNAL (Consultant)Chief auditor•Auditors (electrical, mechanical& etc)•TechniciansProcessesOperationMaintenanceAccessibilityData requiredMeasurementData analysisEnergy saving measuresCalculations andverifications methodFinancial analysisENERGY MANAGER/CHIEF AUDITOROverallCoordinationEnergyAuditingFACTORY/BUILDING MANAGEMENT•Commitment and SupportsPersonnelInputEnergy Audit Organization
  7. 7. 7Steps In Energy Audit Process
  8. 8. Prepare Energy Audit ReportDefine and confirm audit scopeAnalyze Feasibility And ViabilityPrioritize Proposed MeasuresUnderstand Processes And RequirementsObtain Data On Energy Input & OutputIdentify Existing Energy PerformanceMeasurements and data analysisIdentify Additional DataAnalyse Energy Balance And EnergyPerformance DataIdentify Energy Saving MeasuresPrepare A List of Energy Saving MeasuresCalculate Energy Saving PotentialsFinancial AnalysisPLANNING AND DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS AND REPORT PREPARATIONPRESENT FINDINGS TO CONVINCETHE TOP MANAGEMENTFOR IMPLEMENTATION8
  9. 9. 9Define Audit Scope Type of audit Boundary Tasks involved Timeframe Expected output
  10. 10. 10Understand Processes And Requirements• Processes and the requirements to maintain productionoutput/services• Discuss with the sites senior management the aims of theenergy audit and economic guidelines associated with therecommendations of the audit• Analyze the major energy consumption data with the relevantpersonnel• Obtain site drawings where available - building layout, steamdistribution, compressed air distribution, electricity distributionetc• Site investigation accompanied byfacilities/engineering/production personnel
  11. 11. 11Obtain Data On Energy Input & OutputEnergy contracts and bills analysisUnderstand the energy billsVerify suitability of existing purchased energy (tariff, fuel prices)Verify accuracy of the bills receivedOptions available for energy supplyDESKTOP ANALYSIS (DOCUMENTATION)Electrical demand profile in kW for daily/weekly/monthly)Plant/Process line/Equipment/MachineObtain actual quantity of energy using equipment in operation,on stand-by and unused)Prepare inventory list for:-each space and its purposes-energy related controls and operating hours-each equipment and its functions and locationMEASUREMENT & SITE DATA COLLECTION
  12. 12. 12Tips For Data Collection Easy to use and provide the information to the accuracy that is needed, not theaccuracy that is technically possible Measurement equipment can be inexpensive (flow rates using a bucket andstopwatch) The quality of the data must be such that the correct conclusions are drawn (whatgrade of product is on, is the production normal etc) Define how frequent data collection should be to account for process variations Measurement exercises over abnormal workload periods (such as startup andshutdowns) Design values can be taken where measurements are difficult (cooling waterthrough heat exchanger)DO NOT ESTIMATE WHEN YOU CAN CALCULATEDO NOT CALCULATE WHEN YOU CAN MEASURE
  13. 13. 13Identify Existing Energy PerformanceLoads profile dataControl systems availableFunctions and purposesThe recent measured performance data/reportsProcess flow, technology related, etcEnergy consumption figures of equipment/process/unitProduction and operating schedulesBest energy efficiency practices and latest technologies, etcAs-built technical data and informationLayout drawing of the plantEnergy using equipment information•Name, type, location•Manufacturer, year produced and technicalconditions•Production/Output capacity•Rated power and efficiency•Energy medium (fuel) and consumption•Operational mode conditions/performance•(full load/partial load)•Operational times1. Desktop Analysis
  14. 14. 14Identify Existing Energy Performance2. Measurements and data analysis Measurement of process parameters and energyrelated parameters for all energy sources/utilitiesusing portable instruments/plant instrumentation Conducting tests and trials on equipment/utilities toassess the performance wherever applicable Energy and performance related data Data on existing meters and sub-meters Temperature, humidity, pressure, flow rate, speed,efficiency level and etc.
