Molecular bilogy

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Molecular bilogy

  1. 1. molecular biology as a diagnostic aid<br />Yulissa Victoria Bertel Serna<br />Medicine Student<br />III Semester<br />Molecular Biology<br />
  2. 2. FOLDING<br />
  3. 3. FOLDING<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />The ability to detect and isolate normal genes and genes mutated, their sequence and expression of their protein products has had a significant impact on biology and medicine.<br />Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to further investigate the structure and function of genes.<br />Recombinant DNA technology originated in the early 1970‘s with the discovery of restriction endonucleases. <br />INTRODUCTION<br />Although the first application of recombinant DNA techniques in infectious diseases was the detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in stool cultures for Monley in 1980. <br />It is now possible to detect almost any pathogen, although limited information on their sequence.<br />The investigations led to develop the so-called cloning vectors.<br />2<br />
  5. 5. Cloning Vectors<br />Cloning vectors are DNA molecules contain within itself allows other molecules of DNA from different organisms and sizes, known as inserts.<br />Once bound insert and vector, the cloning unit is transferred into a cell, within which there combinant DNA molecule replicates, resulting in dozens of identical copies known as clones. <br />The best-known cloning vectors are plasmids, phages, cosmids and yeast artificial chromosomes.<br />Student Observation<br />I think that with the discovery of DNA and the various investigations of its techniques, has been a significant advance in history, today it is able to decipher many mysteries.<br />The impact has been on various science has actually been very helpful in the treatment of diseases. 3<br />
  6. 6. Three features of all cloning vectors<br />
  7. 7. Typesof Cloning Vectors<br />
  8. 8. General Steps of Cloning with Any Vector<br />
  9. 9. STUDENT OBSERVATION<br />I think that with the discovery of DNA and the various investigations of its techniques, has been a significant advance in history, today it is able to decipher many mysteries. <br />The impact has been on various science has actually been very helpful in the treatment of diseases<br />
  10. 10. Diagnosis<br />It is possible by molecular biology, genomes of pathogens detected in biopsy specimens or body fluids of patients, allows us to observe deletions or changes in the genome and because of the high affinity of the complementary strands of DNA can be detected very few organisms in a sample to be analyzed.<br />GENETIC DISEASES<br />It is usually performed by studying the changes that occur in the primary structure, on the physicochemical properties of the DNA molecule or the changes that occur in the gene product.<br />DIRECT AND INDIRECT MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS<br />Direct detection of a mutation that disrupts a target of restriction, the mutated sequence, or numerical alterations of chromosomes.<br />CANCER<br />Genetic changes represent potentially valuable markers in the detection and evaluation of tumor stage.<br />4<br />
  11. 11. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC DISEASES<br />It is usually performed by studying the changes taking place in the primary structure (sequence) in the physicochemical properties of the DNA molecule or the changes that occur in the gene product (whether this mRNA or protein).<br />Nucleotide changes. Transversions (purine-pyrimidine) or transitions (purine-purine).<br />Small deletion or insertion<br />Dynamic mutations <br />
  12. 12. DIRECT AND INDIRECT MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS<br />Direct detection of a mutation that disrupts a target of restriction (RFLP analysis), direct detection of the mutated sequence (ASO).<br />Detection of deletion mutations (multiple PCR) detection of unstable mutations (PCR or hybridization), detection of new mutations (SSCP).<br />Numerical chromosomal abnormalities (FISH Technique).<br />
  13. 13. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSISOF CANCER<br />In several human cancers has shown that specific mutations in certain genes are associated with pathological states of tumor development and progression thus represent genetic changes potentially valuable markers in the detection and evaluation of tumor stage.<br />The types of mutations associated with the development and progression of cancer are varied.<br />Amplification of a chromosomal region that produces multiple gene copies.<br />Deletion or loss of genetic material.<br />Chromosomal translocation or arrangements.<br />Point mutations with amino acid substitution or premature termination of tranlation.<br />Insertion of foreign DNA<br />
  14. 14. STUDENT OBSERVATION<br />Because of the many molecular biology techniques that exist have been able to more quickly diagnose many diseases, it is helpful to medicine today, as many so-called diagnostic X, can be found more easily.<br />
  15. 15. Student Observation<br />Because of the many molecular biology techniques that exist have been able to more quickly diagnose many diseases, it is helpful to medicine today, as many so-called diagnostic X, can be found more easily.<br />RECOMBINANT VACCINES <br />Produced using recombinant DNA technology in some stage of production. <br />Recombinant.<br />Naked DNA.<br />Attenuated.<br />Edible vaccines.<br />Vaccines<br />Many vaccines have been produced using recombinant DNA technology.<br />Many of the methods used are:<br />Recombinant<br />Naked DNAAttenuatedEdible vaccines <br />Student Observation<br />Molecular diagnostics in the detection of both viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi allows early specific treatment for a positive prognosis; You can identify the various changes that may have an infectious entity such as this, such as resistance to one drug, mutations or others. 5<br />
  16. 16. RECOMBINANT<br />Are isolated and cloned the genes coding for proteins that trigger the immune response (antigen) and are introduced by genetic engineering techniques in an alternative host non-pathogenic (bacteria, yeast or mammalian cells) to produce it quantity in the laboratory. <br />With this technique emerges in 1986 the first recombinant vaccine is the production of an antigen of the virus causing hepatitis B in yeast.<br />  <br />
  17. 17. NAKED DNA<br />Use direct a portion of the purified DNA that encodes the protein that stimulates the immune response. That is not a microorganism is used to produce the antigen, but the gene is introduced directly into the individual and the individual's own cells synthesize the antigen that triggers the immune response. <br />
  18. 18. ATTENUATED<br />Using genetic engineering techniques, you can remove the virulence genes of an infectious agent while maintaining the ability to provoke an immune response. In this case, the genetically modified organism can be used as a safe live vaccine to revert to the virulent type. <br />
  19. 19. EDIBLE VACCINES<br />They are produced from genetically modified plants that act as bioreactors pathogen antigens that induce immunity. Management is as safe as simply eating a fruit. And his production can be expensive. <br />
  20. 20. STUDENT OBSERVATION<br />Molecular diagnostics in the detection of both viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi allows early specific treatment for a positive prognosis; You can identify the various changes that may have an infectious entity such as this, such as resistance to one drug, mutations or others.<br />
  21. 21. Bibliography<br />PANDURO, Arturo. Biología Molecular en la Clínica. México: Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana, 2000. 348p <br />MARTINEZ S., LinaMaría, et al. Biología molecular. 6. ed. Medellín: UPB. Fac. de Medicina, 2011. 292 p. <br />The complete HIV/ AIDS Resource.<br />APPLICATION OF THE recombinant DNA technology Recombinant DNA. Dr. SigifredoArévalo Gallegos.<br />
  22. 22. GRACIAS<br />

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