Sorry, you’re not going to fly computer flight sim this time
Before that computer flight sim is still your good friend
Here is the Pedestal Panel, contained Throttle + Speed break level + Flaps level and so onMCDU = Flight computerv
Same as the left seat, we have both PFD and ND, PFD on the right and ND on the near middle. Flight parameters are displayed on Primary Flight Displays (PFD) while navigation data is displayed on Navigation Displays (ND).
Keep the craft on centerline = put centerline in the middle of PFD
Time for PFD! Flight parameters are displayed on Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and intergraded few tradition component into one DU
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 21:31) -----
Bottom of PFD, something like ruler
Three slot while pushing forwardIDLECL (no use while takeoff)FLX (Use this)TOGA (never push to this unless permitted)
At acceleration altitude the target speed jumps to 250 knots and the aircraft is accelerated towards that speed.
----- Meeting Notes (18/02/2011 22:29) -----Flare Mode: nose drop from 3 degrees(normal flight path angle) to -2 degrees
The ND, can present the pilotswith a lot of useful data. ND gives the pilots a visualpresentation of where the aircraftis in relation toAirfields, Navaids, etc, theoperation of the aircraft is alsomade easier.
The Ground Speed (GS) and the True Air Speed (TAS) are permanently Below the speed indications, the wind data displayed on the top left corner. are presented; wind direction (true north), wind speed and an arrow to indicate the windGround Speed direction with respect to magnetic north. True Air Speed Here, wind from 60 degrees at 52 kt.
Step on your brake pedal to release parking brake
The upper partof the display isknown as theFlight ModeAnnunciator(FMA).
When below2500 feet, adigital radioaltimeter isdisplayed
Attitudeinformation isshown at thecenter of thedisplay.
The attitude indicatorworks in the normal sense.The aircraft is representedby 3 black and yellowsymbols which remainfixed. Just like looking theaircraft from the back
There is agradual scale forpitch angle aboveand below thehorizon. The yellow dot atthe middlerepresents thelateral axis of theplane.
Sky Pointer The Sky Pointer moves againsta fixed scale to show angle ofbank. To show both the pitch andbank indications in use. Let’s look at the indication for aclimbing turn.
Side Slip Index Below the roll indexis the Side Slip Index.This index moves toindicate side slip andreplaces the oldfashioned slip ball.
10 degrees of left bank 20 degrees of left bank 30 degrees of left bank In this example the aircraft is in a 20 degree banked turn to the left with a nose up pitch attitude of 10 degrees. 10 degrees of Nose up pitch
HEADING 091 The compass display is veryconventional. The gray scale movesagainst a fixed yellow linewhich represents thecenterline of the aircraft. In the example shown theaircraft is heading 091degrees.
TRACK 094 The small green diamondrepresents the aircraft track,and it is normally referred toas the TRACK DIAMOND. In the example shown thetrack is 094 degrees whichmeans that the aircraft has 3degrees of drift to the right.
A selectedheading mayappear either as;• a blue figure, onthe appropriateside on thecompass scale or• a blue triangle
On the FCU there isa Heading selector,with an indicator, thatis linked to theselected heading Target Headingindication on the PFD Selector and Indicatorcompass.
All the indications associated with Altitude are located on the right hand side of the PFD.CLB NAV
Altimeter Vertical Speed The main part of the display is dedicated to the Altimeter. To the far right is the Vertical Speed display.
In the final stage of an approach the ground reference ribbon will reappear along with a landing elevation line. Landing Elevation LineFL 70 Ground Reference Ribbon30.08STD QNH
Missed Approach Altitude Notice that the vertical speed indication is showing a rate of decent of 800 feet/ minute. Also notice that the missed approach altitude has been set at 9000 feet. Vertical Speed 800ft/minFL 70 700030.08STD QNH
When the Flight Directorpb on the EFIS controlpanel is selected. Flight Director indicationsare on the attitude indicator
A Flight Director pb on theEFIS control panel enables thepilots to switch the FlightDirector display on. Notice that there is anindication on the FMA when theFlight Directors are switched on.
Flight Director Roll Bar The vertical line is the Flight Director roll bar, while the horizontal line is the Pitch bar. Let’s look at an example of the Flight Director in use.Flight Director Pitch bar
Pitch up directedRoll to the right directed In this example the flight director is directing a pitch up and roll to the right. Once the aircraft has achieved the required pitch and bank the Flight Director bars will once again be centralized. Now let’s look at the airspeed indications on the PFD.