  15. 15. Measurement: Power Factor Profile & AnalysisNo. Landlord MSBAverage Power FactorPF Req.( >85% )On-Peak(0800-2200)Office Hour(0800-1800)1 MSB/L1 (Tx2) 83.0% 82.8% < 85%2 MSB/L1 (Tx3) 76.0% 78.1% < 85%3 MSB/L16 (Tx6) 98.0% 97.5% > 85%4 MSB/L16 (Tx7) 79.5% 89.4% > 85%5 *MSB/AC (Tx4) 95.0% 95.0% > 85% 15
  16. 16. Measurement : Electrical System Analysis & Load ProfileParameters Lowest Highest AverageCurrent Range (A) 46.75 305.16 168.16Voltage (V) 411.19 426.37 418.96Load (kW) 25.44 185.43 100.84Load profile for MSB L1 TX2 from 12/10/12 to 18/10/1216
  17. 17. Measurement : Building Monthly Load Profile (kW) from sub-metering17
  18. 18. Baseline : Building monthly load profile(kW) for AHU from sub-metering18
  19. 19. Measurement & Analysis: Chiller Plant Efficiency• Actual efficiency at about 0.98kW/RT for both chillers• Efficient chiller should be less than 0.65kW/RTChilller Specs. ActualChiller Plant 1 Capacity(RT) 800 600Input Power (kW) 437 475Delta T (F) 10 8Plant Efficiency(kW/RT) 0.65 0.97C.O.P 6.0 4.45Chiller plant 2 Capacity(RT) 300 205Input Power (kW) 171 162Delta T (F) 10 7Plant Efficiency(kW/RT) 0.65 0.98C.O.P 6.0 4.4419
  20. 20. Measurement & Analysis: Lighting System PerformanceNo. Location Standard MS1525:2007 Actual (Average)1 Main lobby 100 1782 Cafe 200 1663 Corridor 100 654 Lift lobby 100 1115 Toilet 100 2126 Car-park 50 1307 Staircase 100 20No. Location Power Density (W/m2)Max. Power Density(W/m2) (StandardMS1525:2007)1 Main lobby 6.53 202 Cafe 7.84 153 Corridor 4.03 104 Lift lobby 3.67-5.03 206 Car-park 1.03-1.41 5Lux levelPowerdensity20
  21. 21. 21Identify Existing Energy Performance3.Observation of presentoperating practices &process parameters Review of operation andmaintenance practices Interaction and discussionswith heads of department,engineers, supervisors,operators
  22. 22. 22Identify Additional DataRequired And Measurements Needed• Use of measured data inmonitoring and verification.Don’t measure something thatwe won’t use- wasting time andresources!• Obtain measuring equipment
  23. 23. 23THERMALMEASUREMENT• Thermometer• Thermocouple• & Indicator• Thermograph• Data-logger• HygrometerMECHANICALMEASUREMENTSFlow• Vane Anemometer• Ultra Sonic Flow Meter• Flow/Velocity• Temperature• Relative HumidityPressure• Pressure Recorder• Leaks• Ultra Sonic Leak CheckerSpeed• Contact TachometerMultifunction kit• Flow/Velocity• Pressure• Temperature• Relative Humidity• Sound• dB Meter• TimeStop watchMeasuring tapeCHEMICALMEASUREMENTFlue Gas AnalysisFlue Gas Analyzer• (CO2 & O2,• CO• Temp• EfficiencyELECTRICALMEASUREMENT3-Phase/1-Phase Power AnalyzerVoltage,CurrentkVA, kW, kVArPower factorHarmonicsLightingLux meterEnergy Audit Equipment
  24. 24. 24Ultra-sonic Flow Meter• Application : Flowmeasurement of Liquids• Parameters : Velocity &Measured discharge ofliquid flow• Make : Panametrics, Ireland• Range : 0.03 to 12.2 m/s(pipe size 2” to 24”)
  25. 25. 25Non Contact Tachometer -Stroboscope• Application : SpeedMeasurements• Parameters measured :Speed of RotatingElement• Make : Testo, Germany• Range : 20 to 20000 rpm
  26. 26. 26Digital temperature & humiditydata logger• Parameters measured :Dry bulb temperature &humidity• Make : Gemini, USA• Range : -15 to 150oC and0-99 % RH
  27. 27. 27Non Contact Type InfraredTemperature Indicator• Application :Measurement of SurfaceTemperatures• Parameters measured :Surface Temperatures• Make : Raytek, USA• Range : -18 to 870oC
  28. 28. 28Digital Temperature & Hygrometer• Application :Measurement ofTemperatures & humidity• Parameters measured :Dry bulb temperature &humidity• Make : Center, Taiwan• Range : -20 to 60oC, 0 to100% RH
  29. 29. 29Flue Gas Analyzer• Application : Measurementof Flue Gas Parameters• Parameters measured : O2,CO, NO, NO2, SO2,Humidity• Make : TESTO, Germany• Range : 02-0 to 21%, CO-0to 20000 ppm,• NO- 0 to 3000, No2-0 to 500ppm,• Humidity- 0 to 100%
  30. 30. 303-Phase Power Analyzer• Application: Measures allElectrical and HarmonicParameters• Parameters measured : V,A, PF, KW, kVA, kVAr, Hz,first 50• Harmonics• Make : RCC Technologies,Canada• Range : 600V, 1000A
  31. 31. 31Digital Lux Meter• Application :Measurement of LightLevels• Parameters measured :Light level in lux and/orfoot-candles• Make : Physics• Range : 0 to 50000 lux
  32. 32. 32Prepare Energy Balance DataAnd Information• Energy supply and consumption data• Apportioning of energy consumption by:Type of energy – fuel, electricityEquipment/system – production machinery, motor,air conditioning, lighting and etc.Applications – production facilities, offices, tenants
  33. 33. Load Distribution: BuildingEnd-use Breakdown(%) Cost(RM)Chiller 139821.00 35.08 51453.56AHU 67740.47 16.99 24928.22CoolingTower 10441.54 2.62 3842.44CDWP 10321.21 2.59 3798.16CHWP 15671.31 3.93 5766.98Lighting 39068.12 9.80 14376.91Others 115552.15 28.99 42522.72Total 398615.80 100.00 146689.00EnergyConsumption(kWh)Air conditioning system consumed the biggestenergy (61%)%) 33
