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How to Mainstream Global Warming Adaptation for Agriculture
 

How to Mainstream Global Warming Adaptation for Agriculture

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How to Mainstream Global Warming Adaptation for Agriculture

How to Mainstream Global Warming Adaptation for Agriculture

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    How to Mainstream Global Warming Adaptation for Agriculture How to Mainstream Global Warming Adaptation for Agriculture Document Transcript

    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 2QOLQH UHVRXUFH PDWHULDOV IRU SROLFPDNLQJ Climate Change and Agriculture PoliciesHow to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies? Advanced Draft of Policy Guidelines Version of 4 of June 2009 /RXLV %RFNHO 7&$6 3ROLF $VVLVWDQFH LYLVLRQ 7&$ %DUU 6PLW 8QLYHUVLW RI *XHOSK 2QWDULR &DQDGD )$2 5HYLHZ WHDP 0DWHUQH 0DHW] 7&$ &DWKHULQH =DQHY 15& $QQD 5LFR 15& 6WHSKDQ %DDV 15& 0LFKHOH %HUQDUGL 15& )DFRQ 7KLHUU )$25$3 1
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 3. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION POLICY OPTIONS IN AGRICULTUREClimate Change Adaptation refers to actions intended to improve the resilience of agriculture, toenhance its capacity to deal with conditions associated with climate change, and hence toreduce the vulnerability of agriculture to changing climate (including changes in temperatures,moisture, extremes, and its indirect effects on water, disease, etc.). The direct and intendedbeneficiaries of climate change resilience building initiatives are agricultural producers,households, livelihoods, consumers. 3.1. Different ways of how adaptation can be addressed through policiesAdaptation within agriculture, food systems and rural communities involves adjustments in landand water management, resource use, access to assets, livelihood strategies, among others.Agricultural adaptations are invariably undertaken by individuals or households (private agentsat the farmer level), usually autonomously or spontaneously, and often reactively (post hoc).Public agencies, from community to national levels, can facilitate or constrain adaptations, andthey have a role to play in promoting anticipatory or planned (ex ante) adaptations. Adaptationsare influenced by the structures, functions and actions of governments at local, national andinternational levels, as well as by conditions and forces largely beyond the direct influence ofnational governments (markets, preferences, cultures, technologies, etc)Many (perhaps most) climate change adaptations are initiated and undertaken locally. However,adaptations can be initiated, enhanced or constrained by national policies. Policies relating toland and water management, resources use, access to assets, environmental conservation andlivelihood strategies, crop development, land-use, land tenure, risk management, food security,and trade all have the potential to influence adaptation to climate change.Researchers, practitioners and international organizations in the climate change field haveincreasingly called for the “mainstreaming” of climate change adaptation into established policiesand programs, so that the policies are “climate proofed”, in the expectation that this will sustainor “scale up” climate change adaptation beyond somewhat ad hoc projects mostly local, andmostly initiated by international development agencies.Adaptations are highly specific to people, places and situations, reflecting physical-ecologicalconditions, social and economic situation, community situation (resources, access, socialnetworks, culture institution), household situation (land, tenure, resources, financial, familycomposition, education) and type of agriculture. In those cases where agricultural adaptationshave been adopted, and have benefited individuals, farmers, households:Ǧ they have been locally-oriented or community-based, rather than national in scope;Ǧ they addressed local conditions to which the farms are exposed and vulnerable, to which additional risks from climate change are added;Ǧ they have been facilitated, prompted, aided, supported and/or subsidized…through a project or initiative of an external agency (development organizations, international agency, NGO, etc.), sometimes in collaboration with a national agency;Ǧ the adaptations represented modifications of existing strategies to manage risks, manage resources, sustain incomes, enhance livelihoods, rather than independent measures exclusively addressing climate change; 26
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Ǧ farmers did not undertake a systematic evaluation of a suite of CCA options to select the ‘best’; they modified their management strategies in one or more ways to address existing risks and their possible exacerbation;Ǧ as with other agricultural innovations, adaptations were adopted initially by ‘innovators’, who demonstrated their utility (or otherwise), leading to secondary adoption;Ǧ adoption of adaptation options in developing countries is greatly constrained by limited adaptive capacity, often related to conditions beyond the control of the individual households.Clearly, there is a huge variety of measures and management strategies that could be employedto help agricultural systems adapt (become more resilient and have less vulnerability) to climatechange. Very few (if any) of these options or activities are peculiar or unique to climate change.Almost all climate change adaptations directly entail or are closely related to strategies andmeasures designed and applied to meet other objectives, such as manage risks, sustain orincrease productions and rural incomes, and improve food security.Figure 5: Alternative Policy Responses to Climate Change adaptation ƉŽůŝĐLJ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĞĚ ĨŽƌ  ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚŝŶŐ ĂƵƚŽŶŽŵŽƵƐ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚŝŶŐ ĂƵƚŽŶŽŵŽƵƐ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ ďLJ ĞŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐĞ ƚŽ  ďLJ ĞŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐĞ ͞ŵĂŝŶƐƚƌĞĂŵŝŶŐ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ͟ ͞ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ĂĚĂƉƚŝǀĞ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ͟ ¾ ƚŚŝƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨLJŝŶŐ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŽĨ ĞdžŝƐƚŝŶŐ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵŝŐŚƚ ŚĂŵƉĞƌ Žƌ ĐŽƵŶƚĞƌĂĐƚ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚŝŶŐ ƵŶĚĞƌƚĂŬĞŶ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ĂƵƚŽŶŽŵŽƵƐ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ ŽŶ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĨĂƌŵͲůĞǀĞů ŽŶ ƐƚĂƚĞͲůĞǀĞů ͞ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ĂĚĂƉƚŝǀĞ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ͟ ͞ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂĚĂƉƚŝǀĞ ĂĐƚŝŽŶ͟ Ğ͘Ő͘ Ğ͘Ő͘ • ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ĨŝŶĂŶĐŝĂů • ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ŝƌƌŝŐĂƚŝŽŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂƵƚŽŶŽŵŽƵƐ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶ • ĨƵŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŽŶ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ŵŽĚŝĨŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ĐƌŽƉƐ ĨĂƌŵ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ • ŵŽĚŝĨŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƉ ŝŶƐƵƌĂŶĐĞ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ • ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ ƌĂŝƐŝŶŐ GHVLJQ =DQHY &DWKHULQH 15&% ĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ 27
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Mainstreaming adaptation will go through different channels illustrated below from autonomousadaptation to planned adaptation policies which include (i) adaptation measures undertaken bythe government on state-level ( e.g. fund research on local climate impacts), (ii) policy measuressupporting autonomous adaptation on farm-level: (e.g. strengthen extension services, ... ), (iii)policies indirectly supporting adaptation. 3.2. Proposed Climate Change Adaptation options in AgricultureA wide array of adaptations to climate change in agriculture has been proposed. Some werehypothetical adaptations, suggesting ways of addressing projected impacts of climate change.Others were based on experience with development, resource management and riskmanagement in agriculture in developing countries. In most inventories of climate changeadaptations, the broad strategies or types of activity are noted, with less attention to theprocesses and roles of the participants involved in implementing adaptations. In each of thebroad categories (or strategies) of adaptation, there are distinct roles for (i) the private sector,including farmers and rural households, and (ii) public services and partners, the two beingsupported by appropriate policies/ programmes.The actual adaptations involve enterprise and livelihood choices by farmers and households atthe local level. These may be facilitated by government programs, NGOs, and local communityorganisations.They have been organized in five panels of policies.Three are covering directly agriculture production adaptation and use of production factors (landand water) 1. Policies to encourage adapted crop development and farming practises 2. Policies to promote Soil conservation and land management 3. Irrigation and Water resource management policiesThe other wo are linked with risk management 4. Crop and Income loss Risk management Policies 5. Disaster risk management policies (flood, drought...)The tables of policies proposed below indicate different implementation channels either (i)immediate possible implementation at producer level, (ii) rapid possible implementation throughtechnical services and projects programmes or (iii) wide scale public support through publicpolicies 3.2.1. To encourage adapted crop development and farming practisesA commonly stated agricultural adaptation is to modify crop management, involving existingcrops and varieties or the development of new varieties, or replacing crops (which is thenreflected in changes in the spatial location of crops), in order to rely on crop types and varietiesthat are better suited to a changed climate.Biodiversity in all its components (e.g. genes, species, ecosystems), increases resilience tochanging environmental conditions and stresses. Genetically-diverse populations and species-rich ecosystems have greater potential to adapt to climate change. FAO promotes use ofindigenous and locally-adapted plants as well as the selection and multiplication of crop varietiesand autochthonous races adapted or resistant to adverse conditions. 28
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009At the national level this is translated into programs to develop new crops or varieties in researchprograms (e.g. to be more heat tolerant or drought resistant), to maintain genetic resources, andto develop crop management practices, all to be disseminated to farmers via outreachprogrammes.These become agricultural adaptations when crop types and varieties are actually changed(reflected in changed crop location or patterns). At the local level, this involves farmers’ decisionmaking, reflecting personal risk perceptions and trade offs, resulting in particular crop choices.A reduction of reliance on industrialised mono-cropping and diversification of the range of cropscultivated will reduce vulnerability as well as create jobs and potentially reduce irrigation needs.Development of more and better heat and drought resistant crops would help fulfil current andfuture national food demand by improving production efficiencies in marginal areas, withimmediate effect. Table 3: Actions to encourage adapted crop development and farming practises Channels Actions to encourage adapted crop development and farming practises farmer technologic / o Diversify crop types and varieties, including crop substitution, strategic options to address the environmental variations and economic risks associated with climate change o Change timing of farm operations to address the changing duration of growing seasons and associated changes in temperature and moisture Public services and o Develop new crop varieties, including hybrids, to increase the external / project tolerance and suitability of plants to temperature, moisture support and other relevant climatic conditions o Develop farm-level resource management innovations to address the risk associated with changing temperature, moisture and other relevant climatic conditions Support Policies • Promote seed banks to maintain different varieties of the crop so as to help farmers diversify crops and crop varieties • research and development of new crop types and crop varieties that are more resistant to heat and drought conditions • Strengthen capacity of the Department of Agriculture to provide seeds of a diverse mixture of crops and crop varieties that better tolerate climate risks • Develop agricultural extension schemes to encourage adjustments in planting and harvesting dates • Set tax and price policies that reflect disincentives to monoculture • Set tax and other incentive policies to increase diversification of crops and crop varieties 29
