Energy Efficiency Implementation in Japan

  • 167 views
Uploaded on

The route and how Japan has successfully implemented energy efficiency for better utilization of their energy resources and sustaining their economy to grow

The route and how Japan has successfully implemented energy efficiency for better utilization of their energy resources and sustaining their economy to grow

More in: Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
167
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY INFORMATION SHARING SERIES Introduction of Energy Economy and Energy Conservation Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Nov, 2011 Hiroshi Shibuya The Energy Conservation Center, Japan ECCJ 1
  • 2. Contents 1. Energy and Energy Flow 1.1 Categorizing Concept of Energy 1.2 Energy Flow, Energy Loss 1.3 Energy Balances in Japan 2. Economic Growth and Energy Consumption 2.1 Energy Consumption and GDP 2.2 Primary Energy Supply in Japan 2.3 Energy Intensity per GDP, GDP Elasticity for Energy Supply 3. Energy Conservation 3.1 Energy Efficiency and Conservation 3.2 Promotion Methods for EE&C 4. Learning from Japanese Experience 4.1 Key Success Steps for EE&C in Japan 4.2 Typical Policy and Measures for EE&C in Japan 5. Benchmark ECCJ 2
  • 3. 1. Energy and Energy Flow ECCJ 3
  • 4. Energy-1 Energy is defined as the ability to do work in physics. Here, Energy is considered as the resources having the ability to do work. Categorizing Concept Primary Energy Secondary Energy generated from natural excavation produced by conversion or refining Consumable Energy Non-Consumable Energy fossil energy like Oil, Coal, Natural Gas, etc. renewable energy like Solar, Wind, Hydraulic, Biomass Conventional Energy Non-Conventional Energy Oil, Coal, Natural Gas, etc Non-utilized energy like Oil Sand, Oil Shale, etc. Commercial Energy Non-Commercial Energy New Energy Hydrogen, Solar, Ocean, Fuel Cell, Clean Coal, GTL, etc. ECCJ 4
  • 5. Energy-2 Conversion of Energy Primary Energy - Crude oil - Secondary Energy - Electricity - Conversion rate ? Cogeneration ? Energy Resources 1. Fossil Fuel : 2. Renewable energy : 3. New Energy : 4. Unused Energy : 5. Nuclear Energy: 6. Hydraulic Energy : Petroleum, Coal, Natural Gas Solar light & heat, wind, wave, Geo thermal, Hydraulic, Bio mass, etc. Fuel cell, Heat from wastes, etc. (Substitute for petroleum) Waste heat, Temperature difference, etc. 5
  • 6. Energy Flow Primary Energy Supply: 100 Energy Loss in Japan (2006) Petro. 47.9 LNG 15.3 Export Coal 20.6 9.9 4.8 38.6 15.7 6.9 9.2 8.8 23.7 Loss: 26.8 0.3 Industrial use: 30.5 Loss: 3.5 Resid. & Comm. Use: 18.0 Transportation use: 16.0 Energy Consumption Ratio Industry : 46.6% Residential & Commerce : 27.4% Transportation: 24.4% 11.9 Electric P.: 42.8 Non-Electric P.: 52.1 Final Energy Consumption 65.5 Nuclear 11.4 8.1 5.4 Non Energy Hydro., Wind, Geoth. 4.8 Effective use of Energy: assump. 35 Total Loss: assump. 65 Total exhaust energy: 100 ECCJ 6
  • 7. Example of energy flow and electric power consumption Electric power receiving/distributing equipment (transformers, cables, etc.) < 95-97% > Contents inside parentheses〈 〉are examples of efficiency (depending upon facilities) Contents inside parentheses ( ) are examples of electric power that can be used at the end of each equipment unit when it has received the power of 100 at the power receiving Substitute point. transformer Pumps, Electric Valves, fans, Excessive supply motors, dampers, etc. (flow rate, pressure) inverters, etc. Piping, < 60-85% > etc. ducts, etc. (Depending upon <Depending (Depending upon the way to use) upon variable < 70-95% > size, length, opening: 20-100%> shape, leaks, etc) (66-82) (7-70) Load (95-97) (Decreasing further Electric due to piping (If excessive Pump (39-70) pressure loss or motor supply occurs, it others) decreases further) Load Inverter Electric motor Pump Nozzle Power receiving point (100) Load Power receiving transformer Substitute transformer Electric motor Fan Nozzle Nozzle Substitute transformer ECCJ Electric motor Compressor 7