  34. 34. 34Loads Distribution-Factory
  35. 35. 35Analyse Energy Balance And EnergyPerformance Data• Energy and material balance & energyloss/waste analysis• Identify areas where energy is being orpossibly wastedEnergy Input Desired Product/Service LevelPROCESS(Equipment/Operation)Energy loss (???)Energy loss (???)Output
  36. 36. 36Identify Energy Saving MeasuresConceptual ideas, developand refine measuresReview existing/previous ideas– brainstorming and value analysisCommunication withmanufacturers/technologyexperts for more efficienttechnologies solutions• Identification of energy saving measures toeliminate/minimize energy wastage to improveenergy performance
  37. 37. Guidelines On Common EnergyAudit Checklists37
  38. 38. General management items1. Energy managementsystem• Organization• Energy conservation target and investment target• Medium-and-long term plans2. Measuring and recordingimplementation status• Installation and operating status of measuringinstruments• Implementation status of measurement controlsystem3. Maintenance ofequipment• Periodic inspection and daily inspection• Repairing of leakage (water, air and steam)• Equipment cleaning (filters and strainers)4. Management of energyconsumption volume• Recording status of daily report• Daily consumption volume and daily load curve• Monthly consumption volume and graph forcomparison to previous year5. Energy unit consumptionmanagement• Unit consumption management6. PDCA management cycle • PDCA management status38
  39. 39. Building Facilities39
  40. 40. Energy Facilities of BuildingsAir conditioners•Heat sources andtransportation of heat•Air conditioners andventilating facilities•Water supplies and water discharging facilities•Freezers, refrigeration and kitchen facilities•Power receiving and transforming facilities, lightingand electrical facilities•Elevators and building facilities40
  41. 41. Air conditioning and ventilating facilities• Air conditioningoperationalmanagement• Appropriate temperature and humidity settings• Inhomogeneous temperature distributions• Warming up operations• Review of operations• Termination of air conditioning for unused rooms• Exclusion of outdoor air intrusion• Management of airconditioningefficiency• Restriction of air conditioning sections• Utilization of outdoor air (outdoor air cooling) and night purgeventilation• Prevention of mixing losses• Water spraying on rooftops and outdoor units• Implementation ofenergyconservationequipment• Variable Air Volume and Variable Water Volume• Outdoor air introduction control systems (carbon dioxide controls)• Outdoor air cooling systems• Installation of total heat exchangers• Localized cooling and exhausting• Ventilation facilitymanagement• Appropriate ventilating frequency• Management of temperature (electric rooms and machine rooms)• Termination of ventilation for unused rooms• Ventilation controls of parking area (carbon dioxide concentrationcontrols)• Speed controls of blower and ventilator (VAV and VWV)41
  42. 42. Supply and discharge water, chiller,refrigeration and kitchen facilities• Water supplyand dischargefacilitiesmanagement• Utilization of miscellaneous water (rain water andwell water, etc.)• Water conservation measures (water saving top,automatic washers, onomatopoeic device forrestrooms, water saving showers)• Supply water flow rates and pressures.• Reusing of discharged water• Managementof chilling,refrigeratingand kitchenfacilities• Heat insulation and defrosting management• Opening and closing management of doors• Management of showcase• Increasing efficiency42
  43. 43. Power receiving and transforming, lightingand electrical facilities• Operationalmanagement ofpower receiving andtransformingfacilities• Demand factors• Power factor management• Management of demand• Transformer capacities• Shut off for unnecessary transformers• Implementation ofenergy conservationequipment• Demand monitoring and control• Low-loss transformers• Operationalmanagement oflighting facilities• Management of appropriate light intensities• Extinguishing of light when not needed (use ofdaylight)• Light apparatus cleaning and apparatus replacement• Installation location of lighting and division ofcircuits• Dimming and/or extinguishing with dimming controlsystem• Localized lighting43
  44. 44. Power receiving and transforming, lightingand electrical facilities4. Implementationof energyconservationlighting facilities• Adoption of highly efficient lamps• Adoption of highly efficient apparatuses• Inverter stabilizers• Implementation of Task Ambient method• Lighting switching control• Natural lighting systems5. Management ofOA equipment• Reduction of standby electric power• Shut off power when not required• Electric power conserving-typeimplementations6. Vending machinemanagement• Implementation of energy conserving-typeequipment• Time controls44
  45. 45. Manufacturing Facilities45