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 3.2.2. To promote Soil conservation and land managementClimate change adaptation requires a higher resilience against both excess of water (due to highintensity rainfall) and lack of water (due to extended drought periods). A key element to respondto both problems is soil organic matter, which improves and stabilizes the soil structure so thatthe soils can absorb higher amounts of water without causing surface run off, which could resultin soil erosion and, further downstream, in flooding. Soil organic matter also improves the waterabsorption capacity of the soil for during extended drought.At the national level, land use and tenure policies, the development of sustainable soil and landuse management practices, and policies to encourage such practices can influence land useand land management, so that grazing or cropping are more resilient to climate extremes andchanges.At the local level, farmers make land use decisions, including soil management choices, basedon their personal circumstance and the inducements and constraints imposed by economic,cultural and institutional conditions. Table 4: Actions to promote Soil conservation and land management Channels9 Actions to promote Soil conservation and land management farmer technologic / o Change the location of crop and livestock production to strategic options address the environmental variations and economic risks associated with climate change Public services and o Change land topography to address the moisture deficiencies external / project associated with climate change and reduce the risk of farm support land degradation. Support Policies • Develop and implement policies and programs to influence farm-level land and water resource use and management practices in light of changing climate conditions. • Conduct programs to encourage terracing and contour planting when the land has an undulating topography • Develop schemes to develop windbreaks along borders • Undertake reforms in tenure practices and land tenure laws • Develop schemes to promote changes in farming practices, such as minimum/zero tillage 3.2.3. Irrigation and Water resource managementAdaptations at the local level include farmers’ water management strategies and decisions,including use or irrigation (if available and affordable), small-scale capture, storage and use.National governments can affect water management through policies relating to water rights,regulations, pricing, controls and allocation. Sometimes authority is transferred to lower levels ofgovernment. National governments also influence water management adaptations throughinfrastructure provision and management, particularly in water capture, storage, distribution anduse (including irrigation schemes).9 The table of policies proposed below indicates different implementation channels either (i) immediate possibleimplementation at producer level, (ii) rapid possible implementation through technical services and projectsprogrammes or (iii) wide scale public support through public policies. 30
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 Table 5: Typology of climate change impacts and response options for agricultural water managementIncreasing water scarcity and changes in the geographic distribution of available water resultingfrom climate change pose serious risks for both rainfed and irrigated agricultural productionglobally. With a more variable climate and less reliable weather patterns it will be essential toincrease the water storage capacity for agriculture, to maintain global food supplies whilesatisfying other competing uses for agricultural water (Parry et al., 2007). 31
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Looking ahead to 2030, irrigated areas will come under increasing pressure to raise theproductivity of water, both to buffer the more volatile rainfed production (and maintain nationalproduction) and to respond to declining levels of this vital renewable resource. This risk will needto be managed by progressively adjusting the operation of large-scale irrigation and drainagesystems to ensure higher cropping intensities and reduce the gaps between actual and potentialyields.The inter-annual storage of excess rainfall and the use of resource-efficient irrigation remain theonly guaranteed means of maintaining cropping intensities. Water resource managementresponses for river basins and aquifers, which are often transboundary, will be forced to becomemore agile and adaptive (including near-real-time management), as variability in river flows andaquifer recharge becomes apparent (IDWG CC, 200710).Competing sector demands for water will increase pressure on the agriculture sector to justifythe allocations it receives. Reconciling these competing demands will require agriculture toengage with other productive users and use transparent means of negotiating allocations Table 6: Irrigation and water resource management actions Channels Irrigation and water resource management farmer technologic / • Implement irrigation practices to address the moisture strategic options deficiencies associated with climate change and reduce the risk of income loss due to recurring drought • Reduce soil evaporation through conservation agriculture practices; • Plan more water-efficient crop varieties; • Enhance soil fertility to increase yields per unit of water utilized; • Decrease runoff from cultivated land; Public services and • Develop water management innovations, including irrigation, external / project to address the risk of moisture deficiencies and increasing support frequency of droughts. • Improve infrastructure for small-scale water capture, storage and use • Reuse wastewater for agricultural purposes. Support Policies • Develop and implement policies and programs to influence farm-level land and water resource use and management practices in light of changing climate conditions. • Develop schemes to reduce distribution losses of irrigation water by maintaining canals and better monitoring • Improve pricing schemes for irrigation water to encourage use efficiency • Develop schemes to encourage improved irrigation methods like drip and sprinkler irrigation • Undertake research on development of crop varieties that need less water • Develop extension schemes to promote the best timing and dose of irrigation • Set tariff reforms on electricity used for agricultural production, removal of subsidies for electricity used for pumping irrigation water10 FAO IDWG CC, Adaptation to climate change in agriculture, forestry and fisheries: Perspective,framework and priorities, Intyer departmental working group on Climate Change, 2007 32
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Key adjustments for maintaining cropped areas include: 1. optimizing operational storage, i.e., manageable water resources such as water stored behind a dam; 2. controlling releases to improve hydraulic performance and salinity control; 3. optimizing crop water productivity. 4. Water allocations and releases to agriculture across river basins are essential for improving operational performance. 5. Well-targeted investments in small-scale water control facilities 3.2.4. Crop and Income loss Risk managementHighly linked with climate change adaptation, Risk management strategies and programmes arecommon in many sectors in many countries. Broadly, they seek to reduce losses from hazards inwhich there are uncertainties about the occurrence of events and about outcomes of exposure toevents. In the field of agriculture, the objective of risk management is to protect assets,livelihoods and food supplies against the effects of increased frequency and severity of extremeweather and climate. Typical components of national risk management policies and programmesinclude: 1. monitoring and forecasting hazardous events, including weather, 2. climate information, 3. reliable and timely early warning systems, 4. infrastructure investments to minimize exposure 5. insurance and other risk financing instruments 6. emergency response capacity 7. livelihood investments to enhance resiliency in outcomesIt could involve changes in the mix of income-generating activities, which may include changesin crops, livestock, land and water management, so that rural households are less vulnerable tovariations in climatic conditions.Most adaptations can be considered as forms of “risk management” in that their purpose is toreduce the likelihood of losses associated with climate change. In this category we focus on riskmanagement strategies related to losses in production, income, livelihoods or structuresassociated with local weather conditions.Identifying insurance programs that work for poor farmers in developing countries is an ongoingchallenge. Some analysts have raised the question as to whether insurance tends to maintainproduction systems and practices that are otherwise not well adapted to the variable climate,thereby perpetuating vulnerability.Other types of risk management are apparent, including community food storage and sharingsystems to moderate large fluctuations in food and rural incomes. The risk management thathouseholds practice is not limited to defensive or reactive strategies. It is part of a broader set ofinstitutions that include proactive strategies implemented over long periods. All of thesestrategies can be grouped under the concept of household safety nets. 33
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 Table 7: Crop and income loss risk management actions Channels Crop and income loss risk management farmer technologic / o Diversify crop types and varieties, including crop substitution, strategic options to address the environmental variations and economic risks associated with climate change. o Purchase crop insurance to reduce the risks of climate-related income loss o Diversify source of household income in order to address the risk of climate-related income loss o strengthen self help groups involved in risk management Public services and o Establish weather/meteorological stations external / project o Promote private insurance to reduce climate-related risks to support farm-level production, infrastructure and income. o Participate in income stabilization programs to reduce the risk of income loss due to changing climate conditions and variability. Support Policies o Mobilize adequate community based risk managements 11 tools to face crop failures and soaring food prices (grain banks, tontines, self help groups) o Modify crop insurance programs to influence farm-level risk management strategies with respect to climate-related loss of crop yields o Develop innovative risk financing instruments and insurance schemes to spread residual risks 3.2.5. Disaster risk management actions (flood, drought...)Disaster risk management) involves the establishment and maintenance of institutions andmechanisms to avoid, prepare for, and/or recover from losses associated with extreme weatherevents. At the national level this would include promotion of insurance schemes, disasterprediction and preparedness, and recovery programs.At the local level, disaster risk management involves early warning systems, preparedness, andresponse strategies. Financial risk management at the local level includes local insuranceprograms (involving communities, private sector NGOs, perhaps within a national scheme). Akey element for climate change adaptation in agriculture is the actual use of insurance byfarmers and the effectiveness of such insurance in dealing with extremes and recurring hazards.11 Bockel L, Thoreux M, Sayagh S Food Security and Risk Management by Local Communities, Lessons learnedand recommendations on development policy (Niger, India), FAO Easypol Policy Brief, 2008 34
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 Table 8: Preparedness and recovery actions Channels Disaster risk management policies (flood, drought...)farmer technologic / • Diversify source of household income in order to address thestrategic options risk of climate-related income lossPublic services and • Develop early warning systems that provide daily weatherexternal / project predictions and seasonal forecasts.support • infrastructure investments to protect against asset loss; • protecting equipped areas from flood damage and maintaining drainage outletsSupport Policies • to strengthen the meteorological department, meteorological stations and improve data collection, data management, and forecasting capacity • Incentive policies to encourage better drought management programs • Research programs to develop high-temperature/drought resistant varieties • Policies to alter cropping patterns to suit drought conditions • reducing soil evaporation through adoption of conservation agriculture practices, • planting more water-efficient and/or drought tolerant crop varieties, • infrastructure investments to protect against asset loss; 35
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 4. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION POLICY OPTIONS IN AGRICULTURE (SYNERGIES BETWEEN ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION)Climate change mitigation refers to actions intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions andcapture greenhouse gases, so that climate change itself is mitigated. The direct and intendedbeneficiary of climate change mitigation is the climate system. Ultimately, all countries, sectorsand communities adversely affected by changing climate are beneficiaries of mitigation.Ideally, climate change mitigation would be sufficiently effective that climate change would beslowed or stopped, and there would be no risks of climate change impacts on agriculture. Thenthere would be no need for climate change adaptation. However, notwithstanding the effortstowards greenhouse gas reduction agreements, climate change is accelerating and the impactsare already becoming more and more apparent, especially in developing countries. So there isan urgent need for adaptation to the changes in moisture, temperature, storms, droughts, etc.,just as there is urgent need for mitigation of the climatechange itself. “Agricultural land is able to store and sequester carbon. FarmersCarbon markets that provide strong incentives for public that live off the land, particularlyand private carbon funds in developed countries to buy in poor countries, shouldagriculture-related emission reductions from developing therefore be involved in carboncountries could provide important investments to spur sequestration to mitigate therural development and sustainable agriculture in impact of climate change," 1developing countries. Product standards and labels (Mueller, 2009 ).could be developed to certify the mitigation impact ofagricultural goods. 4.1. Selection of Climate Change Mitigation Options in AgricultureAfter forestry, the search for mitigation options is scaling up towards other land uses asagriculture with growing interest on developing countries, even though these countries contributethrough a relatively small proportion of the greenhouse gases involved in climate change.There is a considerable variety of initiatives in agriculture that can contribute to climate changemitigation (see references including several FAO). Three broad categories of climate changemitigation and agriculture can be identified, each with implications for their compatibility withnational policies and with climate change adaptation:Ǧ Reducing greenhouse gas emissions.Ǧ Greenhouse gas capture and carbon sequestration.Ǧ Alternative energy sources including biofuels.Because agriculture is one of the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change impacts it isalso important to consider the side-effects of agricultural mitigation practices on the adaptivecapacity of farmers and farming systems. The main adaptation challenges for agriculture underclimate change relate to the predicted intensification of the hydrological cycles leading to moreintensive rainfall and longer dry periods, as well as an increase in the occurrence of extremehigh temperature events and inter-seasonal variability in temperature and rainfall. In summary,the main adaptation options for agriculture that are also relevant for mitigation are the following(Frelih-Larsen et al 12,2008):12 Frelih-Larsen et al, Deliverable D11 Climate change mitigation through agricultural techniques Policyrecommendations, PICCMAT European project, Policy Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation AgriculturalTechniques, 2008 36
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 Measures that reduce soil erosion, Measures that reduce leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus, Measures for conserving soil moisture, Increasing diversity of crop rotations by choices of species or varieties, Modification of microclimate to reduce temperature extremes and provide shelter Land use change, involving abandonment or extensification of existing agricultural land cultivation of new land improved pasture management.The table below illustrates the side-effects of mitigation practices on these six categories ofadaptation issues in Europe (Policy Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation AgriculturalTechniques, PICCMAT13).Table 9: Side-effects of mitigation practices on these six categories of adaptation issues14Therefore some climate change mitigation initiatives are consistent with climate changeadaptation objectives, some are independent of climate change adaptation, and some are lessconsistent with climate change adaptation. This is illustrated in table 12 below in which the mostappropriate options have been highlighted (light red background).On this basis of positive convergence and trade off with other policies, three policy options willbe considered and further developed. These are policies to promote conservation agriculture;watershed management policies and livestock management policies13 The PICCMAT practices provide a menu of measures with detailed information on their mitigation potential, costand feasibility of implementation, co-benefits and trade-offs, and their compatibility with adaptation to climate changein European Context. From this list, measures can be chosen and combined according to regional needs andopportunities. http://climatechangeintelligence.baastel.be/piccmat/14 “+” if the measure may assist adaptation) or “-“ if the measure is likely to hamper adaptation 37
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    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 4.2. Policy options with both Adaptation and Mitigation potential in Agriculture 4.2.1. Conservation agricultureConservation agriculture and organic agriculture that combine zero or low tillage andpermanent soil cover are promising adaptation options promoted by FAO for their ability toincrease soil organic carbon, reduce mineral fertilizers use and reduce on-farm energy costs.Production risks can be spread and buffered by a broad range of land management practicesand technologies. Enhancing residual soil moisture through land conservation techniquesassists significantly at the margin of dry periods, while buffer strips, mulching and zero-tillagemitigate soil erosion risk in areas with increasing rainfall intensity.Conservation agriculture is an option for adaptation as well as for mitigation because theincrease in soil organic matter reduces vulnerability to both excessive rainfall and drought. Theimpact is not immediate; soil under zero-tillage tends to increase the soil organic matter contentby approximately 0.1 to 0.2 percent per year, corresponding to the formation of 1 cm of new soilover a ten-year period (Crovetto, 1999). However, not only does organic matter facilitate soilstructuring, and hence the infiltration and storage of water in the soil, but it also directly absorbsup to 150 m3 water per hectare for each percent of soil organic matter. In addition, underconservation agriculture, no soil moisture is lost through tillage and seedbed preparation.This means that seeding often does not need rainfall, because the seed can use the existingsoil moisture. The total water requirements