The Speed scale moves behind a fixed yellowreference line and triangle. In the example shown theindicated airspeed is steady at 250 knots.
When the aircraft is accelerating, or decelerating a Speed Trend Arrow appears. This arrow shows the value that will be attained in 10 seconds if the acceleration remains constant.Speed Trend Arrow
Speed Selector and Indication Selected Target Airspeed Manual speed selection is achieved by a rotary selector on the FCU panel.
Magenta = Managed Blue = Selected As a general rule on the PFD a Magenta indication means Managed and a Blue indication means selected.
To look at the various other indicationson the Airspeed scale we will run througha typical takeoff profile. We will assume a departure with theFlaps in position 1+F.
Make sure you have got TOGA and flap setting1+F on the upper ECAM, ElectronicCentralized Aircraft Monitor
151 V2 speed of 151 knots 134 Decision speed (V1) of 134 knots060040 During the take off roll a blue decision speed, V1, and a magenta V2 speed are shown. Notice that since these speeds are beyond the visible scale they are shown as numbers.
151 134 V2140060 V1 1120040 As the take off progresses V1 and V2 indications appear on100 the speed scale as a blue 1 and a magenta triangle.080
Just after lift off the magenta target speed remains at V2. The speed200 demanded by the flight140 director will be V2 + 10 1180 knots.120 F160 Flight Director Target Speed V2 +10100140080120
250220 Flap Limit speed, VFE200200 Minimum Slat retraction speed180 S S Speed180 F The F speed indication is160 replaced with an S speed160 indication.140 This is the minimum Slat retraction speed.140
250 Target Speed240220200220 S200180 The aircraft is now S above S speed, and is accelerating, so the flaps160180 can be fully retracted.140160
250240 After flap retraction the280 aircraft is clean therefore220 no VFE is indicated. The260 aircraft stabilizes at 250 knots.200 Target Speed240 S Notice that the target speed is in line with180 = speed reference line.220160
320 A green circle indicates the best lift drag ratio360 speed for the aircraft in300 clean configuration.340 This speed is known as280 Green Dot Speed.320260300240 o Green Dot Speed.782
In the A320 family, manual roll andpitch are controlled by the side sticks. They are spring-loaded to neutraland receive no feedback from theflight controls.
Movement of one side stick will not causemovement of the other. In this case, as the left side stick ismoved, the right remains in the neutralposition.
FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTERS A side stick sends a message tothe flight control computersdemanding an aircraft maneuver.
FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTERS CONTROL SURFACES The flight control computers process the inputand send it to the control surfaces. and instructions called LAWS. The processinguses pre-set limitations
Normal Law is modified depending on the phase of flight. It operatesin 3 modes: Ground mode: • Operates on the ground when the aircraft is electrically and hydraulically powered. Controls are conventional. Flight mode: • Operates in the air after a gradual transition from ground mode just after lift off to 150ft Flight mode Flare Ground mode mode Ground mode Flare mode: • Modifies Flight Mode to introduce a conventional ‘feel’ to the landing phase.
So what is the difference between Conventional Aircraft and Our beloved AIRBUS?
Conventional aircraft • Control surface deflection is directly proportional to control yoke deflection. • The same yoke input produces a: - Higher rate of pitch/roll at high speed, - Lower rate of pitch /roll at low speed.
A side stick deflection gives a rate demand tothe Flight control computers. Fly by wire aircraft For the same side stick input, the controlsurface deflections will be: - Large at low speed, but - Small at high speed.• A side stick input is a : - Rate of roll demand in roll, - Load factor (g) demand in pitch.
In flight mode, if you wish toexecute a descending left turn,you set the required attitudeand then return the side stickto neutral. The neutral side stickposition demands zero rates ofpitch and roll. The flight control computerswill maintain the set attitudeuntil you use the side stick todemand an attitude change. Throughout the maneuver,there are no pilot trim inputs.
In the middle of the glare shield, there is a FlightControl Unit. The FCU is one of the interface unitsbetween the pilots and the Autoflight system. There are selectors on the FCU which will affect theindications seen on the PFD and ND.
SPEED HEADING ALTITUDE The selectors, with associated indication, areprovided for:• Speed,• Heading,• Altitude. You will see how these selectors affect the EFISdisplays in the modules that follow.