  • 8. 2005 Energy Balances in Japan in thousand tones of oil equivalent (ktoe) on a net calorific value basis SUPPLY and CONSUMPTION Coal Crude Oil Production Imports Exports International Marine Bunkers Stock Changes TPES Transfers Statistical Differences Electricity Plants CHP Plants Heat Plants Gas Works Petroleum Refineries Coal Transformation Liquefaction Plants Other Transformation Own Use Distribution Losses TFC Industry sector Transport sector Other sectors Residential Commercial and Public Agriculture / Forestry Fishing Non-Specified Non-Energy Use 0 113675 -1205 0 -397 112073 0 806 -62986 0 -15 -43 0 -21438 0 0 -2334 0 26063 25027 0 641 0 641 0 0 0 395 753 216244 0 0 -702 216295 0 984 -7543 0 0 0 -215097 0 0 6560 -119 0 1080 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1055 0 51322 -8839 -5859 -1225 35398 -8 -2741 -18668 0 -29 -2258 212369 -373 0 -7025 -9382 0 207282 32956 91374 43471 16030 22706 2993 1741 0 39481 2860 67782 0 0 -104 70538 0 1180 -43972 0 -357 1692 0 0 0 0 -1119 0 27962 5166 0 22448 9364 13084 0 0 0 348 79421 0 0 0 0 79421 0 0 -79421 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6726 0 0 0 0 6726 0 0 -6726 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 361 1055 29908 348 0 0 - of which Petrochemical Feedstocks ECCJ Petroleum Products Gas Nuclear Hydro Geothermal, Combustible Electricity Solar, etc. Renewables and Waste 3717 6295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3717 6295 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -91 -2924 -3709 94100 0 0 0 0 -145 -99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -21 0 0 0 -4944 0 0 -4337 793 2418 84630 0 2392 29833 0 0 1639 793 26 53157 563 26 28729 138 0 24345 92 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oil Dependency=48.9% (753+216244+51322)/(99772+449024) Import Dependency=81.8% 449024/(99772+449024) Rate of Electricity Power=41.2% (94100+131848)/(99772+449024) 0 0 Heat Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 620 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 623 0 0 623 32 591 0 0 0 0 99772 449024 -10045 -5859 -2428 530463 -8 138 -131848 0 -25 -609 -2729 -21811 0 -486 -17898 -4337 350849 95400 93013 121158 54743 61505 3169 1741 0 41279 0 31672 Source: IEA statistics 8
  • 9. 2. Economic Growth and Energy Consumption ECCJ 9
  • 10. Trend of the Energy Conservation in Japan Changes in Final Energy Consumption and GDP Crude Oil Equivalent (million Kl) 450 2nd oil crisis 1st oil crisis GDP (trillions of yen at 1990 values) Energy Conservation Act enacted in 1979 600 16.2% 400 500 16.4% 350 67.4% Transportation 300 250 200 Consumer 17.9% 24.8% 400 27.9% 300 24.9% 200 150 57.1% 100 Industrial 47.3% 100 50 0 19 5 19 5 5 19 7 5 19 9 6 19 1 6 19 3 6 19 5 6 19 7 6 19 9 7 19 1 7 19 3 7 19 5 7 19 7 7 19 9 8 19 1 8 19 3 8 19 5 8 19 7 8 19 9 9 19 1 9 19 3 9 19 5 9 19 7 9 20 9 0 20 1 0 20 3 0 20 5 07 0 Source: METI/General Energy Statistics ECCJ Fiscal year Note: consumer = residential + commercial
  • 11. Change in Final Energy Consumption by Sector Index (1973=100) 250 Consumer sector 210 200 207 Transport sector 150 Total 141 100 103 Industrial sector 50 2005 2003 2001 1999 1997 1995 1993 1991 1989 1987 1985 1983 1981 1979 1977 1975 1973 0 Source: General Energy Statistics (METI) ECCJ 11
  • 12. Composition of Primary Energy Supply in Japan (%) 100 Nuclear power Hydro/geothermal 12.4 15 11.4 Natural gas 80 13.1 New Energy etc. 15.4 3.6 3.5 1.1 17.9 77.4 60 1.3 20.6 Coal 1st Oil Crisis 20 ECCJ 60 3.2 3 19 40 1955 14 65 70 51.8 Oil Success in reducing Oil Dependency by - EE&C, and - Fuel Conversion 75 80 Year 85 90 95 47.9 45 2006 2000 2010 Source: METI/General Energy Statistics 2008 12
  • 13. Changes in Primary Energy Intensity per GDP in Japan 1st Oil Crisis Ton oil eq. / Billion yen Source: METI/General Energy Statistics Main Improvement *Energy Management *Energy Efficient Equip. *Efficient Process Tech. R&D 2nd Oil Crisis 1,600 1,566 1,573 1,467 1,500 1,438 1,405 1,400 1,345 1,327 1,300 Improvement by 30% 1,273 1,200 1,192 1,131 1,142 1,100 10 years 1,101 1,091 1,101 1,050 1,059 1,059 1,000 1,0361,037 1,038 1,021 1,059 1,049 1,036 1,013 1,051 1,044 1,013 1,000 985 978 951 Fiscal Year '0 5 '0 3 '0 1 '9 9 '9 7 '9 5 '9 3 '9 1 '8 9 '8 5 '8 3 '8 1 '7 9 '7 7 20 years '7 5 '7 3 ECCJ 1,077 1,070 10% improved 900 '8 7 Primary energy consumption / GDP 1,700