  46. 46. Air Conditioning And Chilling Facilities•Operational management• Appropriate temperature & humidity settings• Reduce air intake from outdoor• Management of heat producing equipment• Chilled water outlet temperature settings• Scheduled operation• Outdoor air shutout and ventilation status•Energy conservation strategies• Enhance thermal building insulation• Waste heat recovery and utilization• Speed controls for pumps and blowers• Localizing cooling and exhausting•Operational management ofcooling facilities• Operating power of chillers• Outlet & inlet pressure of refrigerant• Inlet & outlet temperature control and pressure control ofchilled water•Operational management ofauxiliary equipment• Operating power of cooling towers• Water quality management• Pump operating power(water quantity and pump head)•Cold temperature retention andchilling facilities• Management of incoming & outgoing through doors(dooropening & closing period)• Management of temperature to increase efficiency46
  47. 47. Pumps, Fans & Air Compressors•Operational managementof pumps and fans• Open/close status of valves• Improvement of routing(piping &ducting)• Consumption flow rate & operatingpressure• Check the actual against designperformance• Speed and unit controls•Operational managementof air compressors• Review types of aircompressors(screw/reciprocating)• Matching of capacity & types47
  48. 48. Boilers And Industrial Furnaces•Combustion management• Air ratios and exhaust gas management• Burners, fuels and air flow systems• Combustion control equipment• Regenerative type combustion system•Operational and efficiencymanagement• Load factors, startup and stop status• Quantity control• Heat efficiency, heat balance and heatdistribution• Water quality management and blowmanagement•Thermal insulation, heatretention and heat radiationprevention• Temperature on outer surface of furnace wallsand ducts• Thermal insulation materials (heat storage losses)• Sealing of opening and furnace pressure•Exhaust gas temperaturemanagement and waste heatrecovery• Exhaust gas temperature• Heat recovery (air preheating)• Exhaust gas circulation48
  49. 49. Steam Systems, Heat Exchangers, WasteHeat And Waste Water, Etc.•Operational management • Steam pressure and temperature settings• Steam flow rates•Leak and temperatureretention management • Piping systems and tanks, etc.• Load facilities•Appropriate piping systems • Routing, differential pressures and piping sizes• Sorting unnecessary piping• Integration of multiple steam systems•Load leveling • Installation of accumulators• Countermeasures on side of load•Use of drain recovery • Steam trap management• Drain recovery locations and recovery systems• Flash steam utilization49
  50. 50. Steam Systems, Heat Exchangers, WasteHeat And Waste Water, Etc.• Operationalmanagement ofheat exchangers• Suitability of types• Suitability of usage and heat transfer media• Maintenance status (soiling and pressurelosses)• Temperatures of heat transfer media andheated objects• Temperature effectiveness• Reduction ofwaste heat andwaste water• Recovery of heat from hot water• Appropriate exhaust air duct• Recycling of cooling water• Management for concentrations ofimpurities in water• Excessive gas use • Use of excessive gases50
  51. 51. Power Receiving And Transforming ElectricMotors, Electric Heating And Lighting Facilities•Power receivingfacility management• Management of load factors and power factors• Management of demand (monitor and control)• Electric power purchase contract details• Utilization of electric power during night•Transformer facilitymanagement• Transformer capacities, voltage and low-loss transformers• Demand factor/supply adjustment• Shut off for unnecessary transformers•Management ofelectric motors andelectric heatingfacilities• Facility capacity, voltage and number of units• Rotational speed control• Termination of operation when unloaded•Lighting facilitymanagement• Adoption of highly efficiency lamps• Adoption of automatic extinguishing and localized lighting• Installation location of lighting and division of circuits• Management of appropriate illuminance• Extinguishing during unnecessary hours and use of daylight51
  52. 52. 52Prepare A List of Energy Saving Measures• Discuss and list down all energysaving measures and opportunities
  53. 53. 53Calculate Energy Saving Potentials• Calculate projected energy saving potentials inenergy unit and convert into RM!• Use data from measurements/manufacturers’information/data analysis to estimate potentialsaving values
  54. 54. 54Conduct Financial Analysis Conduct financial analysis for each measure Use method adopted by the company/organizationincluding life cycle analysisItem forInvestmentOperatingCost/yearSaving/year(in energy or otherunit)Saving/year(RM)EquipmentInstrumentationCivil works &othersPurchasingcostMaintenance& repairsLabourEnergyDepreciationElectrical energyThermal energyOthers (disposal,labour and etc.)
  55. 55. Example :Energy Cost Savings for Air Conditioning System at a BuildingNO. ItemMOTORRUNNINGNORMAL MODE ENERGY SAVING MODE( RatedkW )( RunningkW )kWh/YearRate/Year(RM)Amount(kWh)Rate/Year(RM)SAVING(%)SAVING(RM/Year)1CHWP 118.5 19.1 165,024 70,960 107,266 46,124 35% 24,836Old Block Chiller Room2CHWP 218.5 19.0 164,160 70,589 106,704 45,883 35% 24,706New Block Chiller Room3CDWP 115 13.3 114,912 49,412 82,737 35,577 28% 13,835Old Block Chiller Room4CDWP 218.5 15.3 132,192 56,843 95,178 40,927 28% 15,916New Block Chiller RoomSub-Total 67 576,288 247,804 391,884 168,510 32% 79,294No ItemRated(kW)ActualkWNormalkWh/YearSaving ModekWh/YearSaving % Saving kWhSaving(RM/Year)1 Chiller – Old Blk 210 128 1,105,920 995,328 10% 427,991 47,5552 Chiller– New Blk 210 115 993,600 914,112 8% 393,068 34,180Sub-Total 420 243 2,099,520 1,909,440 9.1% 821,059 81,734TOTAL HVAC SAVING 161,02855
  56. 56. 56Analyze Feasibility And Viability• The technical feasibility should address the followingissues Technology availability, space, skilled manpower, reliability,service etc The impact of energy efficiency measure on safety, quality,production or process The maintenance requirements and spares availability• Analyze and confirm feasibility and viability of eachmeasure from technical and financial point of view
  57. 57. 57Prioritize Proposed Measures List proposed measures according to its priority for implementation and itsimplementation planEasy step Energy management at operational management level No/low cost Measuring, operation tuning, resetting, minor repairs Can be carried out with ideas or ability of the operators with advicefrom energy manager/engineer By small group activities at operational level-workersMiddle step Technical improvement, medium scale investment, replacement of oldequipment with higher efficiency technologies Can be carried out engineers, partly by small groupHigh step Improvement with large scale of investment New process line or new plant Require detailed financial assessment (payback, ROI, life-cycle analysis) As project, task-force level-Top management
  58. 58. 58Energy Saving Measures(ESMs)SummaryTableEnergysavingmeasureType ofoption (No-cost/lowcost/highcost)Saving/year(in energy)Saving/year(RM) Investmentvalue (RM)Paybackperiod(Year)Priority(High/Low)
  59. 59. 59MEASUREMENTS &VERIFICATION OF SAVINGS Propose parameters and values to be used as abaseline for each measure Propose measurement, data collection methodand calculation to be used to produce baselinevalue and result after the implementation. Get agreement on the baselines to be used forverification of resultsA TOOL TO CONFIRM THE ACTUAL RESULTS OF EACHIMPLEMENTED ENERGY SAVING MEASURE
  60. 60. Example: Energy saving calculated by the difference betweena baseline year and a subsequent year from electricity bill(kWh)60
  61. 61. Example: Savings calculated based on actual measurementfrom sub-meters61
  62. 62. Options ForEnergy Baseline & Savings CalculationMethod Advantages DisadvantagesUtility billing history Low cost •Effects of weather ,occupancy, other changesmay mask savings•May be unreliable unlesssavings are significantcompared to normal billvariationData already availableIndependent dataRepresent all effects ofESMsAccount for interactiveeffectsSystem/Equipmentsub-meteringIsolate effects of ESMs•Higher cost•Misses interactive effectsVery accurate forlighting measuresResults are morepredictable(low risk)62
  63. 63. zainiabdulwahab@yahoo.com019 63THANK YOU!