Your mentor willengage A/P once you have finished your turn
Your mentor will also do some time keeping work
The two CHRONO pushbuttonlocated on the glare shield,control the associatedchronometer display on theindividual ND.
1000017000 Target Altitude Target Altitude Selector and Indication
Constraint altitude and target box As the constraint Altitude is approached it appears on the scale with a target box.
Target Flight Level Box The aircraft is now cruising at Flight Level 370. Notice that the target Flight level box is in the middle of the Vertical Speed at zero scale and the vertical speed indication is atSTD zero.
divided into two system – Localizer and Glideslope= Horizontal guidance + Vertical guidance respectively
Glideslope (G/S) – An array for Vertical Guidance3 degrees Glide path in Hong Kong.
The ILS pb on the EFIScontrol panel enables thepilots to switch on an ILSdisplay.
The ILS displayincludes indications for:• Localizer,• Front course,• Glide slope,• Information.
ILS deviationinformation isdisplayed in the formof Localizer andGlideslope deviationscales. The ILS front coursewill be displayed inmagenta at the side ofthe compass scale ifthe figure is outsidethe visible scale.
A magenta diamondrepresents thelocalizer. When the ILS frontcourse is within thecompass scale it isdisplayed as amagenta dagger.
In the exampleshown the aircraft isestablished on thelocalizer and theGlideslope indicationhas appeared in theform of a magentadiamond.
The aircraft is nowfully established onthe ILS approach. Let’s look at theindications on thecompass scale indetail.
With the aircraftestablished on the localizer;• the heading is 230degrees• the track diamond isshowing 3 degrees of leftdrift• The ILS front coursedagger is beneath the trackdiamond. You will see how usefulthe track diamond can be tohelp you fly an accurateapproach in the simulatorphase.
During an FMGS computed (managed) descent the single triangle is split into two to give a speed range.360 A double magenta bar indicates Upper speed range the target speed. In the example indication shown the target speed is 325340 knots. The speed will vary in between the two speed range Managed Target indicators as the aircraft Airspeed maintains the required descent320 profile. Lower speed range Managed descent profiles will indication300 be studied in depth in the Autoflight modules..636
Following initial deceleration to 250 knots there is an indication of the next flap limiting speed, VFE Next. In this case the next flap setting is 1 so280360 an indication is shown at 230 knots. The VFE Next indication will be visible provided the aircraft is below 15,000 feet.260340 Green Dot Speed may also be visible.240320 = VFE Next220300 o Green Dot Speed
A further deceleration to Green Dot Speed takes the airspeed below the VFE for the first flap selection. Flap 1 can now be selected.240280 = VFE Next Notice that a target speed of 140 knots has appeared.220260 This represents the o approach speed target.200240 =180220 o 140
Once the flap lever is in position 1, S Speed, VFE Next and the Flap limit speed indications will Flap Limit speed, VFE appear.240220 The speed will = decrease towards S speed.220 =200 VFE Next o200 S S Speed180180160 140
Notice that at S speed the aircraft is below the limit speed for the next flap setting, VFE Next. Flap 2 can now be220 selected.200 = VFE Next S S Speed180160 140
As soon as the flap lever is in position 2 , S Speed is removed.220 F Speed, and a new VFE Next indications will220 appear. The Flap limit200 Flap Limit speed, VFE speed will move to a new limit.200 = = VFE Next180 S180160 F F speed160140 140
Notice that the approach speed target, V Approach, has now appeared as a magenta triangle. The aircraft will continue220 decelerating towards F speed. By reducing towards F200 Flap Limit speed, VFE speed the aircraft will be below the VFE for the next flap setting. = VFE Next180 Flap 3 can now be set.160 F140 V Approach Speed
As before VFE Next and VFE move to reflect the new220200 flap position. Flap Limit speed, VFE Flap full can now200180 = VFE Next be selected. =180160 F160140 F140120
The aircraft will eventually stabilize at V Approach and the VFE will be adjusted to reflect200 Full Flap.160 There are indications180 = associated with speed and angle of attack140 protections.160 F120140 Protection speeds100120
120 Once the aircraft lands all additional speed indications are removed apart from the speed100 trend arrow. Having thoroughly studied080 the Airspeed indications lets look at Altitude indications.060