  • 14. Primary Energy Intensity per GDP 1,870 830 830 (2005 by IEA statistics) 860 Currency rate to US$ as of 2000 800 700 640 600 540 480 toe/million US$ 500 400 330 317 300 213 200 193 176 195 144 106 100 0 Wo OE rl d nc to t y al 14 al es to t e CD F ra . an da rm na U .K Ge Ca n pi n . A. pa ilip U .S Ja Ph d si a an l ay ai l Ma Th ia a es f r ic on ia S .A In d In d ia ina ss Ch Ru ECCJ
  • 15. Primary Energy Intensity per GDP (toe/MMUS$,CY2000Price) Year Russia China India Indonesia Thailand Malaysia Philippines Japan USA Canada Germany UK France OECD Total World Total 2005 1843 783 578 617 511 501 337 105 212 324 173 133 173 185 287 2007 1635 717 552 593 493 499 303 99 204 308 161 119 161 173 280 2008 1582 711 554 589 493 502 303 96.5 198 301 160 118 160 172 280 Source: Energy Balances of OECD and Non-OECD Countries (IEA) 15
  • 16. Primary Energy Intensity per GDP (2005 by IEA statistics) toe/million US$ Currency rate to 2000 US$ on PPP basis ECCJ 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 16
  • 17. Trend of GDP Elasticity for TPES in Japan 500.00 600,000 EC Law enforced 500,000 400.00 400,000 300.00 300,000 200.00 200,000 GDP Elasticity of Energy Supply 100.00 1.2 0.3 0.4 1.2 0.2 100,000 0 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 1 3 5 0.00 GDP (Bil. in 2000) 1st Oil Crisis Primary Energy Supply (MM TOE) 600.00 2nd Oil Crisis GDP Elasticity for Energy Supply = Annual Energy Increase Rate/ Annual GDP Increase Rate Primary Energy Supply ECCJ GDP (Source: EDMC Handbook of Energy & Economic Statistics in Japan 2007) 17
  • 18. 3. Energy Conservation ECCJ 18
  • 19. Energy Efficiency & Conservation (EE&C) ECCJ defines Energy Conservation (EC) as the following; EC is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used. It may be achieved through save of energy and/or efficient use of energy, in which case energy use is decreased while achieving a similar outcome. People often think Energy Conservation (EC) is energy saving only. Therefore, ECCJ uses the Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EE&C) to clarify the real meaning of Energy Conservation (EC). ECCJ 19
  • 20. What is EE&C ? (Energy Efficiency & Conservation) 0. Reduction of running load itself, then; 1. Minimization of energy loss (prevention and recovery) 2. Maximization of energy usage efficiency Incandescent lamp prevention insulation Heat loss (Input) Raw Material (Output) Machine, process Product Change of efficiency Energy Heat loss Heat exchanger recovery ECCJ LED Fluorescent light CFL 20
  • 21. EE & C is Win-Win Approach For the Next Generation; • Mitigation measures for the global warming issue by Reduction of CO2 Gas originated from fossil fuel • Sustainability for Energy Security For the Current Generation such as the Government Sector and Energy Consumers; • Cost Reduction by decreasing energy consumption It may enhance international competiveness. • Stable Energy Supply It may prevent frequent black out, or installation of power plants • Contribution to stable International energy price, etc. ECCJ 21
  • 22. Factors affecting Energy Efficiency & Conservation Factors for EE&C Promotion Policy Law & Regulation Incentives (tax,subsidy,etc.) Finance Energy/Economy Technology Data Base Energy Consumption (Volume/Cost) Application of Suitable Technology (Soft/Hard) Capacity Building Education & Training Maintain Human Resources Implementing Body Dissemination & PR Activities Energy Price ECCJ 22
  • 23. Programmatic Approach for EE&C Political Overview ECCJ 23
  • 24. 3 Steps to Promote EE&C in Industrial Sector Measures Enhancement of Step management, 1 Improvement of operation Description To enhance energy management based on the current setup, so as to improve operation (at least measuring instruments may be required) Improvement and Step additional installation 2 of equipment To improve or retrofit some facilities with only a small investment, so as to achieve higher energy efficiency as well as to recover waste energy Changes in process, Step Introduction of 3 high-efficiency equipment This step is intended for improving or updating process and manufacturing equipment It involves technical development and large-scale investment, but on the other hand produces a substantial effect ECCJ 24
  • 25. Step 1 Good Maintenance To prevent Heat & Oil Loss Close opening points Furnace Fuel STACK ・Proper Air Ratio ・Maintenance (stop the leakage of air, fuel, etc) ECCJ 25
  • 26. Step 2 Equipment Improvement To recover Waste Heat Air Pre-heater (Recuperator) Furnace Fuel FAN STACK ・Reinforce Insulation ・Install Recuperator ECCJ 26
  • 27. Step 3 Change of Production Process To introduce High-efficiency Equipment Ingot Casting & Slabing Method (Conventional Technology) Continuous Casting Method (New Technology) ECCJ Slab 27
  • 28. 4. Learning from Japanese Experience in EE & C ECCJ 28
  • 29. Principle of Energy Policy in Japan --- 3‘E’s harmonization --Economic growth Best Mix of Primary Energy 3‘E’ harmonization Environment protection Global warming Issue EE&C Policy; Rational Use of Energy Energy security Being more important Contribution to CO2 Reduction < CO2 Reduction > ECCJ 29
  • 30. Key Success Steps for EE&C in Japan Energy such as electricity, fuel oil ,fuel gas, etc. is consumed anywhere. Energy is consumed by anybody. Therefore, participation by all is a key success step for the EE&C. Japanese way of Promotion for EE&C in Industrial Sector 1. Legal measures by Government (the Energy Conservation Law for rational use of energy) 2. Financial supporting system by Government (tax reduction, low interest loan, and subsidy) 3. Voluntary efforts toward cost reduction by enterprises to overcome international competition (investment, ZD, QC or Kaizen activities by SGA, TPM, etc.) 4. Implementation & dissemination activities by the Energy Conservation Center, Japan (ECCJ) and nodal agencies concerned 30 ECCJ
  • 31. Typical Policy & Measures for EE&C in Japan Industrial & Business Sector Enterprises EC Law - Designated Factory System - Energy Manager System - EC Guidelines (Judgment Standard) - Tax and Financial Incentive, etc. - Energy Management Cell - Daily Management of Energy Use - SGA and PDCA Cycle Activity - Energy Audit, EC Investment, etc. Building & Residential Sector Energy Users EC Law - Same systems as the above are applied for Designated Energy Consumers - Top Runner System (Since 1998) - Similar measures as the above are taken by Designated Energy consumers - Voluntary Labeling, Voluntary Activities Transportation Sector Carriers, Cargo Owners EC Law Since 2007 - Specific Carriers - Specific Cargo Owners - Medium and long term energy plan - Periodic reporting on energy use 31 ECCJ
  • 32. 5. Benchmark ECCJ 32
  • 33. Bench Marking Activity < Definition of “bench mark” / “bench-marking activity” >: Management activity to measure and compare its business process to “best” comparable in the same class (business field, industry type) and to achieve or overcome that level, regarding some management index (ex. energy intensity, production cost, productivity per person, etc,). “bench-marking” was a kind of strategic planning tools, but today it can be viewed as a component of TQM. (TQM: Total Quality Management) 33
  • 34. <Types of bench-marking>: 1. competitive bench-marking: to get information from target company/competitor (or “best” in the world) --- difficult 2. collaborative bench-marking: to promote activities collaboratively with other company --- if friendly company 3. internal bench-marking: --- as first step activity for Energy Conservation, there are many successful cases in many companies. to promote in own company --- “best” in own company (or factory) as “bench mark” to spread the activity result easily within own company 34