for a given crop are also lower in conservation thanin conventional agriculture, which is of particular interest where water is scarce; reported watersavings amount to at least 30 percent. This is because less water is lost through surface runoffand unproductive evaporation, and more is stored in the soil. Crops under conservationagriculture suffer much less from drought conditions, and are often the only crops to yield insuch situations. Yield fluctuations under conservation agriculture are generally much lesssevere than under comparable conventional agriculture (Tebrügge and Bohmsen, 1998;Derpsch, 2005). Table 11: Conservation agriculture actions Channels Conservation agriculturefarmer technologic / o Use alternative fallow and tillage practices to address climatestrategic options change-related moisture and nutrient deficiencies. o Reduce use of energy depending inputsPublic services and • Subsidise catch or cover crops between successive cropsexternal / project support • Encourage crop rotations, preferably with perennial crops (free planting material) • Promote through insurance/ subsidy crop systems with reduced reliance of fertilizers, pesticides, and other inputs • Promote rotations or intercrops with leguminous cropsSupport Policies • Develop schemes to encourage conservation practices such as conservation tillage, zero tillage, furrow diking (equipment, training) • Put in place programs to scale up cover cropping with leguminous cover crops to preserve soil moisture, increase soil organic matter, and reduce soil erosion • Develop schemes to promote use of farm equipment, including tractors, harvesters, and other equipment 39
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Among the disadvantages of conservation agriculture are its tendency to produce weedproblems that require chemical herbicides to control; it is a technology requiring relatively highmanagement skills, as many of the field operations must be implemented with a considerabledegree of precision; and although permanent soil cover is ideal in the long term, there areshort-term costs that must be covered before the system is well-established. Start-up incentivesand training may therefore be needed to encourage farmers to adopt the conservationagriculture approach. 4.2.2. Watershed managementWhether or not they arrive with tropical cyclones or hurricanes, floods generally follow heavyrains and generally affect a country’s low geographical areas (basins, low-levels, etc.).Highlighting and protecting watersheds is generally the most suitable tool for managing floodrisk. Indeed, the value of a watershed stems from its capacity to absorb and clean water,recycle excess nutrients, maintain the stability of the soil to prevent flooding. Rebuilding ofdegraded watershed areas presents a high potential of climate mitigation through carbon fixingthrough reforestation and improved land use management15.Land-use policy16 is a part of prevention policies whose goal is to anticipate the eventualmanifestation of a risk by mitigating its destructive effects, which brings about a greaterresilience on the part of the area where these infrastructures have been developed. Table 12: Watershed management actions Channels Watershed management farmer technologic / o Use alternative practices to reduce soil erosion (terracing) strategic options o Adopt adapted agro-forestry practises in slopped areas o Participate to maintenance of water drain channels Public services and • Promote reforesting of hillside degrade areas external / project support • Provide adequate tree planting materials for household • Develop local watershed / land use planning through municipality and community participatory planning Support Policies • Develop schemes to improve watershed climate resilience17 building at community level • Mobilize municipality- driven semi permanent labour intensive public works (socio-environment safety nets) to strengthen infrastructure, hill side reforesting, terrace building, drain maintenance, anti-erosive dam (cash for work)... • Monitor carbon-fixing impact generated to allow Carbon funding to support such actions • Combine with conservation agriculture practises (see adaptation)15 %RFNHO / 7KRUHX[ 0 6DDJK 6 5HVLOLHQFH RI UXUDO FRPPXQLWLHV WR FOLPDWLF DFFLGHQWV D QHHG WR VFDOH XS VRFLRHQYLURQPHQWDO VDIHW QHWV 0DGDJDVFDU +DLWL
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    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Growing interest in the potential for social protection to reduce livelihood risks and allowfarmers to take higher risk investments to escape poverty have led to a resurgence of interestin different forms of agricultural insurance. “Social protection initiatives are as much at risk fromclimate change as other development approaches. They are unlikely to succeed in reducingpoverty if they do not consider both the short and long-term shocks and stresses associatedwith climate change. Adaptive social protection involves examining opportunities thatapproaches to social protection provide for adaptation, and for developing climate-resilientsocial protection programmes”. (www.ccdcommission.org)EXPERIENCE BOX : large-scale Productive Safety-Nets Programme(WKLRSLD LV RQH RI WKH SRRUHVW FRXQWULHV LQ WKH ZRUOG ZKRVH QDWXUDO UHVRXUFH GHJUDGDWLRQ FRQVWLWXWHV D VHULRXVREVWDFOH WR GHYHORSPHQW ,Q WKLV FRQWH[W IRU PRUH WKDQ  HDUV GRQRUV DQG :)3 KDYH GHYHORSHG D SDUWQHUVKLS ZLWKWKH JRYHUQPHQW RQ WKH WRSLF RI UHIRUHVWDWLRQ DQG VRLO FRQVHUYDWLRQ ZLWKLQ WKH IUDPHZRUN RI WKH 0(5(7 SURMHFW 0DQDJLQJ (QYLURQPHQWDO 5HVRXUFHV WR (QDEOH 7UDQVLWLRQV WR 0RUH 6XVWDLQDEOH /LYHOLKRRGV
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    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 ƒ fermentation and emission of CH4 from the rumen or the hindgut (Dourmad, et al., 2008).Improved waste management drives to different mechanisms such as covered storage facilitiesis also important. The amount of GHG emission from manure (CH4, N2O, and CH4 from liquidmanure) will depend on the temperature and duration of the storage. Therefore long termstorage in high temperature will result higher GHG emissions. In the case of ruminants, pasturegrazing is an efficient way to reduce CH4 emission from manure, because no storage isnecessary.One of the major GHG emission contributions from livestock production is from forage or feedcrop production and land use of feed production. Thus pasture grazing and proper pasturemanagement through rotational grazing is the most cost effective way to mitigate GHGemissions from feed crop production. Animal grazing on the pasture also helps reduceemission due to animal manure storage. Introduction of grass species and legumes into grazinglands