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Omega 3s 101 - Presented by:  Yvette La-Garde, Director of Education at VitaMedica
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Omega 3s 101 - Presented by: Yvette La-Garde, Director of Education at VitaMedica


Omega 3s 101 brought to you by VitaMedia …

Omega 3s 101 brought to you by VitaMedia

Presented by:
Yvette La-Garde, Director of Education
Part 1:
Basic structure of a fatty acid
Fatty acid configurations & nomenclature
Fatty acids in cell membranes
Essential Fatty Acids & Conditionally Essential Fatty Acids

Part 2:
Omega-3 supplementation (Flax & Fish Oil)
Studies supporting Omega-3s for skin health
Cholesterol & lipid profile

Published in Health & Medicine , Business
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  • Actinic keratosis: A small rough spot on skin chronically exposed to the sun, precancerous, can develop into a skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, a process that typically takes years. Actinic keratoses occur most frequently in fair-skinned people. Common locations are the face, scalp, back of the neck, upper chest, forearm and back of the hand. Prevention is by minimizing sun exposure. Treatments include cryosurgery (freezing them with liquid nitrogen), cutting them away, burning them, putting 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on them, and photodynamic therapy (which involves injecting into the bloodstream a chemical that collects in actinic keratoses and makes them more sensitive to exposure to a specialized form of light).