  • 35. What is the meaning of “Energy Bench Mark” for the government side ? < “Energy Bench Mark” means energy intensity > * “Energy Bench Mark” may be one of the effective guide-lines of energy efficiency for factories and buildings as a regulative measure. * If it can be compared with those of other countries, “Energy Bench Mark” may also be useful for industrial strategy (international competitiveness). But, it is beleaguered with difficulties to get accurate energy intensity. It needs precise and complete product statistics and energy consumption statistics by individual sub-sectors (ex. textile, food, chemical, cement, steel-making, paper, -------- ). Generally speaking, it is difficult to get energy intensity figures linked to cost information directly from enterprises. If the government can establish friendly and cooperative relationship with enterprises / industrial associations, it will be able to construct a system like “bench-mark” which is not complete but useful to some extent. Difficulties of “Energy Bench marking” 35
  • 36. <Manufacturing Sector> Trend of Energy Consumption Intensity per IIP by Sub-Sector < IIP : Indices of Industrial Production > Foods Metals & Machinery Cement & Ceramic Iron & Steel Paper & Pulp Chemical Manufacturing Industries (total) (FY’73=100) 120 Index 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 '02 '01 '00 '99 '98 '97 '96 '95 '94 '93 '92 '91 '90 '89 '88 '87 '86 '85 '84 '83 '82 '81 '80 '79 '78 '77 '76 '75 '74 '73 40 Fiscal Year ECCJ 36 (Source: EDCM Handbook of Energy & Economic Statistics in Japan 2004)
  • 37. < usable information for bench-mark > International comparison of energy intensity at integrated iron and steel works It is supposed that some kinds of revision are added to be effective for comparison. 140 index (Japan=100) 120 100 110 105 100 125 120 120 110 80 60 40 20 0 Ja pa Ko n re EU a U. S. A. Ru ss C ia hi C na (l a rg e) hi na (a ll) Source: the Japan Iron & Steel Federation (information from Korea Iron & Steel Association and the China Iron and Steel association, unofficial information from many companies ) 37
  • 38. International comparison of energy intensity in other sub-sectors <heat efficiency at thermal power station (i/p fuel per o/p electricity) (1) source: COMPARISON OF POWER EFFICIENCY ON GRID LEVEL 2006 (ECOFYS), > Japan Scandinavia U.K. 100 103 France 99 Germany U.S.A. China India 110 117 129 135 123 <electricity intensity of manufacturing sodium hydroxide by dissociation method Economic Handbook, Soda Handbook.> (2004) Japan 100 source: SRI Chemical Taiwan Korea India China U.S.A. W-Europe E-Europe 100 100 108 104 110 119 115 <energy intensity of paper and cardboard manufacturing source: Japan Paper Association 2003, American Forest & Paper Association 2002, Forest Product Association of Canada 2001, Confederation of European Paper Industries2001> Japan U.S.A. Canada Sweden Germany 100 144 134 123 <energy intensity of manufacturing cement clinker (2000) Japan W-Europe Korea 100 130 131 M&S. America 145 52 source: CLIMATE CHANGE Mar.2002 (Battelle) > India 152 China 152 U.S.A. 177 Russia 178 38
  • 39. International comparison of energy intensity in other sub-sectors (2) <energy intensity at oil refinery source: Petroleum Association of Japan, based on the report of Solomon Associates> (2002) Japan Developed countries of Asia (excluding China) Europe U.S.A. and Canada 100 101 102 113 *1: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand <energy intensity at copper refining factory source: based on hearing information from some factories> Japan Europe Asia N. America 100 133 143 154 <energy intensity of aluminum plate rolling Japan 202 source: International Aluminum Institute> World 100 S. America 127 Attention: these information are disclosed non-official base by associations and institutes, not by governments. 39
  • 40. Thank You for your attention More information is available by accessing ECCJ’s Internet Home Page at: http://www.eccj.or.jp/index_e.html The Energy Conservation Center, Japan 40