can enhance carbon storage in soils.It involves changes in practices, including land management and input use to promoteefficiency, and sustainable production systems (both intensive and extensive) to minimizeenvironmental degradation and pollution from wastes, to conserve the resource base, minimizenet greenhouse gas emissions, while providing secure livelihoods for rural people. Nationalgovernments may encourage alternative land and livestock management systems, employincentives or disincentives to degrade the environment, influence prices of inputs, promote agroforestry, etc.At the local level, adaptations involve adjustments in community or household use of resources,livestock numbers and management, etc. Table 13: Livestock management actions Channels Livestock managementfarmer technologic / • Diversify livestock types and varieties to address thestrategic options environmental variations and economic risks associated with climate change.Public services and • promote proper pasture management through rotational grazingexternal / project support • Selection of faster growing livestock breeds • promote improved animal manure storageSupport Policies • Schemes to improve pasture quality • Research and development to improve productivity through breeding and heifer management • Schemes to include additives that reduce methane formation • Programs to prevent degradation of pastures • Programs to encourage adjustments in intensity and timing of grazing to increase carbon sequestration in pasture lands 42
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 5. ENTRY POINTS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY OPTIONS IN AGRICULTUREWhile the inclusion of Climate Change policy options in existing policies / strategic frameworksis emphasized as a main channel, the direct inclusion of these policy options within promotedadaptation practices in extension work and promoted actions included in new projectsconstitutes a relevant alternative to compensate slow policy implementation or policyimplementation gaps. Furthermore it allows for testing innovative policy pathsHowever this process of integration should be profiled to fit with Government choice and withthe degree of mobilisation of partners using following paths separately or jointly: 1. Start first with Policy making as a driver 2. Promote local entry points to test and multiply pilot experiences which will help designing adequate policies... 3. Wait for donors to come with innovative projects? 4. Or to simultaneously promote mainstreaming at all levels with synergic effects of self- led dynamic of local initiatives on public policies. 5.1. Entry points in sector policies, strategiesA great number and variety of climate change adaptation strategies and measures have beenproposed (and some applied) to reduce the vulnerability of agriculture. Habitually, theadaptation initiatives relate to one or more existing policies or programmes. Figure 4 shows anarray of overlapping domains related to agriculture to which climate change adaptations relate.Of course, there are considerable overlaps and connections among the domains, and they arenot all explicitly or effectively addressed in all developing countries.Figure 6. Domains targeted and domains for integrating climate change adaptation. economic development Economic devt sub-comp. energy Food security infrastructure food security sub-comp. employment disaster risk management private sector environment food security safety nets trade policy nutrition – hunger… Agriculture agri policy sub components: Rural development food marketing storage rural devt sub components crop production rural infrastructure livestock production land use land tenure water management irrigation rural micro enterprises agriculture credit social services risk management resource management… value chain support… Poverty reduction poverty reduction sub comp social safety nets urban social services… 43
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Depending on the country, such policies or strategic frameworks have a bigger or smaller roleof reference and orientation for public actions and external donor funded actions. In mostcountry situations, integration in national policies is a pre condition for effective scaling upthrough multi-partnership, public fund mobilisation, official recognition of a priority towardsimplementation process.In each of the main policy domains of the figure, certain types of climate adaptation relate to theobjectives and operations of the policy area and then could be envisaged for being integrated inthis particular policy area.Integration of climate change adaptation into national policies is probably feasible in mostdeveloping countries, in some form. Some countries have already incorporated adaptation intopolicies, and with assistance or encouragement.On the question of effectiveness, the form of integration into policy can vary greatly. Oneexample would be a statement of principle or intent in a policy that could make no materialdifference to production systems, resource use, water management or livelihoods and theiradaptability to climate change. In another case, a change in policy could be implemented thatsignificantly alters water use, production or risk management in a way that improves the abilityof the system to deal with changes in climate conditionsThe effectiveness of integrating climate change adaptation into a national policy relates to: Ǧ How it is incorporated, i.e., the effectiveness of the incorporation of climate change adaptation into the policy itself? Ǧ How far is the national policy implemented? Ǧ What is the role of national policy relative to other drivers of change in the agricultural system, such as local agents, NGOs, international organizations? 5.2. Potential inclusiveness of climate change policy options in Food Security and in poverty reduction strategiesLinking Climate change and Food Security vulnerability: the term food security vulnerabilityusually refers to a specific consequence (such as food shortage or famine), rather than a cause(e.g., drought or climate change). For example, a household in semi-arid Kenya may bevulnerable to food poverty, that is, their current income and assets may be insufficient to avoidhunger if drought triggers a shortfall in production. Second, vulnerability implies an adverseconsequence, as opposed to the more neutral term sensitivity. For example, maize yields aresensitive to drought; households are vulnerable to hunger. Societies and regions may bevulnerable to food shortage and hunger, perhaps because their economic systems aresensitive to climate change.The concept of potential inclusiveness expressed here merges the degree of technicalrelevance of these policy options within a given policy framework, the chance of effectiveimplementation support and the relevance of institutional and project linkages. For instancepolicies which require multi-sector approach involving many ministers are monitored andimplemented in a multi sector framework. 44
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 Table 14: Inclusiveness of policy options in food security and poverty reduction strategies inclusiveness in inclusiveness in food security poverty reduction strategy strategy (PRSP)Adaptation oriented policiesƒ Policies to encourage adapted crop medium low development and farming practisesƒ Crop and Income loss Risk high high management Policiesƒ Policies to promote Soil conservation medium medium and land managementƒ Irrigation and Water resource medium medium management policiesƒ Disaster risk management policies high high (flood, drought...)Mitigation oriented policiesƒ Policies to promote Conservation medium low agricultureƒ Watershed management policies medium highƒ Livestock Management Policies high mediumsource: FAO TCAFood security strategies are usually more global than agriculture policies; they concern differenttechnical ministries and they some times face implementation gaps linked with limited interministry coordination and implementation power. They are more crucial in countries with highrecurrence of serious food crisis which switch often between development, emergency andrehabilitation situations.Poverty reduction strategies have been highly supported by IMF, World Bank and other donors(PRSP towards debt annihilation) and have progressively become National ReferenceGovernment planning documents driving the use of public funds. As such they stay quitegeneral and usually do not allow to define specific sector strategies. Therefore they allow publicfund mobilisation but they still lack implementation linkage which is in technical ministries. 5.3. Potential inclusiveness of climate change policy options in Agricultural policy or a rural development frameworkMost national agriculture policies serve as reference documents which allow to integrate mostproposed CC policy options. Furthermore they tend to be prepared within a wide participatoryprocess with working groups or consultations which involve public and private stakeholders,farmers representatives and NGO / donor partners. 45
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009 Table 15: Inclusiveness of policy options in agriculture policies and rural development strategies inclusiveness18 in inclusiveness in agriculture policy rural development strategyAdaptation oriented policy optionsƒ Policies to encourage adapted crop high medium development and farming practisesƒ Crop and Income loss Risk medium medium management Policiesƒ Policies to promote Soil conservation high medium and land managementƒ Irrigation and Water resource high high management policiesƒ Disaster risk management policies low high (flood, drought...)Mitigation oriented policy optionsƒ Policies to promote Conservation high medium agricultureƒ Watershed management policies medium highƒ Livestock Management Policies high high 5.4. Direct policy implementation in agriculture project and programme formulationCurrently the project and programme design and formulation is an opportunity forGovernmental technical experts, donors and international organisations to negotiateintroduction of innovative ways of working and to promote technology transfers.Country policy reviews will be later influenced by country success stories from projects, publicpilot actions or from NGO initiatives. In other words, what is appearing as successful at project,programme could be later up scaled at policy level (let projects take the risks, we will capitaliseon their success or learn from their failure).In chapter 3 and 4, tables of policy options indicate different channels either (i) at producerlevel, (ii) through technical services and projects programmes or (iii) through public policies.The proposals on second channel are relevant for direct inclusion in projects. 5.5. Direct implementation through local communities and NGO initiativesThere are now several examples of climate change adaptation being adopted in agriculturalcommunities and regions, including: - Adaptation to droughts in northwest Bangladesh (ADPA, FAO…) - Adaptation to flooding and sea level rise in Southern Bangladesh (CIDA, CARE, …) - Adaptation to livelihood risks in Zignasso, Mali (USAID…) - Adaptation to water resource and coastal hazards in Samoa (SPREP)18 The concept of potential inclusiveness expressed here merges the degree of technical relevance of these policyoptions within a given policy framework, the chance of effective implementation support and the relevance ofinstitutional and project linkages 46
    • How to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies, FAO, draft, June 2009Most of these have been successful in demonstrating that adaptations in farming practices,disaster/risk management procedures and livelihood strategies can reduce vulnerability(increase resilience) to climate and weather risks, including those expected with climatechange.For example, the ADPC/FAO case study of livelihood adaptation in drought prone areas ofBangladesh involved collaboration with numerous government agencies, documentedvulnerabilities, identified a suite of adaptation options, and a number of short- and long-termmeasures to facilitate adaptation. Yet the study concludes: The efforts to mitigate the impact ofclimate change (ie. adapt to climate change) in drought prone areas need to be integrated intothe long-term planning of the national and local institutions. In this context, efforts have beenmade to involve several national and local-level institutions in the entire process… (Selvaraju etal. 2006).Many of the cases mentioned above have involved agencies of national governments in variouscapacities, but for the most part the initiatives were lead by agencies other than nationalgovernments. 5.6. Direct implementation through public/ private service providersThe ‘additionality’ of climate change has important implications for adaptation. The effects ofclimate change – both long-term trends in ‘norms’ and changes in the frequency and severity ofextremes – are experienced on top of normal weather variability and together with stimulirelating to other factors – resources, inputs, markets, social conditions, policies, etc. From thepractical point of view of a farmer, an extension technician, a farmers’ adviser in a developingcountry, climate change adaptation (even if the person is aware of it and its implications) is partof external factors affecting agriculture and his work. 47