  • 1. Omega-3s 101Presented by:Yvette La-Garde, Director of Education
  • 2. Omega-3s 101Part 1:• Basic structure of a fatty acid• Fatty acid configurations & nomenclature• Fatty acids in cell membranes• Essential Fatty Acids & Conditionally Essential Fatty AcidsPart 2:• Omega-3 supplementation (Flax & Fish Oil)• Studies supporting Omega-3s for skin health• Cholesterol & lipid profile
  • 3. Omega-3s 101Part 1Presented by:Yvette La-Garde, Director of Education
  • 4. Required Factors for Human Health• Water• Macronutrients– Carbohydrates– Proteins– Lipids• Micronutrients– Vitamins– Minerals• Other:– Fiber– Oxygen– LightCarbo-hydratesWaterOtherVitaminsProteinsLipidsMinerals
  • 5. • Body insulation• Primary form of energy reserve• Transport of nutrients• Component of cell membranesCarbo-hydrateWaterMineralsOtherNutrientsProteinVitaminsLipidsFunctions of Fats & Oils
  • 6. Basic Structureof Fatty Acids
  • 7. Fatty Acid Basic Chemistry• All fatty acids have the following structuralcharacteristics:– Methyl group on one end– Carboxyl or acid group on the other endH C C CH H HH H HCOOHAcid group(-COOH)Methylgroup (-CH3)
  • 8. Structure of a Fatty AcidH-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-CH H H H H H H H H HH H H H H H H H H HOOHFatty(Fat Soluble)AcidGroupOmega End Variable Length Carbon Chain (Middle) Delta EndMethylGroupAcid(Water Soluble)
  • 9. • Solid at room temperature• Animal sources e.g., meat,cheese• More stable & lesschemically active in body;disease-promotingSaturated Fats
  • 10. H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-CH H H H H H H H H HH H H H H H H H H HOOHFatty(Fat Soluble)Acid(Water Soluble)Omega End Variable Length Carbon Chain (Middle) Delta EndStructure of a Saturated Fatty AcidExamples: Stearic Acid (beef, cocoa butter); palmitic acid (palm, coconut); butyric acid (butter)AcidGroupMethylGroup
  • 11. • Often referred to by theirmolecular structure (Omega-3,Omega-6, Omega-9)• Liquid or semi-liquid at roomtemperature• Primarily plant sources e.g.,safflower, sunflower, corn,flax, fish• Less stable & more chemicallyactive in the body; health-promotingUnsaturated Fats
  • 12. Structure of a Monounsaturated Fatty AcidExamples: Oleic acid (olive, almond, avocado, peanut); palmitoleic acid (tropical oils like coconut & palm)H-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-C-CH H H H H H H H H HH H H H H H H HOOHFatty(Fat Soluble)Acid(Water Soluble)Omega End Variable Length Carbon Chain (Middle) Delta EndAcidGroupMethylGroup
  • 13. Structure of a Polyunsaturated Fatty AcidExamples: Alpha-linolenic acid (flax); Eicosapentaenoic acid (fish); Linoleic acid (seed oils); Gamma-linoleic acid (EPO, borage)H-C-C-C=C-C-C=C-C-C-C-CH H H H H H H H H HH H H H H HOOHFatty(Fat Soluble)Acid(Water Soluble)Omega End Variable Length Carbon Chain (Middle) Delta EndAcidGroupMethylGroup
  • 14. Fatty Acid Profile of Various Seed OilsSource: Erasmus, Udo. Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill, page 237
  • 15. Melting Point of Fats
  • 16. Fatty Acid Configurations& Nomenclature
  • 17. Saturated Fatty Acid - Lauric Acid
  • 18. Monounsaturated Fatty Acid - Oleic Acid = Omega-9
  • 19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid - Linoleic Acid = Omega-6
  • 20. Naming of Fatty AcidsDocosahexaenoic Acid(DHA)Docosa = 22 carbonsHexa = 6En = double bondsoic acid = fatty acidEicosapentaenoic Acid(EPA)Eicosa = 20 carbonsPenta = 5En = double bondsoic acid = fatty acid
  • 21. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid - Alpha Linolenic Acid = Omega-3
  • 22. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid - Alpha Linolenic Acid = Omega 3Note the positions of the Hydrogen atoms
  • 23. Trans Fatty Acids• Hydrogenation makes fats more shelf stable and solid at roomtemperature• Hydrogenation adds hydrogen to the fatty acid moleculewhich creates trans fatty acids• Normal position of hydrogen atoms is in cis (same side) vs.trans position (opposite side)• Partial-hydrogenation produces fats our bodies don’trecognize called trans fatty acids
  • 24. Fatty Acids inCell Membranes
  • 25. From Fatty Acids to Fats• Monoglyceride = 1 fatty acid group plus glycerol• Diglyceride = 2 fatty acid groups plus glycerol• Triglyceride = 3 fatty acid groups plus glycerolFats are transported throughout the body principally inthe form of triglycerides
  • 26. Triglyceride StructureFatty Acid 1Fatty Acid 2Fatty Acid 3Glycerol
  • 27. Phospholipid StructureFatty Acid 1Fatty Acid 2Phosphate
  • 28. Cell Membrane & Cell Organelle Fats
  • 29. Cell Membrane: A Fluid StructureCholesterol fine-tunes membrane fluidity under fluctuating conditions of food intake
  • 30. Essential Fatty AcidsConditionally Essential Fatty Acids
  • 31. Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)• EFAs must be obtained through diet or supplementation• Two EFAs:– Linoleic Acid (18 carbons with 2 double bonds)– Alpha-Linolenic Acid (18 carbons with 3 double bonds)• Polyunsaturated fats with many health benefits, playingcritical role in body functions & structures• Body saves these important fats for vital hormone likefunctions
  • 32. Omega-3 FamilyAlpha-Linolenic AcidLinoleic AcidOmega-6 FamilyEPADHAGLASources: Flax Seed OilSources:Cold Water FishSources: Safflower, Corn, SoybeanSources:Borage, EPOSeries 1: Favorable Prostaglandins (DGLA)Series 2: Unfavorable Prostaglandins (AA)Series 3: Favorable Prostaglandins (EPA)Desaturation and Elongation Enzymes Shared by Omega-3 and Omega-6 EFAsTwo Essential Fatty Acids
  • 33. Inflammation• Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats are incorporated intoprostaglandins which determine inflammation levelsin the body:– Pro-Inflammatory: Series 2 prostaglandins (Omega-6)– Anti-Inflammatory: Series 1 prostaglandins (Omega-6) andSeries 3 prostaglandins (Omega-3)
  • 34. Role of Prostaglandins• Short-lived hormone like substances thatregulate cellular activities:– Inflammation, pain & swelling– Blood pressure– Kidney function– Blood clotting and platelet aggregation– Hormone synthesis
