Biodiversity as Tool for Adapting to Global Warming - Lessons from the Field

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Biodiversity as Tool for Adapting to Global Warming - Lessons from the Field

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Biodiversity as Tool for Adapting to Global Warming - Lessons from the Field

  1. 1. DraftBiodiversity, Adaptation, Livelihoods and Food Security: Lessons from the Field for Policy Makers Sandra McKenzie Helen Baulch Balakrishna Pisupati Bhujangarao Dharmaji IUCN Regional Biodiversity Programme, AsiaDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 1
  2. 2. Table of ContentsPurpose 3Introduction 4Identification of concepts 5 Biodiversity 5 Adaptation 6 Livelihoods 7 Food Security 9Identifying Linkages between Biodiversity Conservation, Adaptation, Livelihoods,Food Security and Development. 13Case Studies 28 Mangrove Restoration by the Pred Nai Group in Thailand 28 The Garifuna Emergency Committee in Honduras 32 Community based floodplain resources management program in Haor Basin, Bangladesh 36 Community-Based Rangeland Rehabilitation for Carbon Sequestration by Gireigikh Rural Council in Sudan Error! Bookmark not defined. Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR), Brazil 46 Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR), Brazil 52 The Uganda Food Security Initiative 55 Kalinga Mission for Indigenous Children and Youth Development Inc. (KAMICYDI) - Philippines 59Making the links – Suggested Actions for Policy Makers 62References 66Making the links – Suggested Actions for Policy Makers Error! Bookmark not defined.References 76DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 2
  3. 3. AcknowledgementsWe wish to thank the various community leaders and reseach team contacts that assistedin proving comments on the manuscript. Key contacts included Jaruwan Kaewmahanin,Supaporn Worrapornpan, Somsak Sukwong, Suzanne Shende, Munzulo Hannan Khan,Erika Spranger –Siegfried, Martin Paul Vogel, Piyasoma Benthota, Ana Rita Alves, AlanAlemian, Vanaja Ramprasad; Peter Oduol, Remen Swai, Lawrence Mhwambo, DonatoBumacus and Shireen Samarasuriya. This paper has also benefited from discussions heldwith participants at the IUCN World Conservation Congress held in November 2004 inBangkok and the Global Biodiversity Forums held in June 2004 in the Philippines andTanzania. We are also grateful to Michael Hooper and Sean Southey from the UNDPEquator Initiative for supporting the consultations with authors and providing access tosubmission made to the Equator Imitative Awards 2003. Balakrishna Pisupati is thankfulto Equator Initiative for providing the opportunity to serve as Chair of Asia-PacificGroup to select list of finalists for the 2004 Equator Awards which provided theinspiration for this work.DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 3
  4. 4. PurposeThis report seeks to address the gap between field-based outcomes and policy initiativesby exploring the state of knowledge on the links between conservation, livelihoods andfood security. The report documents lessons from field projects that seek to improvelocal livelihoods and health by undertaking actions for biodiversity conservation andpoverty reduction. This report has been prepared in consultation with project managersand the wider conservation and development community in an effort to formulateguidelines for future project development.IntroductionThe level of consensus in the global community to meet the challenge of achieving asignificant reduction in environmental degradation (in particular biodiversity loss) by2010 is laudable. The global community has committed itself to achieving a significantreduction in environmental degradation, with a particular focus on biodiversity loss.Labeled the “Biodiversity Challenge”, this 2010 commitment has been hailed as “one ofthe most important declarations ever to be made in support of environmental protectionfor sustainable development” (UNEP/WCMC 22nd May 2003). Speaking of thiscommitment, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has captured the urgency and broadimportance of biodiversity conservation, saying: “Biological diversity is essential forhuman existence and has a crucial role to play in sustainable development and theeradication of poverty. Biodiversity provides millions of people with livelihoods, helps toensure food security, and is a rich source of both traditional medicines and modernpharmaceuticals (Montreal, 22 May 2003).Multilateral agreements such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC), UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), UN Convention to CombatDesertification (UNCCD), and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) all constituteimportant guiding frameworks for policy makers. In turn, countries have developedNational Biodiversity Strategy Action Plans (NBSAPs), Poverty Reduction StrategyPapers (PRSPs), National Communications on Climate Change, National Action Plans toaddress Desertification and National Strategies for Sustainable Development (NSSDs).Each of these instruments is typically accompanied, however, by its own administrativestructure and reporting mechanisms, with little communication among them. Greatercommunication and “mainstreaming” is therefore needed to ensure appropriate overlapand synchrony between these instruments at the national and global levels and to ensurethat they have a chance at addressing the poverty-environment nexus at the ground level.In November 2004, the IUCN hosted the World Conservation Congress which broughttogether scientists, policy makers, governments, non-governmental organizations(NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs) and traditional peoples from around theworld. There was overwhelming consensus that the areas of biodiversity conservation,poverty reduction and development should be mainstreamed. On closer inspection,however, it would appear that at country level governments and development agenciesare still slow to accept conservation as a valid part of development strategies, particularlyDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 4
  5. 5. in the fields of economic and social reform. Similarly, some conservationists andacademics are hesitant to accept poverty reduction, small enterprise, health and socialdevelopment as a part of the conservation mandate. It could be argued that in a number ofcases (particularly in the instance of protected areas where communities are resettled)conservation even precludes the ability to develop civil societies and engage insustainable livelihoods.On the ground, despite a plethora of local anecdotes, relatively little is known of howoutcomes for conservation and development overlap. This is despite a growingrecognition that appropriate access to biodiversity and sharing of its benefits arefundamental to both livelihood security and poverty reduction in many of the world’spoorest communities.This publication introduces the some of the most critical issues in climate change,biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, and explores important linkagesamong these topics (Part 1). The study clearly illustrates that conservation measures,ranging from agro-biodiversity conservation, designation of protected areas, introductionof no-fishing zones and forest protection measures, must also take into account the factthat poverty and livelihood issues are often intertwined with conservation issues and mustbe dealt with in tandem.The key linkages documented in this paper are illustrated using case studies of projectsthat have achieved multiple benefits (Part 2). Using these case studies, the paperproposes a series of recommendations on how to move from an appreciation andimproved understanding of these linkages towards a more supportive policy environment.(Part 3).Identification of conceptsBiodiversityConservation Actions are generally referred to as those actions that seek to halt thedecline in the world’s biodiversity. Biodiversity in simple terms refers to the variationamong life forms on earth, including genes, species and ecosystems. It is widely acceptedthat biodiversity is under stress at each of these levels (United Nations, 1992). However,academics and scientists may argue that it always has been under stress. The questionthey ask is whether the current levels of stress are historically critical because of humanintervention and the push for development. Gaia theorists may ask whether the earth ismerely getting ready to impose another major event that will yet again “clear the decks”through mass extinction. The conservation lobby often proceeds on the assumption that itis the former hypothesis that is relevant and it is from this pretext that global conventionshave been drawn.The loss of biodiversity has been attributed to a range of factors. The (1995) UN andADB report on the State of the Environment in Asia and the Pacific stated the main directDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 5
  6. 6. causes of biodiversity loss as being: habitat loss, unsustainable use of biologicalresources, environmental pollution and conflict in policies. Underlying causes ofbiodiversity loss are quoted as being international trade, population growth, poverty and(invasive) species introduction (UN and ADB, 1995). Ten years later, it would appearthat these factors continue to be the major causes of biodiversity loss.When looking at the linkages between biodiversity, development and poverty reduction,biodiversity is often referred to in terms of its ‘use’ values i.e. agro-biodiversity, non-timber forest products, bush meats, medicinal plants and as a source of pharmaceuticalproperties. However coupled with this is a string of non-use values such as ecosystemservices (watershed protection, soil organisms and habitat for natural pollinators andpredators which can lead to significant savings in fertiliser and pesticide use and humanassisted pollination) as well as existence values (such as the aesthetic, spiritual, moral andcultural values associated with retaining species and ecosystems).The CBD which entered into force on 29 December 1993 presents a framework fordeveloping and developed countries to prevent biodiversity loss through a series oftargeted actions. It is becoming clear, however that the conservation of biodiversity needsto move beyond the Convention on Biological Diversity which is guided by the goals ofbiodiversity conservation per se, sustainable use of its components and sharing ofbenefits from these components. Instead a wider picture needs to be taken which seeshuman populations as part of the ecosystem, allows for adaptation against climate changeand the valuing of biodiversity in food security and poverty reduction programs.Climate Change Adaptation and MitigationClimate change adaptation and mitigation activities seek to reduce the impacts of climatechange felt by communities. Climate change is commonly referred to as the variation inthe average state of the climate for an extended period of time that can be directly orindirectly attributed to human activities which have altered the composition of theatmosphere (United Nations, 1992).There are fundamental differences in the definitions of mitigation and adaptation.Mitigation deals with the causes of climate change whereas adaptation addresses theconsequences (IPCC, 2001b). Mitigation strategies seek to limit the extent of climatechange, by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases or by enhancing carbon sequestrationwhile adaptation options seek to help ensure resilience of communities and ecosystems toa changed climate. Adaptation activities may have positive effects immediately, or inthe short-term, with these benefits accrued by the people who implement them, whereasmitigation activities affect global climate and global carbon so benefits are accrued by awider populace, including those who have not invested in the process (IPCC, 2001b).Adaptation activities may involve changing practices, like fostering organic farming oragro-forestry projects to maintain soil structure and moisture levels and prevent erosion.They may also involve promoting drought resilience through changes in crop varieties,DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 6
  7. 7. promoting infrastructure such as small dams or embankments to prevent flooding,encouraging revegetation of steep slopes prone to landslides or restoring coastalvegetation to prevent tidal surges [this list gets a bit long…].Effective adaptation planning incorporates the uncertainty associated with current climatechange models, presenting planners with a range of potential changes, and potentialimplications both to ecosystems and to human settlements and livelihoods. Climatechange adaptation may also take into consideration links that seem tenuous at firstconsideration. For example the forestry sector will have to consider implications ofchanged precipitation patterns and temperatures on forest growth and regeneration, butalso on the frequency of pest outbreaks and forest fires (IPCC, 2001a). Industries mayhave to contend with changes in water availability, and governments may have tonegotiate trans-boundary water-use agreements that account for climate-related changesin water flows (IPCC, 2001a). Impacts on the health sector may include contending withincreased heat-related mortality and increased frequency of disease outbreaks (Watson,Zinyowera and Moss, 2000).Mitigation activities include reducing outputs of greenhouse gases into the atmospherefrom livestock or industry, changing behaviour patterns of consumers and developingand disseminating technologies to reduce emissions. Carbon-plantations may also beestablished, where vegetation is planted specifically to sequester carbon (IPCC, 2001b).Although mitigation is key to addressing the issue of climate change, there is debateabout the validity of some approaches to mitigation. For example, establishing carbonplantations in some marginal agricultural areas may enhance carbon sequestration on thesite, but agricultural activities may simply be displaced elsewhere, leading todeforestation and associated carbon loss in adjacent lands. This type of problem istermed ‘leakage’. Likewise, the permanence of carbon sinks is an issue of debate.Forest plantations to sequester carbon cannot show the same permanence as carbonstored within fossil fuels in the ground, so attempts to mitigate climate change byreducing burning of fossil fuels are favoured by some, while others see considerablebiodiversity benefits to increasing forested areas.LivelihoodsSingh and Vangile (1994) of the International Institute for Sustainable Development(IISD) advocate that people’s capacity to generate and maintain their livelihood or meansof living is “contingent upon the availability and accessibility of options which areecological, socio-cultural, economic, and political and are predicated on equity,ownership of resources and participatory decision making” and translate to the creation oflivelihoods that empower individuals to earn enough money to provide for basicamenities such as food, clothing and shelter. It also enables people to lead a life of dignityin a sustainable manner (Singh and Vangile, 1994).Sustainability in this context generally refers to the definition put forward by the WorldCommission on Environment and Development of "development that meets the needs ofthe present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their ownDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 7
  8. 8. needs" (WCED, 1987). The Stockholm Environment Institute however reminds us thatthe definition of sustainable livelihoods should go beyond the basic requirements forliving (food, shelter and clothing) to take into consideration local cultures and customsand environmental constraints.A fundamental aspect of the livelihoods approach is being able to recognizerecognize thevarious dimensions of poverty. Defining poverty requires moving on from traditionaldefinitions of “dollar a day” and poverty line type assessments (which assess the level ofper-capita consumption required to satisfy basic nutritional needs). The researchframework used in this case study project builds upon the World Bank’s (2000)conceptualization of poverty to incorporate four main elements (as motioned by Oviedo,2004; Figure 1):• Opportunity (access to markets, resources and income generating opportunitiesleading to wealth creation),• Empowerment (influence on state institutions and participation in politicalprocesses and local decision making),• Security (reducing vulnerability to risks such as ill health, economic shocks,natural disasters, and seasonal or annual variations in resource availability) and• Capability or human capital, which addresses the ability of the poor to utilizeeconomic opportunities, including education, skills, and healthThere are significant inter-linkages between these four dimensions and the relationshipbetween them needs to be addressed in an integrated fashion if meaningful outcomes areto occur at the field level (Oviedo, 2004). Opportunity Security Poverty Empowerment CapabilityDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 8
  9. 9. The relationships between the different dimensions of poverty are mediated by a diverseset of institutions that affect decision-making. At the micro-level these include resourcetenure arrangements, social/power relations (including gender), labor arrangements,capital endowments, and technologies. At a macro-level, these include macro-economicpolicies, markets and prices, donor approaches, governance, political conflict, anddemographic changes. In effect, the linkages between poverty, environment anddevelopment are rather more complex than have traditionally been assumed.Implementation of the livelihood approach and poverty reduction is guided by theinternational frameworks such as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). Thesestrategies reflect an approach jointly led by the IMF and World Bank, and are intended tohelp coordinate national activities and ensure adequate donor support.One of the major weaknesses of PRSPs and Interim PRSPs has been addressing theenvironment-poverty linkage. The majority of poverty reduction and food securitystrategies ignore their impact on biodiversity and the opportunities that biodiversityconservation presents. Conversely, many strategies and action plans in the area ofbiodiversity neglect the poverty dimension. The implementation of “Poverty ReductionStrategy Papers (PRSP)” needs to be coordinated and conducive to ‘National BiodiversityStrategies and Action Plans (NBSAP)’. Biodiversity is an important natural asset thatcontributes to the achievement of sustainable livelihoods for poor people and provideslivelihood opportunities in the form of a natural resource base for food security, incomegeneration, healthcare, shelter and cultural and spiritual practices. To date Bangladesh isone of the very few countries that have included biodiversity conservation as animportant chapter of an effective PRSP (African Energy Policy Research Network,2004).Food SecurityHunger in the world has decreased from 25% in 1970’s to 17% in 1995. By exception,hunger in Africa has shown little change and may even be rising. In the 1990’s, while theaverage number of underweight children declined in the developing world, there waslittle change in Africa, with eastern Africa showing a 5% increase to reach a prevalencerate of 35% in 2000 (UNDP and UNICEF, 2000).Many would claim that the green revolution and improvements in cereal crops has led toan increase in world food supplies. However, the developing world is faced with thephenomena of hidden hunger where an increased focus on starch and oils has been at theexpense of micronutrients. This ramifies itself in dietary deficiencies such as Vitamin Adeficiency which leads to infertility and blindness (Olusola and Yemisi, 2003). Foodsecurity depends on not only having enough food to eat, but having quality foods withsufficient nutritional value. Addressing dietary diversity therefore requires amultidimensional approach focusing on nutritional and health status; socio-culturaltraditions, income generation and biodiversity conservation (Figure 2). This in turn hasthe ability to help reach the goals of self-sufficiency, resilience and continuity, increasedproductivity and poverty reduction.DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 9
  10. 10. Nutritional Health/Status Self sufficiency Increased productivity Socio-cultural Dietary Income traditions Diversity generation Resilience/continuity Poverty reduction Biodiversity ConservationFigure 2: Addressing dietary diversity requires addressing the dimensions of nutritionalhealth/status; socio-cultural traditions, income generation and biodiversity conservation.An example of the way poor people may find themselves caught in the conflict betweenthese four dimensions which in turn affects the safety of their food. An example isprovided by the Kalpitiya region of Sri Lanka which is situated on low-lying sands whichform a peninsular within the dry zone on the west coast. With the use of shallow wells,“lift” irrigation and large quantities of fertilizers a few wealthier powerful farmers havebeen able to develop large cash crops of tobacco, onions, chilies and other crops.Unfortunately, although the crops look productive and healthy, and provide employmentopportunities for poor families in the area, they are a major health risk as leaching ofagrochemicals into the groundwater has resulted in many irrigation wells having levels ofnitrates up to 40mg/L (Lawrence and Kuruppuarachchi, 1986; Ministry of Environmentand Natural Resources, 2002). The World Health Organization recommends levels ofnitrate-nitrogen to not exceed levels of 10mg/L in drinking water (UNEP, UNICEF,WHO, 2002).A dangerous side effect of elevated nitrate levels is “blue baby syndrome”(methaemoglobinaemia). There have been many reports of this becoming a seriousproblem in Kalpitiya (LBO, 2004). Ordinarily nitrates are relatively non toxic but uponentering the human body they are reduced to nitrites which interfere with the body’sability to carry oxygen to the body. Infants under the age of six months are particularlyvulnerable, and their skin may take on a bluish tinge when afflicted. Ordinarily thisDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 10
  11. 11. disease is rare when the nitrate-nitrogen concentration in drinking water is less than 10mg/l as per the US Health Standards (UNEP, UNICEF, WHO, 2002).Despite an awareness of the risks of drinking contaminated water, the poor remain facedwith an inability to compete against a wealthy constituency of agricultural land users andhave little opportunity to simply ‘move elsewhere’. Assistance has been providedthrough the UNDP Small Grants Program to invest and train local people in wellremediation using local vegetation. People are encouraged to plant densely rootedvegetation around the wells. These plants take up nutrients, including nitrates, andreduce the concentrations in well water.While a lack of safe food and water presents innumerable challenges to the world’s poor,even when it is available, the manner in which it is prepared may render health problems.For instance, charcoal burning and its trade is an important food security strategy for Aridand Semi Arid Lands households in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated thatapproximately 82% of Kenya’s urban population depends on charcoal as a source ofenergy. Petroleum-based fuels such as (kerosene, LPG, natural gas) and electricity aretoo expensive for many or the urban and rural poor, and are likely to remain so.Harvesting wood from local forests to make charcoal has long been recognized as one ofthe key factors causing environmental degradation in the region. This over-harvestinghas led to decline in forest-foods which are an important source of food security duringtimes of hardship (Muyango, 2004). The use of charcoal indoors also leads to directhealth effects - smoke inhalation is a key cause of respiratory illness and poor health,especially in women who perform most of the cooking (WHO, 2002; Listorti andDourmani, 2000).DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 11
  12. 12. DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 12
  13. 13. Identifying Linkages between Biodiversity Conservation, Adaptation, Livelihoods,Food Security and DevelopmentThe relationships between these four concepts of biodiversity, adaptation, livelihoods andfood security are mediated by a diverse set of institutions and stresses. They can notalways be attributed to simple cause and effect relationships and can become even morecomplex when they are linked to development strategies.If we take these relationships to the level of subsistence economies it can be seen thatmany poor people’s livelihoods rely on biodiversity for provision of food items, healthysoils, medicines, fibers and wood. This relationship brings with it several stresses,especially when circumstances promote over-consumption or destruction of naturalresources through inequitable tenure arrangements, lack of suitable markets, insufficientincome to ensure household food security or increased population growth in an area offinite resources.Climate change, with its associated impacts of global warming and altered weatherpatterns may also bring specific challenges to livelihoods, requiring communities to haltunsustainable practices such as overgrazing or deforestation that exacerbate thedestructive impacts of weather extremes such as floods, droughts and storms.Furthermore, it may require communities to adapt to weather events through alteringagricultural practices, installing new technologies for water harvesting or setting up earlywarning systems.In both instances of declining biodiversity and altered weather cycles (human or non-human induced) food security becomes a key issue. Destruction of biodiversity throughdeforestation has been blamed as one of the key factors in exacerbating the impact ofextreme weather events such as hurricanes and droughts (Zalkeilden and Ahmed, 2004;Telford et al 1998). Inevitably these have led to chronic food shortages and the need forforeign aid. This is one example where greater integration between conventions such asthe CBD, UNFCCC and UNFCCD and the PRSPS could have benefit in guiding countrylevel responses.While efforts are being made to promote synergies between conventions, it is becomingincreasingly apparent that relationships need to be built with the development sector. Oneof the first questions to ask in forming these relationships however, is what do we meanby development. Development has become a term subject to a myriad of definitions but itcan be generally accepted though that it involves a state by which something movestowards a more advanced stage. In terms of this study we define development in terms ofthe Millennium Development Goals as the state towards which the UN and othercontributing parties have determined the world must move from less desirable states suchas hunger, poverty, disease and lack of empowerment to one of sustainable development.The Millennium Development Goals consist of eight key areas of development asoutlined below.DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 13
  14. 14. 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Development a global partnership for developmentThe following table taken from information presented by Balakrishna Pisupati andWarner (2003) shows the potential impacts of Biodiversity Loss and Climate Change onachieving the Millennium Development Goals (Table 1).DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 14
  15. 15. Table 1: This represents a brief reflection on the direct and indirect impacts of climate change and biodiversityloss on the Millennium Development Goals. It is important to note the relevant impacts on food security andlivelihood security in this context to show the linkages between climate change, biodiversity conservation,livelihoods, food security and development.Millennium Impacts of Climate Change Impacts of Biodiversity LossDevelopment GoalEradicate extreme poverty Direct impacts Direct impactsand hunger Reduction of livelihood assets i.e. health, access Local poverty reduction strategies under(Goal 1) to water, homes and infrastructure natural assets such as agrobiodiversity, t Alteration of the path of economic growth due timber forest products which are essentia to change in natural systems and resources, income) security. infrastructure and labour productivity and Local ecosystem services undermined, s ultimately reduced income opportunities filtration by forests to provide fresh wate Alteration of regional food security biodiversity, vegetation for temperature natural pollinators and predators for hea ecosystemsHealth related goals Direct impacts Direct impactsCombat major diseases Increased heat related mortality and illness Decreased availability of natural medicinReduce infant mortality Increased prevalence of vector related diseases nutritional supplementation.Improve maternal health (i.e. malaria and dengue fever) and vulnerability Increased malnutrition, maternal nutritio(Goals 4, 5 and 6) to water, food or person to person borne disease birth weight children, growth retardation (i.e. cholera and dysentery). This is particularly nutrition related diseases. important for pregnant women who are Decreased natural regulation of diseases susceptible to water and vector borne diseases. vector borne diseases due to declining ec Reduced quality and quantity of drinking water Loss of knowledge relating to traditiona Threatened food security and increased levels practices such as herbal and Ayurvedic m of malnutrition due to reduced natural resource Loss of pharmacologically useful specie and agricultural productivityAchieve universal primary Indirect impacts Indirect impactseducation Loss of livelihood assets (natural, health, Loss of income generating opportunities(Goal 2) financial and physical) leading to reduced schooling opportunities for full time education. Children’s time diverted to household ta Children’s time diverted to household tasks Increased displacement and migration preventing continuous schoolingPromote gender equality Indirect impacts Direct impactsand empower women Additional burdens placed on women’s health Increased time taken to perform househo(Goal 3) and household commitments thereby reducing provision of food and water and collect f time for participation in decision making and to increasing scarcity of natural resource income generation activities Increased burden of disease due to maln Increased stress on assets, especially were water and physical stress suffered from w
  16. 16. Millennium Impacts of Climate Change Impacts of Biodiversity LossDevelopment Goal women often have fewer assets to start with distances to collect food, water, fodder aEnsure environmental Direct impacts Direct impactssustainability Alteration of quality and productivity of natural Increased pressure to find sustainable alt(Goal 7) resources and ecosystems, some of which may organic materials for energy consumptio be irreversibly damaged charcoal Increased stress on already degraded Declining integrity of natural systems to ecosystems and further reductions in such as (non timber forest products and biodiversity opportunities), watershed protection, and prospecting and sustainable harvesting p existence values such as preservation of Increased pressure to clear vegetation an destructive practices in order to earn an iGlobal partnerships Direct impacts Direct impacts(Goal 8) Climate change is a global issue which requires Biodiversity loss is a global issue which an effort by all countries to cooperate. cooperation to halt unsustainable use pro There is a increased need to help least unregulated trade, lack of Environmenta developed countries adapt to climate change, Assessment for mines, dames and other particularly in those countries prone to natural damaging activities. disasters, storm surges and coastal inundation. Loss of biodiversity leads to increased p on finite resources forced by population displacement of people to marginal land development in sensitive areas.
  17. 17. The recognition that livelihoods, climate change and biodiversity are linked is not new,nor is the suggestion that initiatives to address these issues should be linked. Despitethis, much work remains to ensure that projects to address each of these issues accountsfor effects on the others, and, hopefully to ensure that future projects are designed withintrinsic goals to achieve gains in two or more of these areas. For project managers andgrant providers who have traditionally worked in only one of these areas, it can bedifficult to envision how these multiple gains can be achieved, and to understand thevalue of these multi-sectored approaches. The next section of this document uses casestudies to illustrate how successful projects have helped achieve gains in each of theseareas. Successes are highlighted in these case studies, but also challenges, and futureopportunities. Table 2 – below, summarizes a few of the benefits accrued in the casestudies we highlight.DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 17
  18. 18. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction AdaptationMangrove Restoration Stabilisation of shore Conservation of genetic Improved fisheries-yields lines to act as a buffer material and provision of and incomes. against extreme climatic breeding ground for events and associated economically and - Development of villagePred Nai erosion through ecologically important savings fund for education coastline destruction and species such as fish, crabs, and career-development salt - water intrusion. molluscs and turtles. -improved access to Conservation of species resources and benefit- that maintain beneficial sharing within local environmental services community. such as controlling tide Increased food security and surges, filtering debris, a diversity of income slowing water flow and opportunities through stabilising soils and creations of habitats for shorelines. species with medicinal, income generating and home nutritional benefits. Stabilisation of the mangrove banks translate to large savings on dyke maintenance* Buffering of the coastline protects communities against devastating losses in lives, property and livelihoods in the event of typhoons. Provision of food and medicinal items as well as fibres and building materials. Stabilisation of shorelines to protect communities in low lying areas against tidal surges and shorelines
  19. 19. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction Adaptation erosion.Sustainable Fishing Increased opportunities Sustainable fishing practices Sustainable fishing ensuresPractices for species to breed leads such as “crab banking” and that the natural resource will to opportunities to closed seasons allow species be available for future increase genetic as well as their natural generations to earn income diversity of populations. predators to flourish which in and contribute to villagePred Nai This increases species turn supports ecosystem saving and development chances of adapting to services. programs.Haor Basin new pests and diseases brought about byMamirua changing environments and climates.Sustainable Agricultural Ensures adequate Prevents loss of biodiversity, Increases productivity perPractices supplies of water, food accelerated by farmers unit of land area thereby and timber for clearing land in areas increasing income andGireigikh Rural Council vulnerable to flooding, increasing food security by communities during landslides or other erosion increasing nutrition and foodGarifuna climatic extremes. forces. options during times of Protects soil resources hardship.Uganda against flooding and Increases soil fertility and erosion. encourages conservation of Reduces economic burden wild food species through placed on communities when Ensures responsible use diversification practices. the need for reconstruction and disposal of water to arises following extreme prevent local hotspots of Encourages more sustainable weather events. vulnerability during water management climatic events. techniques and allows for modification of practices that Encourages more exacerbate damage from sustainable water climatic events such as management techniques landslides and water erosion. and allows for Allows targeting of modification of practices regionally important areas for vegetation and watershed that exacerbate damage protection thereby protecting from climatic events valuable biodiversity such as such as landslides and mangroves and vegetation on water erosion. dunes and steep slopes. The incorporation of community forestry agreements ensures
  20. 20. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction Adaptation traditional practices continue to preserve forests and wetlands in a sustainable manner and in turn the biodiversity they harborSwamp forest Stabilises soil/substrate Provision of habitat for fish, Villages are provided withrestoration during monsoons and bird, insect and other food security and a diversity reduces the intensity of important wetland species. of income opportunities waves, which threatened through the reestablishment to destroy villages and Restoration of substrate of food and fibre resources.Hoar Basin infrastructure. encourages growth of wetland plants, algae and Alternative means for provides shelter for aquatic creating income enables fauna to breed and hide in. community savings and Provides a refuge for revolving funds to be set up species to flourish, Assists in restoring local for development projects. which may be important hydrological processes, in a successional role which are important for Provides substrate for during climate changes. cycling of nutrients and commercially valuable supporting species lifecycles species such as bivalve that are dependent on these. molluscs containing the prized pink pearl, snails for Encourages the growth Submerged trees prevent net feeding ducks and preparing of algae and more fish thereby providing safe poultry and fish meal, Unio vegetative matter shelter for fish species to shells for pearls and lime breed and predators to roost production and freshwater thereby creating a such as cormorants, turtles, plants for food. carbon sink to increase monitors and fishing eagles. sequestration.Agroforestry Preserves genetic Unlogged areas provide Plantations provide diversity of tree species, habitat for species and solid alternative income sources stabilises soil in substrate for the growth of through fibres, wood, fruits, vulnerable areas such as reeds which in turn provide fuel and fencing materials.Garifuna steep slopes bunds and habitat for birds and other areas subject to wildlife which may be usefulGireigikh Rural Council landslides, provides a pollinators and predators for buffering effect against agriculture Provides products such as extreme weather stakes for climbing beans, conditions. Increases the relative fodder, firewood, building diversity of the landscape by materials, seeds and
  21. 21. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction Adaptation promoting species with medicinal products thereby specific human related uses, reducing the cost of external Assists in carbon attracting fauna and flora imports and ensuring greater sequestration. associated with trees into the food security and income landscape. opportunities. Promotes increase in woody biomass for Increases available habitat Multi-purpose tree species carbon sequestration. for tree dependent species in provide income Incorporation of trees the agricultural landscape. opportunities through food, promotes increased soil Encourages on-farm fodder and fuel sources. This quality and protection conservation of tree species. reduces the burden on against droughts and women who are the other extreme climatic Extension of existing traditional custodians of the events. biodiversity through family “food basket” provision of corridors between isolated forest remnants and protected Incorporating vegetation areas. Increased diversity of Vegetation cover provides cover into farm natural predators and ecosystem services that landscape increased pollinators such as birds, bats increase productivity of land resistance of cultivated and insects. thereby improving living land to climatic extremes conditions for farming such as droughts, heavy families rainfall and erosion.Conservation of beels, Ensures supplies of Ensures conservation of Provides a source of foodlakes, kuas and canals water and provides species during dry months and water security during refuge for biodiversity in and ensures they have the lean times. times of drought or opportunity to breed and unpredictable seasons. replenish stocks during theHaor Basin monsoonMicro-finance programs Allow communities to Provides villagers with the Provides funds for invest in more effective funds to pursue alternative alternative livelihoodHoar Basin energy options such as livelihood options and options such as duck rearing, solar power. reduce pressure on nursery establishment andGireigikh Rural Council biodiversity through logging development of plantations Reduces pressure on and hunting.. or vegetable gardens. stabilising vegetation such as trees and reeds Provides opportunities to that protect villages from assist marginalised groups monsoon damage and such as women
  22. 22. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction Adaptation erosion.Medicinal Plant Provides a variety of Provide for the conservation Provides a ready source ofGardens medical options for of biodiversity that is medicines and encourages diseases favored by beneficial for human health. the preservation of increased rainfall and traditional knowledge other impacts of climate thereby reducing reliance onHaor Basin change expensive imported medicinesSolar power Reduces reliance on Reduces reliance on Reduces household costs and fossil fuels and reduces harvesting local trees and allows income to be the amount of therefore reduces pressure on stretched further for food greenhouse gases local biodiversity and recreational items suchHaor Basin emitted to the as televisions. atmosphere.Turtle Hatchery And Increasing population Species breeding programs Turtles are hunted as a foodcrabs sizes of species may give help species increase in source so increased numbers them a higher numbers when their bring greater food securityPred Nai probability of surviving population size in the wild and protein options for local catastrophic events or may not be big enough to diets.Haor Basin adapting to climate achieve adequate population changes. growthFloating Gardens Provides an effective Provides substrate for Provides an additional means of climate change biodiversity to flourish upon. sources of income during adaptation by allowing monsoon and another form the growth of food crops Encourages the proliferation of food securityHaor Basin during monsoon floods. of natural pollinators and predators, which in turn support the ecological food chain.Participatory Natural Development of Peoples Creates local ownership and Environmental managementResource Management Mangrove Forest control over the future of practices become central to Network ensures that biodiversity assets and livelihoods strategies everyone understands increases knowledge of how ensuring mangrove forests the importance of to manage mangrove forests are protected to ensurePred Nai mangrove conservation. to conserve local ecosystem income generating This in turn ensures that processes. opportunities, food securityAll the othres the mangroves and their and continuation of fisher resources remain intact lifestyle. along the coastline and continue to act as a buffer
  23. 23. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction AdaptationEnvironmental The conservation of Creates local pride in looking Knowledge on the utilisationEducation local knowledge ensures after biodiversity and of mangrove products and that future generations promote understanding of the importance of conserving are able to monitor mangrove ecology. Learning the ecosystems that provide biodiversity as it relates from elders also ensures that such goods ensure foodAll of them to pressures brought traditional biodiversity security and poverty about by climate change knowledge and management reduction strategies for the and develop appropriate practices are kept alive for future. management strategies. future generations. Familiarity with the Increased understanding of main climate risks in the the importance of retaining An integrated approach to region and how they link biodiversity, its attributes combining improvements in to livelihood and ecosystem services and social and natural capital to vulnerability and associated pride in its promote poverty reduction resilience. conservation. and biodiversity protection. Increased understanding of Formation of partnerships the intrinsic value of local with international NGO’s knowledge of biodiversity and government bodies to and the significance of fund skills development and biodiversity to tourists and purchase of equipment for the global community forest studies thereby reducing reliance on timber Increased knowledge about extraction and other restoration methodology and destructive forest activities. species choiceRevegetation of Biodiversity helps to Replanting of key rangeland Revegetation improves theRangelands redress the balance species assists in the carrying capacity of the land between methane conservation of biodiversity for agriculture thus ensuring production by animals by providing habitats for a greater level of food inhabiting the insects, birds and mammals. security rather than having rangelands and the Other Native Plant species to rely on cultivation of amount of carbon being also benefit from the marginal grasslands andGireigikh Rural Council sequestered by stabilized soil and unrestricted goat grazing. vegetation. microclimates provided by the revegetation. The rehabilitation of the rangelands encourages the growth of species that may be more suited
  24. 24. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction Adaptation to future climatic changes and can provide fodder reserves for livestock during times of drought.Grain Storage and Grain storage provides Safe, long term storage Grain storage and associatedCredit Programs an adaptation strategy facilities ensure that grain credit systems help create for climate change by supplies are available during food security by ensuring ensuring feed is times of drought, thus supplies are available during available for livestock reducing reliance on times of drought and thusGireigikh Rural Council and seed stock is biodiversity. reducing the impacts of available in the event of hunger and malnutrition.Hoar Basin poor harvests due to drought.Community Vegetable Gardens ensure that The development of gardens Gardens ensure food securityGardens species aren’t lost from by local women’s groups by enabling a wider variety the environment due to ensures the preservation of of species to be used in the drought and important medicinal and diet and ensuring a more desertification. The food plant species. reliable supply. CoupledGarifuna installation of irrigation with credit and micro- and hand-dug wells enterprise programs women allows for a level of are able to generate income. drought proofing and increases yield of plants.Sustainable Forestry Regulation of local Large-scale forest protection Alternative incomeManagement climate, protection of leading to the protection of a opportunities through land from climatic diversity of habitat types and ecotourism and sustainable extremes and provision species with varying range harvest of timber and of carbon sinks requirements. NFTP’s (ie. food, fibre,Garifuna spices, bushmeats and medicines).Ecotourism Incentive for protecting Creates local pride in looking Incentive for conserving large tracts of forest after biodiversity and forests and preventing thereby securing carbon increases awareness and further clearing due to forest sinks and future carbon knowledge of local wildlife being valued as anMESCOT credits. and ecosystem processes. alternative income source. Income derived from ecotourism is used in revolving fund for development projects
  25. 25. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction AdaptationFarmer Field Schools Allows for the Villagers and regular forest By delivering training in a development of new users often have an intimate manner that is locally farming norms whereby knowledge of the lifecycles, relevant and guided by local vegetation and trees are times when plants are most people, farmers can continueGarifuna included as a valuable potent and the pollinators to share benefits of component of the and predators. This knowledge and skills therebyGreen Foundation framing system to knowledge is important in buffering the future impacts prevent erosion and implementing appropriate of poverty throughGireigikh Rural Council buffer against climate soil and land conservation widespread adoption of change. measures. sustainable agricultural practices across the landscape.Agricultural Intensive crop rotation Allows for greater Intensive agriculture lowersDiversification involving intercropping productivity per land area, labour costs relative to and relay-cropping thereby reducing pressure to production and income increases plant cover of clear any remaining natural generation and ensures soil and reduces erosion. vegetation livelihood security through aGireigikh Rural Council It also reduces incidence greater diversity of farm of pests and insects, products. thereby reducing chemical applications.Improved road access Manages access so as to Allows for coordination of Allows more direct access to prevent erosion of the movements through the market for exchange of landscape and further biologically sensitive areas food products, seeds and losses of biodiversity thereby preventing their other locally crafted goodsUganda fragmentation by paths and thereby increasing income tracks. opportunities and food security.Nutritional Education Promoting links between Places a value on Provides opportunities for nutrition and soil biodiversity and encourages communities to achieve self conservation prevents its sustainable use as a means sufficiency and resilience unnecessary of achieving dietary diversity against disease andUganda deforestation. and food security malnutrition which result in human and financial costs. Promotes conservation of medicinal plants and Allows for continuity of food items essential for customs and traditions combating diseases associated with food. encouraged by climate change
  26. 26. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction AdaptationSeed banking Conservation of species Conservation of genetic Farmers are provided with suited to specific material and representative food security, seed security ecological niches and specimens of species with and a range of crops to identification of species agricultural and home choose from therebyGreen Foundation suited to changing nutritional benefits that are reducing reliance on seed climatic conditions disappearing from the suppliers, diversity of landscape. income opportunities through seed and produce sale and the reduction of mono cropping which limits income opportunities.Re-installation of Increase in genetic Traditional agricultural New varieties of agriculturaltraditional agricultural diversity of cultivated practices such as crops may give higherpractices species leading to vermiculture, composting, protein yields and produce increased ability to adapt soil water conservation, better tasting food due to to new pests and agro-forestry and companion naturally occurring genes. diseases brought about planting promote increase Local crops are lessGireigikh Rural Council by changing soil biodiversity and allow dependent on expensive environments and natural predators and pesticides and chemicalGreen Foundation climates. Species may be pollinators to flourish which fertilisers than higher able to withstand in turn supports ecosystem yielding varieties. Soil and drought, grow in poor services and other levels of water conservation soils, and resist insects the natural food chain. initiatives like composting or diseases. regenerates soil nutrients and results in more nutritious and tastier food.Participatory Crop Creates local pride in Recognition that farmers Farmers work together toImprovement looking after indigenous knowledge is form community seed banks biodiversity and central to the revitalisation of that decrease farmer’s increases awareness and the land and performance of reliance on seed companies. knowledge of local landraces in respect to Community farming reducesGreen Foundation ecosystem processes. genotype and agronomic reliance of individual traits. farmers on external inputs Identification of and subsequent landraces that have Distribution of a diversity of indiscriminate use of evolved through natural seeds ensuring farmers are fertilisers, pesticides and selection and exhibit better equipped to make mechanized agricultural resistance to abiotic and decisions on crop choices in practices. biotic stresses. relation to seasonal variations in rainfall or pest outbreaks.
  27. 27. Benefit Climate Change Biodiversity Conservation Poverty Reduction AdaptationWomen’s Self Help Women are provided Women play a major role in Women work collectively toGroups training in setting up and conserving seed at the farm ensure food and seed managing seed banks and kitchen garden level. security. Establishment of thereby conserving Women’s indigenous income generation programs genetic material, which knowledge of biodiversity help create alternativeGarifuna may be better suited to conservation and income for poor and climatic change. agricultural/ecological marginal farmers and acts asGreen Foundation Community farming systems are conserved and a backup to the local amongst women’s passed onto future markets. Community sanghas allows degraded generations thereby ensuring farming with seed provided and fallow land to be “biodiversity knowledge by the Green Foundation reclaimed thus conservation.” benefits women farmers who improving its resilience have land but are unable to to drought and climatic cultivate it due to extreme extremes. poverty. Women have access to micro-credit programs and freedom from restrictions according to caste or creed.Organic Farming Maintenance and Increased soil biodiversity Increased production andPractices enhancement of soil through use of green decreased reliance on fertility and moisture fertilizers such as artificial fertilizers reducing availability thereby leguminous crops, manure farmer input costs and reducing vulnerability of and ecological ploughing increasing financial returnsGreen Foundation cultivated land to promoting cultivation of droughts earthworms, symbioticOthers… relationships and natural predators and pollinators.
  28. 28. In depth analyses of Case StudiesMangrove Restoration by the Pred Nai Group in ThailandBased on information provided by Dr Somsak Sukwong, Mrs Samnao Pedkaew, MsJaruwan Kaewmahanin and Ms Supaporn Worrapornpan for the 2004 Equator Awards(UNDP, 2003). Further information gathered from presentation by Ms JaruwanKaewmahanin at the Health, Poverty and Conservation in the Asia Pacific Region,Public Sponsored Workshop. World Conservation Congress, Bangkok. Friday 19thNovember 2004.There are numerous examples of successful mangrove restoration activities with benefitsto biodiversity, development, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Howeverthe Pred Nai Mangrove Restoration demonstrates significant benefits for biodiversityconservation and poverty reduction through the creation of valuable habitat for fish andcrustacean species - species that have been on the decline. The restoration of this area hashigh national importance as the last remaining mangrove forest ecosystem on Thailand’sEastern Seaboard. It was estimated that the area once covered 48,000 ha whereas today itcovers 4,800 ha.Rehabilitation of the mangrove forests of Pred Nai started when a group of Pred Naipeople attempted to restore the degraded forestland following its destruction throughcharcoal mining and by water pollution brought about by commercial prawn farms. Thegroup gained momentum when Pred Nai villages, under the leadership of a respectedmonk enlisted the support of surrounding villages to create the Community CoastalResource Management Network – Trat Province.The project is successful in that it clearly recognizes the linkage between biodiversityconservation and livelihood security through the development of a management plan. Itsupports the principle of addressing conservation and establishing private enterprisebased on natural resources to ensure livelihood security and development outcomes.Restoration of the mangrove forests not only delivers conservation benefits but theincome and food security ensured by the project boosts the local economy. This meansthat micro-credit programs can be initiated to extend the ability of communities to engagein development projects. Mangrove forests also play an important role in stabilisingshorelines thus buffering villages against the effects of tropical storms that result insevere erosion – storms that may increase in frequency as a result of climate change.From an ecosystem services perspective mangroves also contribute to carbon storage,nutrient cycling and waste processing.Pred Nai villagers have been successful in protecting the mangroves in the immediatevicinity of their villagers and creating a sustainable inshore fishery of crabs and otheraquatic species. The community has recorded a marked improvement in the biodiversityof the mangrove forest. Not only has the abundance of crabs increased, but shrimp, fishDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 28
  29. 29. and birds have also increased in abundance. Villages have reported monkeys returning tothe area, and the locally useful species Hoy Lod (razor snail) which had been unseen for20 years due to lime pollution from shrimp farming is reappearing.While significant moves have been made to protect the inshore fishery, there is a need toprotect the offshore areas where species such as crabs migrate during specific times oftheir lifecycle. Although by law, commercial boats have to stay at least 3km away fromthe shoreline, push net and trawlers encroach on this boundary and destroy habitat byuprooting marine plants, and threatening the inshore fishery. In addition, drag nets usedwithin the mangroves damage the substrate, pulling mud away from the roots of the trees,and leaving only sand and gravel which do not hold the roots as firmly or allow newmangroves to germinate. A community patrol is enforcing the regulation against pushnets with local government support.Despite the obvious benefits of forestry co-management and the large amount ofinternational recognition given the Pred Nai community’s efforts (including a GreenGlobe Award in 2002 and a prize by the Royal Forest Department in 2004) legislativesupports to recognise the local management efforts in Thailand continue to be debated. Inthe last couple of years the people’s organisations and their supporters drafted their ownCommunity Forestry Bill and collected 52,698 signatures before submitting it to the ThaiParliament. The drafted bill was finally approved despite dissolution of parliament.However a key component of the Bill was omitted. This section addressed how villagerswho had settled in the forests before they were protected could continue to sustainablyuse the forest’s forest products.Moves are underway by the national government to declare all mangrove areas asprotected areas. This needs to be implemented in a manner that allows for partnershipsand trust at the local level. The Pred Nai community believes that it is only througheffective involvement of local people that environmental, social and economic solutionsto food security and poverty reduction can be achieved.Key strategies for linking conservation and poverty reduction in this project included:The reestablishment of the mangroves which has assisted the community to restore thelocal crab fishery. Part of the community’s strategy has been to voluntarily close thefishery during the crab’s reproductive season in October. This measure has helpedincreaseincrease harvests grapsoid crabs (Metopographus sp) from 8kg/day in 1998(involving six collectors) to 15kg/day in 2003 (involving thirty collectors) which isequivalent to a near doubling of income per collector.Villages have sought to increase numbers of more economically valuable species such asmud crab (Scylla serra) by taking females with eggs to a “crab bank” where the nextgeneration are reared. Since beginning their efforts, families in the have seen theirDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 29
  30. 30. income from each “crab crop” rise from 10,000 Baht (involving six families) to 15,000Baht per 3 month season (involving ten families).Realising that poverty reduction is a long term goal; the villagers have initiated a VillageSaving Fund. Villagers own stocks in the fund and are able to borrow money forinvesting in their careers and their children’s education. Yearly profits from the fund areset aside for member’s welfare and village development. The membership of the fund hasgrown from 37 members and 9000 Baht to 514 members and 2 million Baht in 2003.Villagers were responsible for demarcating forest areas and ensuring its protectionthough the development of local rules and regulations to govern its use. The resultingsustainable harvest and production practices have ensured that non-timber forest productscan be processed and marketed for the benefit of the community. A People’s MangroveForest Network has also been established to ensure that everyone has a say in thedecision making process and sharing of benefits.Lesson Learnt Lesson LearntCo-management for Conservation Co-management for Conservation Conservation driven projects need to reach a level of momentum where theConservation driven projects need to reach a level of momentum where the resilience for natural environment can provide goods and services with enough naturalenvironment can provide goods and services with enough resilience for sustainable sustainable harvesting. The key element in this project is that it is communityharvesting. The key element in this project is that it is community driven and there is a clear driven and there is a clear enough understanding of key threateningenough understanding of key threatening processes (such as non-selective fishing andlogging) that the community will take the fishing and logging) that the community will processes (such as non-selective initiative to defend their work against futureenvironmental harm. to defend their work against future environmental harm. take the initiative Sukwong (2003) Sukwong (2003)DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 30
  31. 31. Viewpoint Co-management for Conservation Legislative supports to recognise the local management efforts continue to be debated in Thailand despite communities managing and protecting forests. In the last couple of years the people’s organisations and their supporters drafted their own Community Forestry Bill and collected 52,698 signatures before submitting it to the Thai Parliament. The drafted bill was finally approved despite dissolution of parliament. However the key component of the bill Article 18, which outlined the process by which villagers settled in forests prior to the date they were declared protected, could register to continue to manage and make sustainable use of forest products was omitted. Moves are underway by the national government to declare all mangrove areas as protected areas for conservation and restoration. This needs to be implemented in a manner that allows for partnerships and trust at the local level. The Pred Nai community believes that it is only through effective people involvement that village and government will be able to achieve environmental, social and economic solutions to food security and poverty reduction in the mangroves. Sukwong (2003)DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 31
  32. 32. The Garifuna Emergency Committee in HondurasBased on information prepared by Ms Suzanne Shende for the 2004 Equator Awards(UNDP, 2003); Telford, J. Arnold, M and Harth, A. (2004) Learning Lessons fromDisaster Recovery: The Case of Honduras. Working Paper Series No. 8. The World BankWashington, D.C. June 2004; and Griffin, W (2004) Garifuna NGO Recognized forProtecting the Environment. Honduras This Week Online. Published by MarrderOmnimedia http://www.marrder.com/htw/special/environment/120.htmWhen Hurricane Mitch struck Honduras in 1998, there was little doubt that human factorscontributed to the severity of the disaster which killed 18,000 people, and injured afurther 13,000 more. Environmental degradation including widespread deforestation,rapid population growth, and inadequate infrastructure especially for flood managementlikely contributed, as did massive disparities in the distribution of wealth which resultedin extreme vulnerability of the poorest.In the days following the disaster, it was estimated that over 1 million landslides occurredin Honduras, displacing hundreds of thousands of people and destroying infrastructurethroughout the country. Economic losses were estimated at some US$4 billion. A recentreport by The World Bank described the country as being vulnerable and unprepared interms of policy, systems, and resources for rapid recovery.One of the major areas that have been overlooked in planning for disaster recovery isappropriate environmental management. Lessons from nearby Belize have shown that themaintenance of forested areas, mangrove forests and barrier reefs can greatly reduce theimpact of extreme weather events such as storms and tidal surges. In Honduras massivedeforestation, inadequate drainage systems for agriculture, river straightening practicesand loss of coastal vegetation are all blamed for removing protective environmentalservices and increasing the destructive capacity of landslides and floods.One of the most vulnerable groups in Honduras is the Garifuna community. TheGarifuna, an Afro-Honduran people own a broad swath of land along Honduras’ northshore dotted by small villages, sometimes only connected by canoe. The farmers in thisarea are mostly poor women who work in non-mechanised, subsistence farming. Theirland has long been under siege by a variety of developers and their political powercompromised by racial prejudice. To complicate matters further their existence in thislow lying environment can best be described as precarious as scientists predict rising sealevels and increased instances of extreme weather events with climate change.It is becoming more apparent that biological and cultural diversity are the most effectivemechanisms for distributing and alleviating risk at the larger scale. The GarifunaEmergency Committee came together after the hurricane. Recognizing that disasterpreparedness extends far beyond just having a good emergency response program, thisgroup has embarked on an ambitious revegetation program along the shoreline, and hasencouraged the adoption of more sustainable agricultural practices. Developing newDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 32
  33. 33. markets for agricultural and artisanal products to ensure a greater degree of financialsecurity and put in place measures to reduce wood consumption thereby protecting theforests. While this may not ensure them completely against damage from hurricanes it ishoped these steps will lesson the effects of future disasters. A good overview of thelessons learnt for disaster recovery can be found in Telford et al 2004.This project is effective in that it shows how a project focused on poverty reduction anddisaster mitigation can encourage stewardship by local communities. It also illustrateshow biodiversity resource conservation can ensure nutritional security and promotehealth. Furthermore it promotes sustainability by ensuring all beneficiaries of the projectmust help someone else in the future, thereby ensuring that lessons learnt are passed fromone generation of land users to the next. As most of the farmers are women, this shows agenuine commitment to women’s empowerment and participation, which led it to beacknowledged as a “best practice” by the global women’s network, the HuairouCommission (Griffin, 2004).The project relied on the following key methodology to achieve its aims:Hardwood nurseries and associated reforestation projects were initiated to replenishstands of mahogany, cedar, and bay trees. These trees are locally important as they areused to make a variety of products including canoes, mortars, graters and drums.A pioneering project was introduced in five towns to reforest areas with “balaire” or“bayal”, a wild vine which provides the material used to make basket sifters and strainers(which are used in the production of cassava) and other artisanal and household goods.Growing the vine also protects the other trees and shrubs that it relies on for support andlocally protected sites called “Area Verde” have been set up for its conservation.Reforestation projects were undertaken along the beaches using wild fruit plants whichwere formally abundant including sea grapes, almonds, camacamas, nance, cashews andjicacos as well a fruit trees including oranges, avocados, cacao and coco-plums.The Committee organized political marches to protect Garifuna land and protestedagainst an illegal road which was damaging water supply. In particular, they haveundertaken to protect mangrove forest reserves from illegal exploitation of charcoal, sandextraction and dumping of waste.Diversified agriculture was encouraged through planting of fruit trees and other plantssuch as ginger. Traditional crops are also being re-established including taro root, redgrow yams, white yams, “badu”, arrowroot and sweet potatoes. Following HurricaneMitch, these food items were very scarce and the Garifuna Emergency Committeestruggled to obtain “seed” tubers for distribution to communities. Coconut stocks werealso being threatened by the disease Lethal Yellowing and the Committee has helpedDRAFT – Not for circulation Page 33
  34. 34. introduce disease-resistant coconuts. The new fruit trees are reported to provide betternutrition for youth in particular.A Garifuna market ‘Wabagari’ (Our Life) was established by the Garifuna EmergencyCommittee in Trujillo. Farmers from one village are reported to make around $370 fromthe sale of fruit on the market. Women also earn an income from selling prepared andprocessed foods including cassava which is in demand but seldom produced in the cities.Trainees engaged in a young Artisan’s course also earn around $30 a month from sellingtheir products at the market.Organic farming techniques such as “Bocaschi” a form of composting and the use oforganic pesticides were promoted to naturally improve productivity and reducing relianceon expensive chemical inputs. The introduction of better banana farming methods such asdisinfecting plantain seeds, pruning plantain leaves and preventing soil erosion are alsohelping to improve crop productivity and conserve soil.Within the 16 towns the project covers the Committee elected representatives called the“tool bank” who lend communal tools so that farmers can undertake their work.New technologies were introduced such as a Yucca mill (which helps store yucca forfood security) and the Justa Stove which creates less smoke and saves women time andlabour in collecting firewood. The Justa Stove is reported to use 50-60% less firewoodthan traditional cooking methods.Actions were undertaken to restore mangrove communities and Land defence committeesand ecological defence units have been established to protect shoreline vegetation fromdestruction. The shoreline vegetation is valued as a valuable mitigation measure againststorm surges and beach damage.Emergency responses and local governance structures were tested with varying results toensure Early Warning Systems and Disaster Relief efforts are effective in the future.DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 34
  35. 35. Challenge Recognising Traditional Land Ownership Land policies administered by the National Agrarian Institute (INA) of Honduras define occupation on the basis of constructions, improvements or other alterations to virgin tracts. This presents innumerable challenges to the Garifuna community as the land appears unused to the outside observer. In reality the land is used on a seasonal basis for hunting and gathering. When it is used for cultivation it may be subject to extended fallow periods as per indigenous farming systems to extend soil fertility. Furthermore, it is also used for religious and cultural purposes. These uses however, do not justify ownership under Honduran law meaning that Garifuna communities may be legally prohibited from entering the areas that they manage on a long term scale. This results in non- Garifuna community members clearing the forest and claiming the land as owners of “the improvements”. The Garifunas have resorted to planting fruit trees along the beach, although at opposition from the community, to show they are the owners of the land. Griffin (2004) Navajas (1995)DRAFT – Not for circulation Page 35

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