  • 35. Conditionally Essential Fatty Acids• Under certain conditions, CEFAs become essential– Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)– Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)• Polyunsaturated fats with many health benefits
  • 36. • Polyunsaturated fat (20 carbons long with 5 double bonds)• EPA specifically is associated with:– reduction of coronary artery disease– reduction in risk of strokes & heart attacks– reduction of triglycerides (blood fat levels)– lowering blood pressure & reducing blood viscosityOmega-3: Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
  • 37. • Polyunsaturated fat (22 carbons with 6 double bonds)• 60% of the brain is made up of a structural fat, a large part ofwhich is DHA• DHA is associated with the reduction of:– Alzheimer’s disease– ADHD and dyslexia– mood disorders such as depression and aggression• DHA supports development of nerve and eye functions and isnow commonly used in baby foods and formulasOmega-3: Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
  • 38. Omega-3s 101Part 2Presented by:Yvette La-Garde, Director of Education
  • 39. Omega-3Supplementation
  • 40. • Over consumption of saturated,partially-hydrogenated and trans-fatswhich are disease promoting• Over consumption of the Omega-6fats– derived from plants and arewidely available in food supply(e.g., soybean, corn, safflower)• Insufficient consumption of theOmega-3 fats– Not widely available in the foodsupply (e.g., flax seeds, walnuts,cold water fish)The Problem with the “Modern” Diet
  • 41. A Dietary Solution• Reduce consumption of saturated, partially-hydrogenatedand trans-fats• Reduce consumption of Omega-6 fat fats to inhibit thedevelopment of the inflammatory prostaglandins• Increase consumption of Omega-3 fats which promotes thedevelopment of the favorable prostaglandins
  • 42. Increase Consumption of Omega-3 Fats• Flax seed oil is nature’s richest source of the Omega-3 EFA alpha-linolenicacid (57%)– Supplementing with flax seed oil corrects the Omega-6 to Omega-3imbalance from 10:1 to 4:1• Fish oil is high in the Omega-3 fats EPA and DHA– To promote the favorable prostaglandins• No RDA exists for Omega-3s but American Heart Association recommends(daily basis):– EPA/DHA: 0.5 to 1.8 grams; 2 to 4 grams (lower triglycerides)– ALA: 1.5 to 3 grams
  • 43. Studies: Omega-3s & Skin Wrinkling• 4,025 women, aged 40 to 74 years• Used data from National Health andNutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1);examined nutrient intake from past 24hours• Clinical examinations of the skin found:– Higher intakes of vitamin C associatedwith lower likelihood of wrinkledappearance and senile dryness– Higher linoleic acid intake associated withlower likelihood of senile dryness– Higher intakes of fats and carbohydrateswere associated with a wrinkledappearanceDietary nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance among middle-aged American women, American Journal of ClinicalNutrition, 2007; 86: 1225-31
  • 44. Omega-3 Supplement Indications• To cover gaps in the diet• Individuals who want tohave healthy-looking skin• Particularly well-suited fordry, inflammatory skin suchas psoriasis and eczema• Not indicated for patientshaving surgery
  • 45. Omega-3 Guidelines
  • 46. Omega-3 Guidelines• Determine your Desired Health Benefits• Cold Pressed Extraction Process for Seed Oils• Molecular Distillation Process for Fish Oil• United States Pharmacopeia Verified Fish Oil• Identify the Type of Fish used in Supplement• Ensure Control of the Fish Stock• Opt for an Omega-3 Only vs. Omega-3-6-9 Supplement• A Concentrated Fish Oil Formulation Means Fewer Capsules• Processing Methods to Ensure No Fishy Aftertaste• Natural Vitamin E to Protect the Oil• Determine Cost Per Gram of Omega-3• Cod Liver Oil is not a Good Source of Omega-3s• Krill Oil is not a Good Source of Omega-3s• Flax Seed Oil and Fish Oil Provide Complementary Benefits• Ground Flax Seed is an Important Source of Fiber, not Omega-3s
  • 47. Organic Flax Seed Oil• Non-GMO organically grownseeds using special varieties formaximum nutritional benefit• Proprietary, unique extractionprocess (Omegaflo®) withoutexposure to light, oxygen orreactive metals• Carob coated capsules toprotect delicate flax seed oilfrom oxidation• SRP: $20.00
  • 48. • The oil provides an excellentsource of the essential Omega-3fatty acids• Flax seeds are a good source offiber – superior to psyllium• Flax seeds provide lignans whichhas anti-tumor benefitsespecially for breast cancerFlax Seed Oil vs. Flax Seeds
  • 49. Super EPA/DHA Fish Oil• USP-certified fish oil for quality,safety & efficacy• Molecularly distilled & ultra-refined to remove fish taste• 400/200 formula - one of thehighest levels of EPA/DHA• Natural vitamin E to protect fishoil from oxidation• SRP: $28.00
  • 50. DirectionsFlax Seed Oil• Patients under 35 years• Patients who can’t take fish oil• Cost considerations• 1-2 softgels per daySuper EPA/DHA Fish Oil• Patients of all ages especially 35+ years• Patients with inflammatory conditions (e.g, eczema, psoriasis)• 1-2 softgels per day (2-4 softgels if have CVD)Flax Seed Oil & Super EPA/DHA Fish Oil• Patients compliant with nutritional supplements• Seeking optimal health and wellness
  • 51. Cholesterol &Lipid Profile
  • 52. What is Cholesterol?• Compensates for changes in membrane fluidity• Body makes steroid hormones (estrogen, progesterone,testosterone) and adrenal corticosteroid hormones (cortisone)from cholesterol• Vitamin D is made from cholesterol• Cholesterol is secreted by glands in skin to protect againstdehydration• Cholesterol can’t be broken down; removed through elimination;removal increased by dietary fiber
  • 53. Lipid Profile• Total cholesterol:• HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) or“good” cholesterol:• LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) or“bad” cholesterol:• Ratio of Total Cholesterol/HDL:• Triglycerides:<200 mg/dL>40 mg/dL<100 mg/dL<5<150 mg/dL
  • 54. Contact InformationDavid H. Rahm, M.D.President and Medical DirectorCell Phone: 310-683-3444; Toll Free: 888-367-8605 ext 101Email: david@vitamedica.comYvette La-GardeDirector of EducationCell Phone: 310-849-1038; Toll Free: 888-367-8605 ext 102Email: yvette@vitamedica.comWebsite: